1.
2 (number)
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2 is a number, numeral, and glyph. It is the number following 1 and preceding 3. The number two has many properties in mathematics, an integer is called even if it is divisible by 2. For integers written in a system based on an even number, such as decimal and hexadecimal. If it is even, then the number is even. In particular, when written in the system, all multiples of 2 will end in 0,2,4,6. In numeral systems based on an odd number, divisibility by 2 can be tested by having a root that is even. Two is the smallest and first prime number, and the only prime number. Two and three are the two consecutive prime numbers. 2 is the first Sophie Germain prime, the first factorial prime, the first Lucas prime, the first Ramanujan prime, and it is an Eisenstein prime with no imaginary part and real part of the form 3n −1. It is also a Stern prime, a Pell number, the first Fibonacci prime, and it is the third Fibonacci number, and the second and fourth Perrin numbers. Despite being prime, two is also a highly composite number, because it is a natural number which has more divisors than any other number scaled relative to the number itself. The next superior highly composite number is six, vulgar fractions with only 2 or 5 in the denominator do not yield infinite decimal expansions, as is the case with all other primes, because 2 and 5 are factors of ten, the decimal base. Two is the number x such that the sum of the reciprocals of the powers of x equals itself. In symbols ∑ k =0 ∞12 k =1 +12 +14 +18 +116 + ⋯ =2. This comes from the fact that, ∑ k =0 ∞1 n k =1 +1 n −1 for all n ∈ R >1, powers of two are central to the concept of Mersenne primes, and important to computer science. Two is the first Mersenne prime exponent, the square root of 2 was the first known irrational number. The smallest field has two elements, in the set-theoretical construction of the natural numbers,2 is identified with the set

2.
Arithmetic
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Arithmetic is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations between them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Arithmetic is an part of number theory, and number theory is considered to be one of the top-level divisions of modern mathematics, along with algebra, geometry. The terms arithmetic and higher arithmetic were used until the beginning of the 20th century as synonyms for number theory and are still used to refer to a wider part of number theory. The earliest written records indicate the Egyptians and Babylonians used all the elementary arithmetic operations as early as 2000 BC and these artifacts do not always reveal the specific process used for solving problems, but the characteristics of the particular numeral system strongly influence the complexity of the methods. The hieroglyphic system for Egyptian numerals, like the later Roman numerals, in both cases, this origin resulted in values that used a decimal base but did not include positional notation. Complex calculations with Roman numerals required the assistance of a board or the Roman abacus to obtain the results. Early number systems that included positional notation were not decimal, including the system for Babylonian numerals. Because of this concept, the ability to reuse the same digits for different values contributed to simpler. The continuous historical development of modern arithmetic starts with the Hellenistic civilization of ancient Greece, prior to the works of Euclid around 300 BC, Greek studies in mathematics overlapped with philosophical and mystical beliefs. For example, Nicomachus summarized the viewpoint of the earlier Pythagorean approach to numbers, Greek numerals were used by Archimedes, Diophantus and others in a positional notation not very different from ours. Because the ancient Greeks lacked a symbol for zero, they used three separate sets of symbols, one set for the units place, one for the tens place, and one for the hundreds. Then for the place they would reuse the symbols for the units place. Their addition algorithm was identical to ours, and their multiplication algorithm was very slightly different. Their long division algorithm was the same, and the square root algorithm that was taught in school was known to Archimedes. He preferred it to Heros method of successive approximation because, once computed, a digit doesnt change, and the square roots of perfect squares, such as 7485696, terminate immediately as 2736. For numbers with a part, such as 546.934. The ancient Chinese used a positional notation. Because they also lacked a symbol for zero, they had one set of symbols for the place

3.
1 (number)
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1, is a number, a numeral, and the name of the glyph representing that number. It represents a single entity, the unit of counting or measurement, for example, a line segment of unit length is a line segment of length 1. It is also the first of the series of natural numbers. The word one can be used as a noun, an adjective and it comes from the English word an, which comes from the Proto-Germanic root *ainaz. The Proto-Germanic root *ainaz comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *oi-no-, compare the Proto-Germanic root *ainaz to Old Frisian an, Gothic ains, Danish een, Dutch een, German eins and Old Norse einn. Compare the Proto-Indo-European root *oi-no- to Greek oinos, Latin unus, Old Persian aivam, Old Church Slavonic -inu and ino-, Lithuanian vienas, Old Irish oin, One, sometimes referred to as unity, is the first non-zero natural number. It is thus the integer before two and after zero, and the first positive odd number, any number multiplied by one is that number, as one is the identity for multiplication. As a result,1 is its own factorial, its own square, its own cube, One is also the result of the empty product, as any number multiplied by one is itself. It is also the natural number that is neither composite nor prime with respect to division. The Gupta wrote it as a line, and the Nagari sometimes added a small circle on the left. The Nepali also rotated it to the right but kept the circle small and this eventually became the top serif in the modern numeral, but the occasional short horizontal line at the bottom probably originates from similarity with the Roman numeral I. Where the 1 is written with an upstroke, the number 7 has a horizontal stroke through the vertical line. While the shape of the 1 character has an ascender in most modern typefaces, in typefaces with text figures, many older typewriters do not have a separate symbol for 1 and use the lowercase letter l instead. It is possible to find cases when the uppercase J is used,1 cannot be used as the base of a positional numeral system, as the only digit that would be permitted in such a system would be 0. Since the base 1 exponential function always equals 1, its inverse does not exist, there are two ways to write the real number 1 as a recurring decimal, as 1.000. and as 0.999. There is only one way to represent the real number 1 as a Dedekind cut, in a multiplicative group or monoid, the identity element is sometimes denoted 1, but e is also traditional. However,1 is especially common for the identity of a ring. When such a ring has characteristic n not equal to 0,1 is the first figurate number of every kind, such as triangular number, pentagonal number and centered hexagonal number, to name just a few

4.
Boolean algebra
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In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively. It is thus a formalism for describing logical relations in the way that ordinary algebra describes numeric relations. Boolean algebra was introduced by George Boole in his first book The Mathematical Analysis of Logic, according to Huntington, the term Boolean algebra was first suggested by Sheffer in 1913. Boolean algebra has been fundamental in the development of digital electronics and it is also used in set theory and statistics. Booles algebra predated the modern developments in algebra and mathematical logic. In an abstract setting, Boolean algebra was perfected in the late 19th century by Jevons, Schröder, Huntington, in fact, M. H. Stone proved in 1936 that every Boolean algebra is isomorphic to a field of sets. Shannon already had at his disposal the abstract mathematical apparatus, thus he cast his switching algebra as the two-element Boolean algebra, in circuit engineering settings today, there is little need to consider other Boolean algebras, thus switching algebra and Boolean algebra are often used interchangeably. Efficient implementation of Boolean functions is a problem in the design of combinational logic circuits. Logic sentences that can be expressed in classical propositional calculus have an equivalent expression in Boolean algebra, thus, Boolean logic is sometimes used to denote propositional calculus performed in this way. Boolean algebra is not sufficient to capture logic formulas using quantifiers, the closely related model of computation known as a Boolean circuit relates time complexity to circuit complexity. Whereas in elementary algebra expressions denote mainly numbers, in Boolean algebra they denote the truth values false and these values are represented with the bits, namely 0 and 1. Addition and multiplication then play the Boolean roles of XOR and AND respectively, Boolean algebra also deals with functions which have their values in the set. A sequence of bits is a commonly used such function, another common example is the subsets of a set E, to a subset F of E is associated the indicator function that takes the value 1 on F and 0 outside F. The most general example is the elements of a Boolean algebra, as with elementary algebra, the purely equational part of the theory may be developed without considering explicit values for the variables. The basic operations of Boolean calculus are as follows, AND, denoted x∧y, satisfies x∧y =1 if x = y =1 and x∧y =0 otherwise. OR, denoted x∨y, satisfies x∨y =0 if x = y =0, NOT, denoted ¬x, satisfies ¬x =0 if x =1 and ¬x =1 if x =0. Alternatively the values of x∧y, x∨y, and ¬x can be expressed by tabulating their values with truth tables as follows, the first operation, x → y, or Cxy, is called material implication. If x is then the value of x → y is taken to be that of y

5.
Logical disjunction
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In logic and mathematics, or is the truth-functional operator of disjunction, also known as alternation, the or of a set of operands is true if and only if one or more of its operands is true. The logical connective that represents this operator is written as ∨ or +. A or B is true if A is true, or if B is true, or if both A and B are true. In logic, or by means the inclusive or, distinguished from an exclusive or. An operand of a disjunction is called a disjunct, related concepts in other fields are, In natural language, the coordinating conjunction or. In programming languages, the short-circuit or control structure, or is usually expressed with an infix operator, in mathematics and logic, ∨, in electronics, +, and in most programming languages, |, ||, or or. In Jan Łukasiewiczs prefix notation for logic, the operator is A, logical disjunction is an operation on two logical values, typically the values of two propositions, that has a value of false if and only if both of its operands are false. More generally, a disjunction is a formula that can have one or more literals separated only by ors. A single literal is often considered to be a degenerate disjunction, the disjunctive identity is false, which is to say that the or of an expression with false has the same value as the original expression. In keeping with the concept of truth, when disjunction is defined as an operator or function of arbitrary arity. Falsehood-preserving, The interpretation under which all variables are assigned a value of false produces a truth value of false as a result of disjunction. The mathematical symbol for logical disjunction varies in the literature, in addition to the word or, and the formula Apq, the symbol ∨, deriving from the Latin word vel is commonly used for disjunction. For example, A ∨ B is read as A or B, such a disjunction is false if both A and B are false. In all other cases it is true, all of the following are disjunctions, A ∨ B ¬ A ∨ B A ∨ ¬ B ∨ ¬ C ∨ D ∨ ¬ E. The corresponding operation in set theory is the set-theoretic union, operators corresponding to logical disjunction exist in most programming languages. Disjunction is often used for bitwise operations, for example, x = x | 0b00000001 will force the final bit to 1 while leaving other bits unchanged. Logical disjunction is usually short-circuited, that is, if the first operand evaluates to true then the second operand is not evaluated, the logical disjunction operator thus usually constitutes a sequence point. In a parallel language, it is possible to both sides, they are evaluated in parallel, and if one terminates with value true

6.
0 (number)
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0 is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals. The number 0 fulfills a role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers, real numbers. As a digit,0 is used as a placeholder in place value systems, names for the number 0 in English include zero, nought or naught, nil, or—in contexts where at least one adjacent digit distinguishes it from the letter O—oh or o. Informal or slang terms for zero include zilch and zip, ought and aught, as well as cipher, have also been used historically. The word zero came into the English language via French zéro from Italian zero, in pre-Islamic time the word ṣifr had the meaning empty. Sifr evolved to mean zero when it was used to translate śūnya from India, the first known English use of zero was in 1598. The Italian mathematician Fibonacci, who grew up in North Africa and is credited with introducing the system to Europe. This became zefiro in Italian, and was contracted to zero in Venetian. The Italian word zefiro was already in existence and may have influenced the spelling when transcribing Arabic ṣifr, modern usage There are different words used for the number or concept of zero depending on the context. For the simple notion of lacking, the words nothing and none are often used, sometimes the words nought, naught and aught are used. Several sports have specific words for zero, such as nil in football, love in tennis and it is often called oh in the context of telephone numbers. Slang words for zero include zip, zilch, nada, duck egg and goose egg are also slang for zero. Ancient Egyptian numerals were base 10 and they used hieroglyphs for the digits and were not positional. By 1740 BC, the Egyptians had a symbol for zero in accounting texts. The symbol nfr, meaning beautiful, was used to indicate the base level in drawings of tombs and pyramids. By the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, the Babylonian mathematics had a sophisticated sexagesimal positional numeral system, the lack of a positional value was indicated by a space between sexagesimal numerals. By 300 BC, a symbol was co-opted as a placeholder in the same Babylonian system. In a tablet unearthed at Kish, the scribe Bêl-bân-aplu wrote his zeros with three hooks, rather than two slanted wedges, the Babylonian placeholder was not a true zero because it was not used alone

7.
Exclusive or
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Exclusive or or exclusive disjunction is a logical operation that outputs true only when inputs differ. It is symbolized by the prefix operator J and by the infix operators XOR, EOR, EXOR, ⊻, ⊕, ↮, the negation of XOR is logical biconditional, which outputs true only when both inputs are the same. It gains the exclusive or because the meaning of or is ambiguous when both operands are true, the exclusive or operator excludes that case. This is sometimes thought of as one or the other but not both and this could be written as A or B, but not, A and B. More generally, XOR is true only when an odd number of inputs are true, a chain of XORs—a XOR b XOR c XOR d —is true whenever an odd number of the inputs are true and is false whenever an even number of inputs are true. The truth table of A XOR B shows that it outputs true whenever the inputs differ,0, false 1, true Exclusive disjunction essentially means either one, in other words, the statement is true if and only if one is true and the other is false. For example, if two horses are racing, then one of the two win the race, but not both of them. The exclusive or is equivalent to the negation of a logical biconditional, by the rules of material implication. This unfortunately prevents the combination of two systems into larger structures, such as a mathematical ring. However, the system using exclusive or is an abelian group, the combination of operators ∧ and ⊕ over elements produce the well-known field F2. This field can represent any logic obtainable with the system and has the benefit of the arsenal of algebraic analysis tools for fields. The Oxford English Dictionary explains either, or as follows, The primary function of either, etc. is to emphasize the perfect indifference of the two things or courses. But a secondary function is to emphasize the mutual exclusiveness, = either of the two, but not both, the exclusive-or explicitly states one or the other, but not neither nor both. Following this kind of common-sense intuition about or, it is argued that in many natural languages, English included. The exclusive disjunction of a pair of propositions, is supposed to mean that p is true or q is true, but not both. For example, it might be argued that the intention of a statement like You may have coffee. Certainly under some circumstances a sentence like this example should be taken as forbidding the possibility of accepting both options. Even so, there is reason to suppose that this sort of sentence is not disjunctive at all

8.
Modular arithmetic
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In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers wrap around upon reaching a certain value—the modulus. The modern approach to modular arithmetic was developed by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his book Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, a familiar use of modular arithmetic is in the 12-hour clock, in which the day is divided into two 12-hour periods. If the time is 7,00 now, then 8 hours later it will be 3,00. Usual addition would suggest that the time should be 7 +8 =15. Likewise, if the clock starts at 12,00 and 21 hours elapse, then the time will be 9,00 the next day, because the hour number starts over after it reaches 12, this is arithmetic modulo 12. According to the definition below,12 is congruent not only to 12 itself, Modular arithmetic can be handled mathematically by introducing a congruence relation on the integers that is compatible with the operations on integers, addition, subtraction, and multiplication. For a positive n, two integers a and b are said to be congruent modulo n, written, a ≡ b. The number n is called the modulus of the congruence, for example,38 ≡14 because 38 −14 =24, which is a multiple of 12. The same rule holds for negative values, −8 ≡72 ≡ −3 −3 ≡ −8. Equivalently, a ≡ b mod n can also be thought of as asserting that the remainders of the division of both a and b by n are the same, for instance,38 ≡14 because both 38 and 14 have the same remainder 2 when divided by 12. It is also the case that 38 −14 =24 is a multiple of 12. A remark on the notation, Because it is common to consider several congruence relations for different moduli at the same time, in spite of the ternary notation, the congruence relation for a given modulus is binary. This would have been if the notation a ≡n b had been used. The properties that make this relation a congruence relation are the following, if a 1 ≡ b 1 and a 2 ≡ b 2, then, a 1 + a 2 ≡ b 1 + b 2 a 1 − a 2 ≡ b 1 − b 2. The above two properties would still hold if the theory were expanded to all real numbers, that is if a1, a2, b1, b2. The next property, however, would fail if these variables were not all integers, the notion of modular arithmetic is related to that of the remainder in Euclidean division. The operation of finding the remainder is referred to as the modulo operation. For example, the remainder of the division of 14 by 12 is denoted by 14 mod 12, as this remainder is 2, we have 14 mod 12 =2

9.
OnePlus One
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The OnePlus One is an Android smartphone manufactured by OnePlus. Unveiled in April 2014, it is the first product by OnePlus, the One was designed to compare favorably – in performance, quality, and price – to flagship devices by leading smartphone manufacturers. The One ships to most markets with the Cyanogen OS operating system pre-installed, Cyanogen OS is a commercial variant of CyanogenMod. The phone was first made available for sale on 25 April 2014, exclusively from the OnePlus website and these invitations were primarily distributed by the company through contests, some of which attracted attention for their unconventional or controversial nature. On 6 June 2014, the device was available for general sale, as of 20 April 2015, the device no longer requires an invite to purchase. The OnePlus company was founded on 16 December 2013 by former Oppo president Pete Lau, the companys main goal was to design his dream smartphone, one that would balance the quality of high-end devices from its major competitors with a lower price than other phones in its class. He argued that, despite their lower cost, users would never settle for the lower-quality devices produced by other Chinese companies, Lau compared the ideals of OnePlus with those of the Japanese company Muji, with a focus on high quality products with simplistic designs. The device is sold exclusively through the OnePlus website. On 9 February 2015, OnePlus announced that it would begin to hold such open sales every Tuesday and its what weve been working towards, and now were ready. Some users misinterpreted the promotion, however, and prematurely posted videos on YouTube of them breaking their phones, users were later not required to destroy their phones, and could instead donate them to the charity Medic Mobile. On 25 August 2014, OnePlus began a summer-themed photography coverage as a replacement, OnePlus also announced plans to establish a presence in the country, with plans to open 25 official walk-in service centres across India. In August 2015, nearly 18 months after its release, the One was officially released in the United Arab Emirates exclusively through an online retailer souq. com. Customers can purchase the phone without the need of an invite, on 25 December 2014, the court reversed the sales ban, noting that YU and OnePlus were within different market segments—low-end and high-end devices respectively. The devices internal hardware includes a quad-core Qualcomm Snapdragon 801 system-on-chip clocked at 2.5 GHz,3 GB of RAM, and it includes either 16 or 64 GB of non-expandable storage. Its rear-facing camera features a 13 megapixel, Sony-manufactured Exmor IMX214 sensor, the OnePlus One supports LTE networks using bands 1,3,4,7,17,38, and 40. Due to the companys startup stature, only one model of the device was released worldwide, the chassis of the OnePlus One is constructed from magnesium, and is accompanied by a curved, textured rear cover in either black or white. Special denim, Kevlar, and bamboo wood covers were also unveiled as accessories, the device features capacitive navigation keys, but they can be disabled in favor of customizable navigation keys rendered on-screen. Anandtech characterized its design as being a cousin to the Oppo Find 7A

10.
One and One (musical)
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One & One is an American 1970s award-winning original off-Broadway musical comedy by Dianne Adams, Fred Bennett, and Richard ODonnell. Produced by the Broadway-times Theatre Co. and directed by Jim Payne, One & One opened November 15,1978 at The Carter Theatre,250 West 43rd Street in the heart of Times Square. One & One tells the story of a song and dance team Majeski & O’Reily that are forced to take on a woman partner to boost their notoriety. An old childhood friend, Julie Allyn, has blossomed into a talented beauty, through the decline of Vaudeville to the rise of the big Hollywood musicals, One & One is an homage to American entertainment with “. as good a score as any on Broadway today. One & One previewed in New York City at the Carter Theatre, off the lobby of the Carter Hotel,250 West 43rd Street for over six months, on opening night Dianne Adams was 19, Richard O’Donnell was 22, and Fred Bennett was 24 years old. After a brief but successful run, the show was slated for Broadway, produced by Duff Boardman & Associates, Theatre Now, general managers, for the Broadway backers audition then unknown actor Nathan Lane recorded the role of Jeff O’Riely. Tap legend Miriam Nelson was signed to direct and choreograph, due to costs, the show never hit the Great White Way. Internet Off Broadway Database Broadway World Database

11.
One and One (song)
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One and One is a song written by Billy Steinberg, Rick Nowels and Marie-Claire DUbaldo. The song was performed by Edyta Górniak and it was covered by Robert Miles. The song was first recorded in 1996 by Polish singer Edyta Górniak, however, her version of the song was not released until 1997 when it appeared on her first international album, Edyta Górniak. The song was released as a single in Japan in 1997, the live version of When You Come Back to Me was recorded on October 21st,1998 in Lisbon, Portugal by Radio RFM at the Lisbon showcase. One and One was Robert Miles second number one on the US dance charts, Miles is known by some collectors of CD singles for the quotes he includes on his jewel case inserts, succinct expressions of what he was attempting to communicate in writing and producing the song. Of One and One Miles wrote. Sometimes, you dont even have the time to realize what is happening to your life, lets recapture the essence of time

12.
Free throw
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In basketball, free throws or foul shots are unopposed attempts to score points from a restricted area on the court, and are generally awarded after a foul on the shooter by the opposing team. Each successful free throw is one point. Free throws can normally be shot at a percentage by good players. In the NBA, most players make 70–80% of their attempts, the leagues best shooters can make roughly 90% of their attempts over a season, while notoriously poor shooters may struggle to make 50% of them. During a foul shot, a players foot must be completely behind the foul line, if a player lines up with part of his or her foot on the line, a violation is called and the shot doesnt count. Foul shots are worth one point, Rick Barry and youngest Canyon Barry, both career 90% shooters who used an unusual underhand method, believes that 80% is the minimum for a player to be considered good at the free throw. Mark Price, who broke Barrys career record, states that 75% is the minimum, tall players often shoot free throws poorly, though theoretically taller players should be better at making them. One possible explanation for this is that the release point of their shots can cause them to stand overly erect. Hall of Famer Wilt Chamberlain made just 51, on the other hand, there have also been big men who have been prolific scorers from free throws, who not surprisingly also have good outside shooting range. Some examples include Dallas Mavericks forward Dirk Nowitzki who, at 7 ft 0 in, has an average of 88% and Yao Ming who. There are many situations when free throws can be awarded, The first and most common is when a player is fouled while in the act of shooting. If the player misses the shot during the foul, the player receives two or three free throws depending on whether the shot was taken in front of or behind the three-point line. If, despite the foul, the still makes the attempted shot, the number of free throws is reduced to one. This is known as a three-point or four-point play, depending on the value of the made basket, the second is when the fouling team is in the team bonus situation. This happens when, in a period, a team commits a set number of fouls whether or not in the act of shooting. In the WNBA, the player shoots two free throws starting with the opponents fifth foul, or second team foul in the final minute if that team has committed under 5 fouls in a period. In NCAA mens basketball, beginning with the foul of the half, one free throw is awarded, if the player makes the free throw. This is called shooting a one-and-one, starting with the tenth foul of the half, two free throws are awarded

13.
Basketball
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Basketball is a non-contact team sport played on a rectangular court by two teams of five players each. The objective is to shoot a ball through a hoop 18 inches in diameter and 10 feet high that is mounted to a backboard at each end of the court. The game was invented in 1891 by Dr. James Naismith, a team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the basket being defended by the opposition team during regular play. A field goal scores three points for the team if the player shoots from behind the three-point line. A team can also score via free throws, which are worth one point, the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but additional time is mandated when the score is tied at the end of regulation. The ball can be advanced on the court by passing it to a teammate and it is a violation to lift, or drag, ones pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands then resume dribbling. The game has many techniques for displaying skill—ball-handling, shooting, passing, dribbling, dunking, shot-blocking. The point guard directs the on court action of the team, implementing the coachs game plan, Basketball is one of the worlds most popular and widely viewed sports. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague, the FIBA Basketball World Cup attracts the top national teams from around the world. Each continent hosts regional competitions for teams, like EuroBasket. The FIBA Womens Basketball World Cup features the top womens basketball teams from continental championships. The main North American league is the WNBA, whereas the EuroLeague Women has been dominated by teams from the Russian Womens Basketball Premier League, in early December 1891, Canadian Dr. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied, after rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball and these laces could cause bounce passes and dribbling to be unpredictable. Eventually a lace-free ball construction method was invented, and this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith, dribbling was not part of the original game except for the bounce pass to teammates. Passing the ball was the means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a part of the game around the 1950s

14.
Fish and chips
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Fish and chips is a hot dish of English origin consisting of fried battered fish and hot chips. It is a common food and an early example of culinary fusion. First appearing in the 1860s, in 1910 there were more than 25,000 fish and chip shops across the UK, fried fish was first brought to England by Western Sephardim Jews, and is considered the model for the fish element of the dish. Originally, Western Sephardim Jews settling in England in the 17th century would have prepared fried fish in a similar to Pescado frito. Battered fish is first coated in flour then dipped into a batter consisting of flour mixed with liquid, usually water, some newer modifications to the recipe may have cornflour added, and instead of beer sometimes soda water is added. In 1860, the first fish and chip shop was opened in London by Joseph Malin who sold fish fried in the Jewish fashion, the modern fish-and-chip shop originated in the United Kingdom, although outlets selling fried food occurred commonly throughout Europe. Early fish-and-chip shops had only basic facilities. Usually these consisted principally of a cauldron of cooking fat. The fish-and-chip shop later evolved into a standard format, with the food served, in paper wrappings, to queuing customers. By 1910, there were more than 25,000 fish and chip shops across the country, in 1928, Harry Ramsdens fast food restaurant chain opened in the UK. On a single day in 1952, his fish and chip shop in Guiseley, West Yorkshire served 10,000 portions of fish and chips, during World War II fish and chips remained one of the few foods in the United Kingdom not subject to rationing. Prime Minister Winston Churchill referred to the combination of fish and chips as the good companions, British fish and chips were originally served in a wrapping of old newspapers but this practice has now largely ceased, with plain paper, cardboard or plastic being used instead. In the United Kingdom the Food Standards Agency guidance excludes caterers from this, the first chip shop stood on the present site of Oldhams Tommyfield Market. It remains unclear exactly when and where these two combined to become the fish-and-chip shop industry we know. A Jewish immigrant, Joseph Malin, opened the first recorded combined fish-and-chip shop in London in 1860 or in 1865, a Mr Lees pioneered the concept in the North of England, in Mossley, in 1863. Isaacs first restaurant opened in London in 1896 serving fish and chips, bread and butter, and tea for nine pence, and its popularity ensured a rapid expansion of the chain. The restaurants were carpeted, had table service, tablecloths, flowers, china and cutlery, menus were expanded in the early 20th century to include meat dishes and other variations as their popularity grew to a total of thirty restaurants. Sam Isaacs trademark was the phrase This is the Plaice, combined with a picture of the fish in question

15.
1&1 Internet
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1&1 Internet, founded in 1988, is a web hosting company owned by United Internet, a German Internet company. The company is one of the worlds largest web hosting companies, with centers in Europe and in Lenexa. 1988, 1&1, a Germany-based company, assumes marketing for T-Mobiles T-Com business,1998, United Internet, goes public with an IPO, generating $60 million. 1998, Puretec, a web hosting product, is introduced in Europe. 2003, Begins directly serving U. S. customers,2010, 1&1 begins partnership with ZOHO Corporation to deploy cloud applications in the form of its June launch of 1&1 Online Office. 2013, 1&1 expands its services to Mexico, the company offers domain registration, cloud servers, virtual private servers, and dedicated servers. Customers are only able to complete orders on the UK website if they have a UK address, domain name registration Email hosting Web hosting Website builder eCommerce Server solutions Official German website Official US website

16.
One Plus One Is One
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One Plus One Is One is the fourth studio album by Badly Drawn Boy, released in 2004. It is his last album for XL Recordings, alex Thomas AKA Earl Shilton - Drums, Timpani, Gong, Bells, Orchestral crash cymbal. Andy Votel - Tubular Bells, Cymabls, Cowbell, Chimes, Samples, bob Marsh - Trumpet Track 1&5. Roger Wickham - Flute Track 2,3,5,6,14, chris Worsey - Cello Track 1,4,13. Oliver Heath - Violin Track 1,4,13, charles Ashby - Percussion Track 5. Norman Mcleod - Slide Guitar Track 14, colin Mcleod - Accordion Track 14. Stockport Music Project - Vocals Track 7,14