1.
Binary number
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The base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Because of its implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates. Each digit is referred to as a bit, the modern binary number system was devised by Gottfried Leibniz in 1679 and appears in his article Explication de lArithmétique Binaire. Systems related to binary numbers have appeared earlier in multiple cultures including ancient Egypt, China, Leibniz was specifically inspired by the Chinese I Ching. The scribes of ancient Egypt used two different systems for their fractions, Egyptian fractions and Horus-Eye fractions, the method used for ancient Egyptian multiplication is also closely related to binary numbers. This method can be seen in use, for instance, in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, the I Ching dates from the 9th century BC in China. The binary notation in the I Ching is used to interpret its quaternary divination technique and it is based on taoistic duality of yin and yang. Eight trigrams and a set of 64 hexagrams, analogous to the three-bit and six-bit binary numerals, were in use at least as early as the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. The Song Dynasty scholar Shao Yong rearranged the hexagrams in a format that resembles modern binary numbers, the Indian scholar Pingala developed a binary system for describing prosody. He used binary numbers in the form of short and long syllables, Pingalas Hindu classic titled Chandaḥśāstra describes the formation of a matrix in order to give a unique value to each meter. The binary representations in Pingalas system increases towards the right, the residents of the island of Mangareva in French Polynesia were using a hybrid binary-decimal system before 1450. Slit drums with binary tones are used to encode messages across Africa, sets of binary combinations similar to the I Ching have also been used in traditional African divination systems such as Ifá as well as in medieval Western geomancy. The base-2 system utilized in geomancy had long been applied in sub-Saharan Africa. Leibnizs system uses 0 and 1, like the modern binary numeral system, Leibniz was first introduced to the I Ching through his contact with the French Jesuit Joachim Bouvet, who visited China in 1685 as a missionary. Leibniz saw the I Ching hexagrams as an affirmation of the universality of his own beliefs as a Christian. Binary numerals were central to Leibnizs theology and he believed that binary numbers were symbolic of the Christian idea of creatio ex nihilo or creation out of nothing. Is not easy to impart to the pagans, is the ex nihilo through Gods almighty power. In 1854, British mathematician George Boole published a paper detailing an algebraic system of logic that would become known as Boolean algebra

2.
Blue Air
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Blue Air is the largest airline of Romania as of March,2017 and is headquartered in Bucharest, with its main hubs at Henri Coandă International Airport and Turin Airport. In 2016, the airline carried 3.6 million passengers, as of May 2016, Blue Air flies to 48 destinations in 12 European countries. Blue Air started its operations in December 2004, on 12 April 2013, Blue Airs management announced that the airline was for sale. The airline transported 1.5 million passengers in 2014, an increase from the 1.35 million passengers in 2013, in 2015, the airline transported for the first time more than 2 million passengers. With a total of 25 new routes announced for 2016, the airline forecasts carrying close to three passengers in 2016. Blue Air became a member of the International Air Transport Association on 19 January 2016. Furthermore, Blue Air received the IATA Operational Safety Audit certification in December 2015, Blue Air has used Bucharest as its primary hub for most of its history. Officially the airport was not closed, but the taxes for airlines were suddenly increased until no airline could afford them. As a result, all airlines moved their operations to Bucharests largest airport, Blue Air now uses this airport as its primary hub. The secondary hub is Turin Airport in Italy from November 2014, the total number of destinations to and from Turin are 15. The third operating base for Blue Air is located at Bacău International Airport, blueAir Transport Aerian SA managed to get a concession contract for 50 years of private administration of the airport. BlueAero was the company that held the contract. The airport needed urgent investments which the company promised to complete, Blue Air is now the only airline operating from the airport. TAROM and Carpatair had domestic and international flights from here, but were discontinued.7 million people, in March 2017, Blue Air is set to open its first UK Base in Liverpool John Lennon Airport and will base one aircraft there. Daily services are currently being provided between Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Iasi, Oradea and Timisoara, no injuries occurred, the aircraft sustained no damage. The passengers disembarked normally via mobile stairs and were bused to the terminal, Cluj-Napoca International Airport was closed for cca.3 hours due to the incident. Aviation in Romania Transport in Romania Media related to Blue Air at Wikimedia Commons Official website

3.
Milecastle 0
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Milecastle 0 is a possible milecastle of the Roman Hadrians Wall which may have preexisted the fort of Segedunum. Although its existence has been suggested by historian Peter Hill, no evidence of this milecastle has been found. It is not known whether the decision to establish forts on the line of the wall predated the decision to extend the wall to Wallsend, nothing is known of the construction of Milecastle 0. No excavations or investigations have taken place specifically for Milecastle 0, no evidence has been found during excavation of Segedunum. Each milecastle on Hadrians Wall had two associated turret structures and these turrets were positioned approximately one-third and two-thirds of a Roman mile to the west of the Milecastle, and would probably have been manned by part of the milecastles garrison. The turrets associated with Milecastle 0 are known as Turret 0A, nothing is known of this Turret. Presumed site,54. 987261°N1. 536619°W /54.987261 and it was first noted by John Horsley in 1732 who mistook it for Milecastle 1, and it is sometimes referred to as Horseleys Milecastle 1. The turrets stones were removed to Carville Chapel grounds to form rock gardens. A single course of this Turret was unearthed in 1978, location,54. 985265°N1. 543440°W /54.985265, -1. 543440 0B) Daniels, Charles, Review, Fact and Theory on Hadrians Wall, Britannia,10, 357–364, JSTOR526069

4.
Array data type
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In computer science, an array type is a data type that is meant to describe a collection of elements, each selected by one or more indices that can be computed at run time by the program. Such a collection is called an array variable, array value. By analogy with the concepts of vector and matrix, array types with one. For example, in the Pascal programming language, the declaration type MyTable = array of integer, the declaration var A, MyTable then defines a variable A of that type, which is an aggregate of eight elements, each being an integer variable identified by two indices. In the Pascal program, those elements are denoted A, A, A, … A, special array types are often defined by the languages standard libraries. Dynamic lists are also common and easier to implement than dynamic arrays. Array types are distinguished from record types mainly because they allow the element indices to be computed at run time, among other things, this feature allows a single iterative statement to process arbitrarily many elements of an array variable. Depending on the language, array types may overlap other data types that describe aggregates of values, such as lists, array types are often implemented by array data structures, but sometimes by other means, such as hash tables, linked lists, or search trees. Heinz Rutishausers programming language Superplan included multi-dimensional arrays, rutishauser however although describing how a compiler for his language should be built, did not implement one. Assembly languages and low-level languages like BCPL generally have no support for arrays. These operations are required to satisfy the axioms get = V get = get if I ≠ J for any array state A, any value V, the first axiom means that each element behaves like a variable. The second axiom means that elements with distinct indices behave as disjoint variables and these axioms do not place any constraints on the set of valid index tuples I, therefore this abstract model can be used for triangular matrices and other oddly-shaped arrays. Most of those languages also restrict each index to an interval of integers. In some compiled languages, in fact, the index ranges may have to be known at compile time. On the other hand, some programming languages provide more liberal array types, such index values cannot be restricted to an interval, much less a fixed interval. So, these languages usually allow arbitrary new elements to be created at any time and this choice precludes the implementation of array types as array data structures. That is, those languages use syntax to implement a more general associative array semantics. The number of indices needed to specify an element is called the dimension, dimensionality, many languages support only one-dimensional arrays