City of London
The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, the City of London is not a London borough. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdoms trading and financial services industries. The name London is now used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs and this wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888, when the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council and it is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries.
The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the current Lord Mayor, as of November 2016, is Andrew Parmley. The City is a business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the primary business centre. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008, the insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyds building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf,2.5 miles to the east, the City has a resident population of about 7,000 but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. It used to be held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD. However, this date is only supposition, many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend, archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area.
One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned Waterloo Helmet dredged from the Thames in the early 1860s and now exhibited at the British Museum. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him, the same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was buried at Ludgate
London, or Greater London, is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London. It is organised into 33 local government districts, the 32 London boroughs, the Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000, the region covers 1,572 km2 and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. In 2012, it had the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom at £37,232, the Greater London Built-up Area—used in some national statistics—is a measure of the continuous urban area of London, and therefore includes areas outside of the administrative region.
The term Greater London has been and still is used to different areas in governance, history. In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small City of London, outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965. The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916, one of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles and included 9 million people. The LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan, a Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue. The LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties, protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor and Eton in the authority.
The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCCs scheme, two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission, Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council sharing power with the City of London Corporation and the 32 London Borough councils. The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985 and its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Greater London was used to form the London region of England in 1994, a referendum held in 1998 established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999, in 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary.
The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone, the 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson. The 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan, Greater London continues to include the most closely associated parts of the Greater London Urban Area and their historic buffers. Thus it includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a way to the citys parks
Loughton /ˈlaʊtən/ is a town and civil parish in the Epping Forest District of Essex. Loughton includes three areas and there are 56 listed buildings in the town, together with a further 50 that are locally listed. The parish of Loughton covers an area of about 3,724 acres, of which over 1,300 acres are part of Epping Forest. The ancient parish contained over 3,900 acres, but in 1996 some parts of the south of the old parish were transferred to Buckhurst Hill parish, and other small portions to Chigwell and Theydon Bois. At the time of the 2001 census Loughton had a population of 30,340 and it is the most populous civil parish in the Epping Forest district, and within Essex it is the second most populous civil parish and the second largest in the area. The earliest structure in Loughton is Loughton Camp, an Iron Age earth fort in Epping Forest dating from around 500 BC, hidden by dense undergrowth for centuries it was rediscovered in 1872. The first references to the site of modern-day Loughton date from the Anglo-Saxon period when it was known as Lukintune, following the Norman conquest, the town is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, with the name Lochintuna.
The settlement remained a village until the early 17th century when the high road was extended north through the forest. The road quickly became the route from London to Cambridge and East Anglia. Sir Robert Wroth and his wife Lady Mary Wroth entertained many of the literary figures of the time, including Ben Jonson. It was rebuilt in 1878 by Revd, J. W. Maitland, whose family held the manor for much of the 19th century. It is now a Veecare Homes care home and is a grade II listed building, Loughtons growth since Domesday has largely been at the expense of the forest. Expansion towards the River Roding was arrested owing to the often flooding marshy meadows, encroachments into the forest to the north and west of the village were nevertheless possible. As the forest disappeared and landowners began enclosing more of it for use, many began to express concern at the loss of such a significant natural resource. The arrival of the railway spurred on the towns development, the railway first came to Loughton in 1856 when the Eastern Counties Railway, opened a branch line via Woodford.
In 1948 the line was electrified and transferred to London Transport to become part of the Central line on the London Underground, the arrival of the railways provided visitors from London with a convenient means of reaching Epping Forest and thus transforming it into the East Enders Playground. The Ragged School Union began organising visits to the forest for parties of poor East End children in 1891 paid for by the Pearsons Fresh Air Fund, Loughton artist Octavius Dixie Deacon depicted many scenes of the town including some of its residents during the late Victorian period. As the Great Eastern Railway Company did not offer workmens fares, much of the housing in Loughton was built in the Victorian and Edwardian eras, with significant expansion in the 1930s
Uncial 0171, ε07 are two vellum leaves of a late third century Greek uncial Bible codex containing fragments of the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke. Luke fragment, in two parts, is preserved in the Laurentian Library collection in Florence, and the Matthew fragment is in the Berlin State Museum, uncial 0171 measures 5.7 cm by 9.2 cm from a page of two columns of 23 lines. The scribe wrote in a documentary hand. It has errors of itacism, the nomina sacra are contracted, Luke 22,51 and 22,62 are omitted. The Alands describe the text as a form of the D text. Uncial 0171 is an important witness to the existence of the Western text-type in Egypt, Aland placed it in Category IV. It is the earliest Greek witness with text of Luke 22 and it is classed as a consistently cited witness of the first order in Nestle-Alands Novum Testamentum Graece. Its 27th edition considers it more highly than other witnesses of this type. It provides an exclamation mark for papyri and uncial manuscripts of significance because of their age.
The manuscript was found in 1903–1905 in Hermopolis Magna, the text was first published by the Società Italiana in Florence in 1912. Hermann von Soden knew the first fragment only in time to include it in the list of addenda in 1913 and he classified it within his Ια text. Kurt Treu identified the Matthew and Luke portions as the work of the same scribe on the same codex, Neville Birdsall observed that a lower portion of the manuscript had been overlooked in the editio princeps. Kurt Aland, Alter und Entstehung des D-Textes im Neuen Testament, betrachtungen zu
In 2011, its population was 5,110. It forms part of the parish of Elstree and Borehamwood. The village often lends its name to businesses and amenities in the adjacent town of Borehamwood. The local newspaper is the Borehamwood and Elstree Times, together with Borehamwood, the village is twinned with Offenburg in Germany and Fontenay-aux-Roses in France. Elstree & Borehamwood railway station is on the Thameslink Line between London St Pancras and Bedford and it was built by the Midland Railway in 1868, and is located just north of the 1,072 yard long Elstree Tunnels. The area of Borehamwood to the west of the railway line, Elstree South tube station was due to be an extension of the Northern line, planned in the 1930s, but never completed. The old A5 road goes through Elstree village, where it is designated as the A5183 road, through the village, the road is called Elstree Hill South, High Street and Elstree Hill North. The 18th century Grade II listed building, Elstree Hill House, is still on Elstree Hill South, in the early 1900s, it was noted that.
Elstree Aerodrome is licensed by the CAA and has a 2, 150-foot paved runway, suitable most for light aircraft and it is one of the main helicopter centres for North London and is extending its provision in this area. In the early 1930s it was a landing strip for the local Aldenham House country club. A concrete runway was put down during World War II, all six were killed when it crashed and burned in heavy fog on Arkley Golf Course,3 miles short of the runway. London Transports Aldenham Works was sited on the edge of Elstree close to the A41, it was opened in 1956, closed in 1986 and it is now a large business park. Originally a 19th-century steam ship owned by the Houlder Brothers, the town lends its name to a series of ships called the Elstree Grange. Laura Ashley The Manor Hotel, formerly known as the Edgwarebury Hotel, is located on Barnet Lane, and operated by Corus Hotels. The Tudor-style building dates back to 1540, was converted into a hotel in the 1960s, notable guests have included Peter Sellers, Tom Cruise, John Cleese and Stanley Kubrick.
It was the home of armaments manufacturer and First Baronet Sir Trevor Dawson. A house in Elstree designed by architect Edward John May was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1887, St Nicholas Parish Church was designed by English architect Philip Charles Hardwick. Elstree is home to Aldenham School, and Haberdashers Askes Boys School, since the 1780s, a private school has been located in Elstree
Eltham is a suburban district of south east London, England, in the Royal Borough of Greenwich. It is centred 8.7 miles east south-east of Charing Cross, the area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. The three wards of Eltham North and West had a population at the 2011 Census of 35,459. Eltham developed along part of the road from London to Maidstone, Mottingham, to the south, became part of the parish on the abolition of all extra-parochial areas, which were rare anomalies in the parish system. Eltham College and other parts of Mottingham were even before the 1860s therefore not considered within Elthams boundaries, from the 6th century Eltham was in the ancient Lathe of Sutton at Hone. In the 1086 Domesday Book its hundred was named Greniz, which by the 1166 was renamed Blachehedfeld because it had become the location of the annual or more frequent hundred gathering. Eltham lies in the hundred of Blackheath, at the distance of eight miles from London, on the road to Maidstone, by the 1880s the lathes and hundreds of Kent had become obsolete, with the civil parishes and other districts assuming modern governmental functions.
Eltham was a parish of Kent until 1889 when it became part of the County of London. The metropolitan borough was abolished in 1965 and Eltham became part of the London Borough of Greenwich, Eltham today is one of the largest suburban developments in the borough with a population of almost 88,000 people. Eltham lies on a high, sandy plateau which gave it a strategic significance. That, and the fact of its close to the main route to the English Channel ports in Kent, led to the creation of the moated Plantagenet Eltham Palace. The Kings of England had a palace at Eltham at an early period. Henry the Third, in the year 1270, kept a public Christmas at his palace of Eltham, being accompanied by the Queen, in 1315, his Queen was brought to bed of a son in this palace, from that circumstance, John of Eltham. Edward the Third held a Parliament at Eltham in 1329, the nearby manor of Well Hall was home to Sir John Pulteney, four times Lord Mayor of the City of London, and to wealthy Catholic William Roper and his wife Margaret.
In 1733 Sir Gregory Page bought this estate for £19,000 and demolished Roper House, until its demolition in 1931, Well Hall House variously served as a home to watchmaker John Arnold, and to socialist Hubert Bland and author Edith Nesbit. Also of note is Avery Hill Park and its mansion, accessed from Bexley Road. Avery Hill was the home of Colonel North, who made his working in the Chilean nitrate industry. A hothouse is still open to the public and contains temperate, There are remnants of the formal gardens in the public park
For the specific dock known under that name, see London Docks. For the basketball team known as London Docklands, see London Towers. London Docklands is the name for an area in east and southeast London and it forms part of the boroughs of Southwark, Tower Hamlets, Lewisham and Greenwich. The docks were formerly part of the Port of London, at one time the worlds largest port and they have now been redeveloped principally for commercial and residential use. The name London Docklands was used for the first time in a government report on redevelopment plans in 1971 but has become virtually universally adopted. It created conflict between the new and old communities of the London Docklands, in Roman and medieval times, ships tended to dock at small quays in the present-day city of London or Southwark, an area known as the Pool of London. However, this gave no protection against the elements, was vulnerable to thieves, the Howland Great Dock in Rotherhithe was designed to address these problems, providing a large and sheltered anchorage with room for 120 large vessels.
It was a commercial success and provided for two phases of expansion during the Georgian and Victorian eras. The first of the Georgian docks was the West India, followed by the London, the East India, the Surrey, the Regents Canal Dock, St Katharine, the Victorian docks were mostly further east, comprising the Royal Victoria and Royal Albert. The King George V Dock was an addition in 1921. Three principal kinds of docks existed, wet docks were where ships were laid up at anchor and loaded or unloaded. Dry docks, which were far smaller, took individual ships for repairing, ships were built at dockyards along the riverside. In addition, the river was lined with warehouses, jetties. The various docks tended to specialise in different forms of produce, the Surrey Docks concentrated on timber, for instance, Millwall took grain, St Katharine took wool and rubber, and so on. The docks required an army of workers, chiefly lightermen and quayside workers, some of the workers were highly skilled - the lightermen had their own livery company or guild, while the deal porters were famous for their acrobatic skills.
Most were unskilled and worked as casual labourers and they assembled at certain points, such as pubs, each morning, where they were selected more or less at random by foremen. For these workers, it was effectively a lottery as to whether they would get work - and pay and this arrangement continued until as late as 1965, although it was somewhat regularised after the creation of the National Dock Labour Scheme in 1947. The main dockland areas were originally low-lying marshes, mostly unsuitable for agriculture, with the establishment of the docks, the dock workers formed a number of tight-knit local communities with their own distinctive cultures and slang
London boroughs are 32 of the 33 local authority districts of the Greater London administrative area and are each governed by a London borough council. The London boroughs were all created at the time as Greater London on 1 April 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 and are a type of local government district. Twelve were designated as Inner London boroughs and twenty as Outer London boroughs, London boroughs have populations of around 150,000 to 300,000. Inner London boroughs tend to be smaller, in population and area, and more densely populated than Outer London boroughs. The London boroughs were created by combining groups of local government units. A review undertaken between 1987 and 1992 led to a number of small alterations in borough boundaries. London borough councils provide the majority of government services, in contrast to the strategic Greater London Authority. The councils were first elected in 1964 and acted as shadow authorities until 1 April 1965, each borough is divided into electoral wards, subject to periodic review, for the purpose of electing councillors.
Council elections take place four years, with the most recent elections in 2014. The political make-up of London borough councils is dominated by the Conservative, twenty-eight councils follow the leader and cabinet model of executive governance, with directly elected mayors in Hackney, Lewisham and Tower Hamlets. The City of London is instead governed by the City of London Corporation, from the mid-1930s, the Greater London area comprised four types of local government authorities. There were county boroughs, municipal boroughs, urban districts and metropolitan boroughs, the large county boroughs provided all local government services and held the powers usually invested in county councils. The municipal borough and urban district authorities had fewer powers, reform of London local government sought to regularise this arrangement. The Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London was established in 1957 and it proposed 52 Greater London Boroughs with a population range of 100,000 to 250,000.
This was made up of a mixture of existing units. In December 1961 the government proposed that there would be 34 boroughs rather than 52, the proposed number was further reduced to 32 in 1962. On 1 April 1965, the 32 London boroughs and Greater London were created by the London Government Act 1963,12 boroughs in the former County of London area were designated Inner London boroughs and the 20 others were designated Outer London boroughs. The City of London continued to be administered by the City of London Corporation, elections were held on 7 May 1964, with the new councils acting as shadow authorities before coming into their powers the following year
Romford is a large town in East London and the administrative centre of the London Borough of Havering. It is located 14.1 miles northeast of Charing Cross and is one of the metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. It was historically a town in the county of Essex and formed the administrative centre of the liberty of Havering. It now forms one of the largest commercial, entertainment, Romford is first recorded in 1177 as Romfort, which is formed from Old English rūm and ford and means the wide or spacious ford. The naming of the River Rom is a local back-formation from the name of the town, the ford most likely existed on the main London to Colchester road where it crossed that river. The original site of the town was to the south, in an area known as Oldchurch. It was moved northwards to the present site in the medieval period to avoid the frequent flooding of the River Rom. The first building on the new site was the church of Saint Edward the Confessor. The town developed in the Middle Ages on the road to London.
The early history of Romford and the area is agricultural. Several failed attempts were made in the early 19th century to connect the town to the Thames via a Romford Canal. The development of the town was accelerated by the opening of the station in 1839 which stimulated the local economy and was key to the development of the Star Brewery. Initially Eastern Counties Railway services operated between Mile End and Romford, with extensions to Brentwood and to Shoreditch in 1840. A second station was opened on South Street in 1892 by the London and Southend Railway on the line to Upminster and Grays, the two stations were combined into one in 1934. Suburban expansion increased the population and reinforced Romfords position as a significant regional town centre. Romford formed a chapelry in the ancient parish of Hornchurch in the Becontree hundred of Essex, as well as the town it included the wards of Collier Row, Harold Wood. Over time the vestry of Romford chapelry absorbed the powers that would usually be held by the parish authorities.
Improvement commissioners were set up in 1819 for paving, watching, the remainder of the parish became part of the Romford rural sanitary district in 1875
Ealing is a major suburban district of west London and the administrative centre of the London Borough of Ealing. It is one of the metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. It was historically a village in the county of Middlesex. Improvement in communications with London, culminating with the opening of the station in 1838. As part of the growth of London in the 20th century, Ealing significantly expanded and increased in population and it now forms a significant commercial and retail centre with a developed night time economy. Ealing has the characteristics of both suburban and inner-city developments, Ealings town centre is often colloquial with Ealing Broadway, the name of both a rail interchange & a shopping centre. Most of Ealing, including the district, South Ealing, Ealing Common, Pitshanger. Areas to the north-west of the centre such as Argyle Road. A small section north-east of the centre, near Hanger Hill. The population of Ealing, comprising the Ealing Broadway, Ealing Common, Walpole, the area of Hanwell is strongly associated with Ealing, however, it is a separate district with its own postcode.
Northfields on the hand, despite sharing postcodes with Ealing is generally considered to be a separate area in its own right. The Saxon name for Ealing was recorded c.700 as Gillingas, meaning place of the associated with Gilla, from the personal name Gilla. Over the centuries, the name has changed, and has known as Illing,1130, Gilling,1243. Archaeological evidence shows that parts of Ealing have been occupied for more than 7,000 years Iron Age pots have been discovered in the vicinity on Horsenden Hill. A settlement is recorded here in the 12th century amid a great forest that carpeted the area to the west of London, the earliest surviving English census is that for Ealing in 1599. This list was a tally of all 85 households in Ealing village giving the names of the inhabitants, together with their ages and occupations. It survives in form at The National Archives, and was transcribed and printed by K J Allison for the Ealing Historical Society in 1961. Settlements were scattered throughout the parish, many of them were along what is now called St.
Marys Road, near to the church in the centre of the parish
Colindale is an area which lies mainly within the London Borough of Barnet, although the western side of Colindales main shopping street is within the London Borough of Brent. Colindale is an area of suburban character and it is situated about eight miles north west of Charing Cross. Formerly in the borough and ancient parish of Hendon, the area was essentially the dale between Mill Hill and The Burroughs, by the middle of the 20th century, it had come to include that part of the Edgware Road between The Hyde and Burnt Oak. The area is named after a 16th-century family of the same name, until the 20th century, Colindale was without any buildings save for a large house called Colindale Lodge, Colindale Farm and a few cottages. All of these properties were on Colindeep Lane which had in the period been an alternative route out of London to the Edgware Road. By the end of the 16th century it was not often used as a main road, by the end of the 19th century, cheap land prices made Colindale attractive to developers.
Colindale Hospital was opened in 1898 as an asylum for the sick of central London. By 1996 the majority of the hospital was closed, and in 2009 lies mostly derelict, in 1902, the British Library built a new depository and kept the newspaper library there in 1934. Garston’s Ltd established a factory in 1901, as well as a row of cottages called Leatherville. As such it is the first manufacturer in the Colindale, by 1914 there was already housing between Colindale Avenue and Annesley Avenue, mostly to house the workers of such endeavours. Immediately after the First World War a number of manufacturing companies came to Colindale. Franco Illuminated Signs opened on Aerodrome Road in 1922, having made the lights for the Franco British Exhibition of 1908 and it was best known for the neon signs found in Piccadilly from the 1920s to the 1970s. Frigidaire started in a shack in Aerodrome Road, employing 11 people in 1923. The reason why many of these and other companies chose Colindale was that there was available for expansion.
However, by 1923, when the railway reached Colindale, land prices had increased and factory expansion was not so easy. In 1931, for example, decided to build a new manufacturing plant to the west, on the A5 Edgware Road, after the tube station opened, development as a London suburb was rapid, and by 1939 much of the western side was semi-detached housing. Typical was the Colin Park Estate, built by F. H. Stucke & Co. around Colindeep Lane in 1927, some of the houses on this estate are by the architect E. G. Trobridge. St Matthias started as a church in 1905
Oxford Street is a major road in the City of Westminster in the West End of London, running from Marble Arch to Tottenham Court Road via Oxford Circus. It is Europes busiest shopping street, with half a million daily visitors. It is designated as part of the A40, a road between London and Fishguard, though it is not signed as such, and traffic is regularly restricted to buses. The road was originally a Roman road, part of the Via Trinobantina between Essex and Hampshire via London and it was known as Tyburn Road through the Middle Ages and was once notorious as a street where prisoners from Newgate Prison would be transported towards a public hanging. The first department stores in Britain opened on Oxford Street in the early 20th century, including Selfridges, John Lewis, unlike nearby shopping streets such as Bond Street, it has retained an element of downmarket street trading alongside more prestigious retail stores. The street suffered heavy bombing during World War II, and several longstanding stores including John Lewis were completely destroyed, the annual switching on of Christmas lights by a celebrity has been a popular event since 1959.
However, the combination of a popular retail area and a main thoroughfare for London buses and taxis has caused significant problems with traffic congestion, safety. Various traffic management schemes have proposed by Transport for London, including a ban on private vehicles during daytime hours on weekdays and Saturdays. Oxford Street runs for approximately 1.2 miles, the eastward continuation is New Oxford Street, and Holborn. The road is entirely within the City of Westminster and it is within the London Congestion Charging Zone. Numerous bus routes run along Oxford Street, including 10,25,55,73,98,390 and Night Buses N8, N55, N73, N98 and N207. Oxford Street follows the route of a Roman road, the Via Trinobantina, between the 12th century and 1782, it was variously known as Tyburn Road, Uxbridge Road, Worcester Road and Oxford Road. Despite being a major coaching route, there were several obstacles along it, a turnpike trust was established in the 1730s to improve upkeep of the road. It became notorious as the route taken by prisoners on their journey from Newgate Prison to the gallows at Tyburn near Marble Arch.
Spectators drunkenly jeered at prisoners as they carted along the road, by about 1729, the road had become known as Oxford Street. The street began to be redeveloped in the 18th century after many of the fields were purchased by the Earl of Oxford. In 1739, local gardener Thomas Huddle began to build property on the north side, John Rocques Map of London, published in 1746, shows urban buildings as far as North Audley Street, but only intermittent rural property thereafter. Buildings began to be erected on the corner of Oxford Street, further development along the street occurred between 1763 and 1793