1.
Emoticon
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An emoticon, is a pictorial representation of a facial expression using punctuation marks, numbers and letters, usually written to express a persons feelings or mood. In Western countries, emoticons are usually written at an angle to the direction of the text. Users from Japan popularized a kind of emoticon called kaomoji that can be understood without tilting ones head to the left and this style arose on ASCII NET of Japan in 1986. As social media has become widespread, emoticons have played a significant role in communication through technology and they offer another range of tone and feeling through texting that portrays specific emotions through facial gestures while in the midst of text-based cyber communication. The word is a word of the English words emotion and icon. In web forums, instant messengers and online games, text emoticons are often replaced with small corresponding images. Emoticons for a face, -) and sad face, - and, - From, Scott E Fahlman <Fahlman at Cmu-20c> I propose that the following character sequence for joke markers. Actually, it is more economical to mark things that are NOT jokes. For this, use, - which omits the nose is very popular. The most basic emoticons are relatively consistent in form, but each of them can be transformed by being rotated, with or without a hyphen. There are also some variations to emoticons to get new definitions, like changing a character to express a new feeling. One linguistic study has indicated that the use of a nose in an emoticon may be related to the users age and it is also common for the user to replace the rounded brackets used for the mouth with other, similar brackets, such as ] instead of ). Some variants are more common in certain countries due to keyboard layouts. For example, the smiley =) may occur in Scandinavia, where the keys for = and ) are placed right beside each other, however, the, ) variant is without a doubt the dominant one in Scandinavia, making the =) version a rarity. The letters Ö and Ü can be seen as an emoticon, as the version of, O and. Users from Japan popularized a style of emoticons that can be understood without tilting ones head to the left and this style arose on ASCII NET of Japan in 1986. Similar looking emoticons were used by Byte Information Exchange around the same time and these emoticons are usually found in a format similar to. The asterisks indicate the eyes, the character, commonly an underscore, the mouth, and the parentheses

2.
Instruction set architecture
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An ISA includes a specification of the set of opcodes, and the native commands implemented by a particular processor. An instruction set architecture is distinguished from a microarchitecture, which is the set of design techniques used, in a particular processor. Processors with different microarchitectures can share a common instruction set, for example, the Intel Pentium and the AMD Athlon implement nearly identical versions of the x86 instruction set, but have radically different internal designs. The concept of an architecture, distinct from the design of a machine, was developed by Fred Brooks at IBM during the design phase of System/360. Prior to NPL, the companys computer designers had been free to honor cost objectives not only by selecting technologies, the SPREAD compatibility objective, in contrast, postulated a single architecture for a series of five processors spanning a wide range of cost and performance. In addition, these virtual machines execute less frequently used code paths by interpretation, transmeta implemented the x86 instruction set atop VLIW processors in this fashion. A complex instruction set computer has many specialized instructions, some of which may only be used in practical programs. Theoretically important types are the instruction set computer and the one instruction set computer. Another variation is the very long instruction word where the processor receives many instructions encoded and retrieved in one instruction word, machine language is built up from discrete statements or instructions. Examples of operations common to many instruction sets include, Set a register to a constant value. Copy data from a location to a register, or vice versa. Used to store the contents of a register, result of a computation, often called load and store operations. Read and write data from hardware devices, add, subtract, multiply, or divide the values of two registers, placing the result in a register, possibly setting one or more condition codes in a status register. Increment, decrement in some ISAs, saving operand fetch in trivial cases, perform bitwise operations, e. g. taking the conjunction and disjunction of corresponding bits in a pair of registers, taking the negation of each bit in a register. Floating-point instructions for arithmetic on floating-point numbers, branch to another location in the program and execute instructions there. Conditionally branch to another if a certain condition holds. Call another block of code, while saving the location of the instruction as a point to return to. Load/store data to and from a coprocessor, or exchanging with CPU registers, processors may include complex instructions in their instruction set

3.
Initial and terminal objects
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In category theory, a branch of mathematics, an initial object of a category C is an object I in C such that for every object X in C, there exists precisely one morphism I → X. The dual notion is that of an object, T is terminal if for every object X in C there exists a single morphism X → T. Initial objects are called coterminal or universal, and terminal objects are also called final. If an object is both initial and terminal, it is called an object or null object. A pointed category is one with a zero object, a strict initial object I is one for which every morphism into I is an isomorphism. The empty set is the initial object in the category of sets, every one-element set is a terminal object in this category. Similarly, the empty space is the initial object in the category of topological spaces. In the category Rel of sets and relations, the empty set is the zero object. In the category of non-empty sets, there are no initial objects, the singletons are not initial, while every non-empty set admits a function from a singleton, this function is in general not unique. In the category of pointed sets, every singleton is a zero object, similarly, in the category of pointed topological spaces, every singleton is a zero object. In the category of semigroups, the empty semigroup is the initial object. In the subcategory of monoids, however, every trivial monoid is a zero object, in the category of groups, any trivial group is a zero object. There are zero objects also for the category of groups, category of pseudo-rings Rng, category of modules over a ring. This is the origin of the zero object. In the category of rings with unity and unity-preserving morphisms, the ring of integers Z is an initial object, the zero ring consisting only of a single element 0 =1 is a terminal object. In the category of fields, there are no initial or terminal objects, however, in the subcategory of fields of fixed characteristic, the prime field is an initial object. Any partially ordered set can be interpreted as a category, the objects are the elements of P and this category has an initial object if and only if P has a least element, it has a terminal object if and only if P has a greatest element. All monoids may be considered, in their own right, to be categories with a single object, in this sense, each monoid is a category that consists of one object and a collection of specific morphisms to itself

4.
Zero-order hold
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The zero-order hold is a mathematical model of the practical signal reconstruction done by a conventional digital-to-analog converter. That is, it describes the effect of converting a signal to a continuous-time signal by holding each sample value for one sample interval. It has several applications in electrical communication, the function r e c t is depicted in Figure 1, and x Z O H is the piecewise-constant signal depicted in Figure 2. In this method, a sequence of dirac impulses, xs, representing the discrete samples, x, is filtered to recover a continuous-time signal. Some authors use this scaling, while others omit the time-scaling and the T, resulting in a low-pass filter model with a DC gain of T. This droop is a consequence of the property of a conventional DAC. Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem First-order hold Discretization of linear state space models

5.
Rate equation
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The rate law or rate equation for a chemical reaction is an equation that links the reaction rate with the concentrations or pressures of the reactants and constant parameters. For many reactions the rate is given by a law such as r = k x y where and express the concentration of the species A and B. The exponents x and y are the partial orders and must be determined experimentally. The constant k is the rate constant or rate coefficient of the reaction. The value of this coefficient k may depend on such as temperature, ionic strength, surface area of an adsorbent. For elementary reactions, which consist of a step, the order equals the molecularity as predicted by collision theory. For example, an elementary reaction A + B → products will be second order overall and first order in each reactant. For multistep reactions, the order of each step equals the molecularity, the equation may involve a fractional order, and may depend on the concentration of an intermediate species. The rate equation is an equation and can be integrated to obtain an integrated rate equation that links concentrations of reactants or products with time. A zero order reaction has a rate that is independent of the concentration of the reactant, increasing the concentration of the reacting species will not speed up the rate of the reaction i. e. the amount of substance reacted is proportional to the time. Zero order reactions are found when a material that is required for the reaction to proceed. The rate law for a zero order reaction is r = k where r is the reaction rate, T = − k t +0 where t represents the concentration of the chemical of interest at a particular time, and 0 represents the initial concentration. A reaction is zero order if concentration data are plotted versus time, a plot of t vs. time t gives a straight line with a slope of − k. The half-life of a reaction describes the time needed for half of the reactant to be depleted, a first order reaction depends on the concentration of only one reactant. Other reactants can be present, but each will be zero order, the rate law for a reaction that is first order with respect to a reactant A is − d d t = r = k k is the first order rate constant, which has units of 1/s. The integrated first order rate law is ln = − k t + ln 0 A plot of ln vs. time t gives a line with a slope of − k. The half-life of a first order reaction is independent of the concentration and is given by t 12 = ln k. This equation indicates that the fraction of the amount of reactant population that will break down in each time period is independent of the initial amount present

6.
Octal
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The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. Octal numerals can be made from binary numerals by grouping binary digits into groups of three. For example, the representation for decimal 74 is 1001010. Two zeroes can be added at the left,1001010, corresponding the octal digits 112, in the decimal system each decimal place is a power of ten. For example,7410 =7 ×101 +4 ×100 In the octal system each place is a power of eight. The Yuki language in California and the Pamean languages in Mexico have octal systems because the speakers count using the spaces between their fingers rather than the fingers themselves and it has been suggested that the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European word for nine might be related to the PIE word for new. Based on this, some have speculated that proto-Indo-Europeans used a number system. In 1716 King Charles XII of Sweden asked Emanuel Swedenborg to elaborate a number based on 64 instead of 10. Swedenborg however argued that for people with less intelligence than the king such a big base would be too difficult, in 1718 Swedenborg wrote a manuscript, En ny rekenkonst som om vexlas wid Thalet 8 i stelle then wanliga wid Thalet 10. The numbers 1-7 are there denoted by the l, s, n, m, t, f, u. Thus 8 = lo,16 = so,24 = no,64 = loo,512 = looo etc, numbers with consecutive consonants are pronounced with vowel sounds between in accordance with a special rule. Writing under the pseudonym Hirossa Ap-Iccim in The Gentlemans Magazine, July 1745, Hugh Jones proposed a system for British coins, weights. In 1801, James Anderson criticized the French for basing the Metric system on decimal arithmetic and he suggested base 8 for which he coined the term octal. In the mid 19th century, Alfred B. Taylor concluded that Our octonary radix is, therefore, so, for example, the number 65 would be spoken in octonary as under-un. Taylor also republished some of Swedenborgs work on octonary as an appendix to the above-cited publications, in the 2009 film Avatar, the language of the extraterrestrial Navi race employs an octal numeral system, probably due to the fact that they have four fingers on each hand. In the TV series Stargate SG-1, the Ancients, a race of beings responsible for the invention of the Stargates, in the tabletop game series Warhammer 40,000, the Tau race use an octal number system. Octal became widely used in computing systems such as the PDP-8, ICL1900. Octal was an abbreviation of binary for these machines because their word size is divisible by three