1.
Hexadecimal
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In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 0–9 to represent values zero to nine, Hexadecimal numerals are widely used by computer system designers and programmers. As each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits, it allows a more human-friendly representation of binary-coded values, one hexadecimal digit represents a nibble, which is half of an octet or byte. For example, a byte can have values ranging from 00000000 to 11111111 in binary form. In a non-programming context, a subscript is typically used to give the radix, several notations are used to support hexadecimal representation of constants in programming languages, usually involving a prefix or suffix. The prefix 0x is used in C and related languages, where this value might be denoted as 0x2AF3, in contexts where the base is not clear, hexadecimal numbers can be ambiguous and confused with numbers expressed in other bases. There are several conventions for expressing values unambiguously, a numerical subscript can give the base explicitly,15910 is decimal 159,15916 is hexadecimal 159, which is equal to 34510. Some authors prefer a text subscript, such as 159decimal and 159hex, or 159d and 159h. example. com/name%20with%20spaces where %20 is the space character, thus ’, represents the right single quotation mark, Unicode code point number 2019 in hex,8217. In the Unicode standard, a value is represented with U+ followed by the hex value. Color references in HTML, CSS and X Window can be expressed with six hexadecimal digits prefixed with #, white, CSS allows 3-hexdigit abbreviations with one hexdigit per component, #FA3 abbreviates #FFAA33. *nix shells, AT&T assembly language and likewise the C programming language, to output an integer as hexadecimal with the printf function family, the format conversion code %X or %x is used. In Intel-derived assembly languages and Modula-2, hexadecimal is denoted with a suffixed H or h, some assembly languages use the notation HABCD. Ada and VHDL enclose hexadecimal numerals in based numeric quotes, 16#5A3#, for bit vector constants VHDL uses the notation x5A3. Verilog represents hexadecimal constants in the form 8hFF, where 8 is the number of bits in the value, the Smalltalk language uses the prefix 16r, 16r5A3 PostScript and the Bourne shell and its derivatives denote hex with prefix 16#, 16#5A3. For PostScript, binary data can be expressed as unprefixed consecutive hexadecimal pairs, in early systems when a Macintosh crashed, one or two lines of hexadecimal code would be displayed under the Sad Mac to tell the user what went wrong. Common Lisp uses the prefixes #x and #16r, setting the variables *read-base* and *print-base* to 16 can also used to switch the reader and printer of a Common Lisp system to Hexadecimal number representation for reading and printing numbers. Thus Hexadecimal numbers can be represented without the #x or #16r prefix code, MSX BASIC, QuickBASIC, FreeBASIC and Visual Basic prefix hexadecimal numbers with &H, &H5A3 BBC BASIC and Locomotive BASIC use & for hex. TI-89 and 92 series uses a 0h prefix, 0h5A3 ALGOL68 uses the prefix 16r to denote hexadecimal numbers, binary, quaternary and octal numbers can be specified similarly

2.
Zero X
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The Zero X is an electric motorcycle manufactured by Zero Motorcycles. The wheels are driven by hardened steel 420 chain and direct drive gearing, braking is performed by six-piston calipers per axle, with 9-inch front rotor. It includes 17 by 2.5 in rear rim with 17 by 3.5 in rear tire and 20 by 3.0 in front tire, standard battery pack is made from lithium-ion, with rated range of up to two hours or 64 kilometres. Recharging is done using 110 V or 220 V with charging time of two hours, other features include USB port that allow access to the bikes motor controls. Extreme Package includes Higher Power Perm Motor with 10% more power over stock and faster top end speeds, changes include improved chassis, which features hydroformed top tub, larger swing arms, thru-axle rear hub, shot-peened and anodized frame, organic frame gusseting, new number plate. As a result, it was 6 pounds heavier than 2008 model, prototype of 2009 model was unveiled in 2008 Alternative Energy and Transportation Expo in Santa Monica, California. On 24 September 2008, Zero Motorcycles announced all 2008 models had sold out

3.
Zero-X
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The first manned craft to land on Mars, the metallic-blue Zero-X comprises a number of detachable sections. The main body houses the engines which provide the craft with the thrust required for lift-off. The Martian Exploration Vehicle is attached to the front of the body where it serves as the spaceships main control centre during spaceflight. During atmospheric ingress or egress, two remotely controlled lifting bodies are attached to the body at the front and rear of the craft. On reaching Mars, the MEV detaches from the body, which is left in orbit piloted by a single astronaut. At the surface the MEV extends caterpillar tracks to negotiate the rocky terrain, in more recent years Virgin Galactic have re-established the concept, providing the first private commercial suborbital spaceflights in a similarly launched vehicle. The Zero-X contrasts in this way with Thunderbird 3, which, Zero-X has a total delta velocity of 40 miles per second, a standard acceleration of 1 g, a maximum acceleration of 10 g, and an emergency acceleration of 15 g. It is built by New World Aircraft Corporation, the company that made Skyship One. The first manned mission to Mars ended in failure after the Zero-X spacecraft was accidentally sabotaged by the Hood, the crew managed to escape and two years later a second Zero-X craft successfully reached Mars in September 2067. However, soon after touching down on the surface, the MEV was attacked by fire-shooting Martian rock snakes, the crew survived, having been saved at the last minute by International Rescue. Greg Martin Brad Newman Dr Tony Grant Dr Ray Pierce Re-commissioned by the Spectrum Organisation, the crews hostile actions lead to a war of nerves with the Mysterons in Captain Scarlet and the Mysterons. It is never specified whether Black and the crew died on Mars. However, when the Zero-X returned to Earth, Black was its only occupant and he vanished upon landing at Glenn Field, and shortly after the Mysterons issued their first threat against Earth. Although the Zero-X does not appear in Gerry Andersons New Captain Scarlet, a series featuring the adventures of the crew of the Zero-X appeared in the comic TV Century 21 and its successors, including Countdown. A model of the Zero-X was included in the Project SWORD line of toys marketed by Century 21 Productions, AP Films commissioned Slough-based company Master Models for two scale filming miniaturess of Zero-X. The bigger of the pair, which was built at a cost of £2,500, measured 7 feet in length and weighed 50 pounds. The set design of the Zero-X flight deck was inspired by that of Concorde, cynics would suggest that the various detachable segments had less to do with the storyline and more to do with potential toy manufacturing. Alasdair Wilkins of the entertainment website io9 questions the design in so far as Zero-X is a not-especially-aerodynamic-looking craft, a sequence that threatens to make 2001 look like non-stop, thrill-a-minute action

4.
Cellular automaton
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A cellular automaton is a discrete model studied in computability theory, mathematics, physics, complexity science, theoretical biology and microstructure modeling. Cellular automata are also called cellular spaces, tessellation automata, homogeneous structures, cellular structures, tessellation structures, a cellular automaton consists of a regular grid of cells, each in one of a finite number of states, such as on and off. The grid can be in any number of dimensions. For each cell, a set of cells called its neighborhood is defined relative to the specified cell, an initial state is selected by assigning a state for each cell. A new generation is created, according to some fixed rule that determines the new state of cell in terms of the current state of the cell. The concept was discovered in the 1940s by Stanislaw Ulam. While studied by some throughout the 1950s and 1960s, it was not until the 1970s and Conways Game of Life, a cellular automaton. Wolfram published A New Kind of Science in 2002, claiming that cellular automata have applications in fields of science. These include computer processors and cryptography, the primary classifications of cellular automata, as outlined by Wolfram, are numbered one to four. This last class are thought to be universal, or capable of simulating a Turing machine. Cellular automata can simulate a variety of systems, including biological and chemical ones. One way to simulate a two-dimensional cellular automaton is with a sheet of graph paper along with a set of rules for the cells to follow. Each square is called a cell and each cell has two states, black and white. The neighborhood of a cell is the nearby, usually adjacent, the two most common types of neighborhoods are the von Neumann neighborhood and the Moore neighborhood. The former, named after the cellular automaton theorist, consists of the four orthogonally adjacent cells. The latter includes the von Neumann neighborhood as well as the four remaining cells surrounding the cell whose state is to be calculated, for such a cell and its Moore neighborhood, there are 512 possible patterns. For each of the 512 possible patterns, the table would state whether the center cell will be black or white on the next time interval. Conways Game of Life is a version of this model