The cubic metre or cubic meter is the SI derived unit of volume. It is the volume of a cube with one metre in length. An alternative name, which allowed a different usage with metric prefixes, was the stère, another alternative name, no longer widely used, was the kilolitre. A cubic metre of water at the temperature of maximum density and standard atmospheric pressure has a mass of 1000 kg. At 0 °C, the point of water, a cubic metre of water has slightly less mass,999.972 kilograms. It is sometimes abbreviated to cu m, m3, M3, m^3, m**3, CBM, abbreviated CBM and cbm in the freight business and MTQ in international trade. See Orders of magnitude for a comparison with other volumes
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earths only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, following Jupiters satellite Io, the Moon is second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known. The average distance of the Moon from the Earth is 384,400 km, the Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth. It is the second-brightest regularly visible celestial object in Earths sky, after the Sun and its surface is actually dark, although compared to the night sky it appears very bright, with a reflectance just slightly higher than that of worn asphalt. Its prominence in the sky and its cycle of phases have made the Moon an important cultural influence since ancient times on language, art. The Moons gravitational influence produces the ocean tides, body tides, and this matching of apparent visual size will not continue in the far future. The Moons linear distance from Earth is currently increasing at a rate of 3.82 ±0.07 centimetres per year, since the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, the Moon has been visited only by uncrewed spacecraft.
The usual English proper name for Earths natural satellite is the Moon, the noun moon is derived from moone, which developed from mone, which is derived from Old English mōna, which ultimately stems from Proto-Germanic *mǣnōn, like all Germanic language cognates. Occasionally, the name Luna is used, in literature, especially science fiction, Luna is used to distinguish it from other moons, while in poetry, the name has been used to denote personification of our moon. The principal modern English adjective pertaining to the Moon is lunar, a less common adjective is selenic, derived from the Ancient Greek Selene, from which is derived the prefix seleno-. Both the Greek Selene and the Roman goddess Diana were alternatively called Cynthia, the names Luna and Selene are reflected in terminology for lunar orbits in words such as apolune and selenocentric. The name Diana is connected to dies meaning day, several mechanisms have been proposed for the Moons formation 4.51 billion years ago, and some 60 million years after the origin of the Solar System.
These hypotheses cannot account for the angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system. This hypothesis, although not perfect, perhaps best explains the evidence, eighteen months prior to an October 1984 conference on lunar origins, Bill Hartmann, Roger Phillips, and Jeff Taylor challenged fellow lunar scientists, You have eighteen months. Go back to your Apollo data, go back to computer, do whatever you have to. Dont come to our conference unless you have something to say about the Moons birth, at the 1984 conference at Kona, the giant impact hypothesis emerged as the most popular. Afterward there were only two groups, the giant impact camp and the agnostics. Giant impacts are thought to have been common in the early Solar System, computer simulations of a giant impact have produced results that are consistent with the mass of the lunar core and the present angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system
Scientific notation is a way of expressing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form. It is commonly used by scientists and engineers, in part because it can simplify certain arithmetic operations, on scientific calculators it is known as SCI display mode. In scientific notation all numbers are written in the form m × 10n, where the exponent n is an integer, the term mantissa may cause confusion because it is the name of the fractional part of the common logarithm. If the number is a minus sign precedes m. In normalized notation, the exponent is chosen so that the value of the coefficient is at least one. Decimal floating point is an arithmetic system closely related to scientific notation. Any given integer can be written in the form m×10^n in many ways, in normalized scientific notation, the exponent n is chosen so that the absolute value of m remains at least one but less than ten. Thus 350 is written as 3. 5×102 and this form allows easy comparison of numbers, as the exponent n gives the numbers order of magnitude.
In normalized notation, the exponent n is negative for a number with absolute value between 0 and 1, the 10 and exponent are often omitted when the exponent is 0. Normalized scientific form is the form of expression of large numbers in many fields, unless an unnormalized form. Normalized scientific notation is often called exponential notation—although the latter term is general and applies when m is not restricted to the range 1 to 10. Engineering notation differs from normalized scientific notation in that the exponent n is restricted to multiples of 3, the absolute value of m is in the range 1 ≤ |m| <1000, rather than 1 ≤ |m| <10. Though similar in concept, engineering notation is rarely called scientific notation, engineering notation allows the numbers to explicitly match their corresponding SI prefixes, which facilitates reading and oral communication. A significant figure is a digit in a number that adds to its precision and this includes all nonzero numbers, zeroes between significant digits, and zeroes indicated to be significant.
Leading and trailing zeroes are not significant because they exist only to show the scale of the number. Therefore,1,230,400 usually has five significant figures,1,2,3,0, and 4, when a number is converted into normalized scientific notation, it is scaled down to a number between 1 and 10. All of the significant digits remain, but the place holding zeroes are no longer required, thus 1,230,400 would become 1.2304 ×106. However, there is the possibility that the number may be known to six or more significant figures, thus, an additional advantage of scientific notation is that the number of significant figures is clearer
Australopithecus is an extinct genus of hominins. During that time, a number of australopithecine species emerged, including Australopithecus afarensis, A. africanus, A. anamensis, A. bahrelghazali, A. deyiremeda, A. garhi, and A. sediba. For some hominid species of time, such as A. robustus and A. boisei. If so, they would be considered robust australopiths, while the others would be gracile australopiths, however, if these species do constitute their own genus, they may be given their own name, Paranthropus. Australopithecus species played a significant part in human evolution, the genus Homo being derived from Australopithecus at some time after three years ago. Among other things, they were the first hominids to show the presence of a gene that causes increased length and ability of neurons in the brain, the duplicated SRGAP2 gene. One of the species eventually became the Homo genus in Africa around two million years ago, and eventually modern humans, H. sapiens sapiens. Gracile australopiths shared several traits with modern apes and humans, and were widespread throughout Eastern and Northern Africa around 3.5 million years ago, the earliest evidence of fundamentally bipedal hominids can be observed at the site of Laetoli in Tanzania.
This site contains hominid footprints that are similar to those of modern humans and have been dated to as old as 3.6 million years. The footprints have generally classified as australopith because that is the only form of prehuman known to have existed in that region at that time. Australopithecus anamensis, A. afarensis, and A. africanus are among the most famous of the extinct hominins, a. africanus was once considered to be ancestral to the genus Homo. However, fossils assigned to the genus Homo have been found that are older than A. africanus, the genus Homo either split off from the genus Australopithecus at an earlier date, or both developed from a yet possibly unknown common ancestor independently. According to the Chimpanzee Genome Project, the human and chimpanzee lineages diverged from a common ancestor about five to six years ago. Sahelanthropus tchadensis, commonly called Toumai, is seven million years old. One theory suggests that the human and chimpanzee lineages diverged somewhat at first, the brains of most species of Australopithecus were roughly 35% of the size of a modern human brain.
Most species of Australopithecus were diminutive and gracile, usually standing 1.2 to 1.4 m tall, in several variations is a considerable degree of sexual dimorphism, males being larger than females. According to one scholar, A. Furthermore, thermoregulatory models suggest that Australopithecus species were fully covered, more like chimpanzees and bonobos. Modern humans do not appear to display the same degree of sexual dimorphism as Australopithecus did, in modern populations, males are on average a mere 15% larger than females, while in Australopithecus, males could be up to 50% larger than females
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support a herbaceous layer consisting primarily of grasses. Savannas maintain an open canopy despite a high tree density and it is often believed that savannas feature widely spaced, scattered trees. However, in savannas, tree densities are higher and trees are more regularly spaced than in forests. Savanna covers approximately 20% of the Earths land area, the word originally entered English in 1555 as the Latin Zauana, equivalent in the orthography of the times to zavana. Peter Martyr reported it as the name for the plain around Comagre. The accounts are inexact, but this is placed in present-day Madugandí or at points on the nearby Guna Yala coast opposite Ustupo or on Point Mosquitos. These areas are now given over to modern cropland or jungle. The common usage meaning to describe vegetation now conflicts with a simplified yet widespread climatic concept meaning, the divergence has sometimes caused areas such as extensive savannas north and south of the Congo and Amazon Rivers to be excluded from mapped savanna categories.
Barrens has been used almost interchangeably with savanna in different parts of North America, sometimes midwestern savanna were described as grassland with trees. Different authors have defined the limits of savanna tree coverage as 5–10%. Two factors common to all environments are rainfall variations from year to year. In the Americas, e. g. in Belize, Central America, savanna vegetation is similar from Mexico to South America, savannas are subject to regular wildfires and the ecosystem appears to be the result of human use of fire. For example, Native Americans created the Pre-Columbian savannas of North America by periodically burning where fire-resistant plants were the dominant species, pine barrens in scattered locations from New Jersey to coastal New England are remnants of these savannas. Aboriginal burning appears to have responsible for the widespread occurrence of savanna in tropical Australia and New Guinea. The maquis shrub savannas of the Mediterranean region were created and maintained by anthropogenic fire.
These fires are usually confined to the layer and do little long term damage to mature trees. However, these either kill or suppress tree seedlings, thus preventing the establishment of a continuous tree canopy which would prevent further grass growth
A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit. While all metric prefixes in use today are decadic, historically there have been a number of binary metric prefixes as well. Each prefix has a symbol that is prepended to the unit symbol. The prefix kilo-, for example, may be added to gram to indicate multiplication by one thousand, the prefix milli-, may be added to metre to indicate division by one thousand, one millimetre is equal to one thousandth of a metre. Decimal multiplicative prefixes have been a feature of all forms of the system with six dating back to the systems introduction in the 1790s. Metric prefixes have even been prepended to non-metric units, the SI prefixes are standardized for use in the International System of Units by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in resolutions dating from 1960 to 1991. Since 2009, they have formed part of the International System of Quantities, the BIPM specifies twenty prefixes for the International System of Units.
Each prefix name has a symbol which is used in combination with the symbols for units of measure. For example, the symbol for kilo- is k, and is used to produce km, kg, and kW, which are the SI symbols for kilometre, prefixes corresponding to an integer power of one thousand are generally preferred. Hence 100 m is preferred over 1 hm or 10 dam, the prefixes hecto, deca and centi are commonly used for everyday purposes, and the centimetre is especially common. However, some building codes require that the millimetre be used in preference to the centimetre, because use of centimetres leads to extensive usage of decimal points. Prefixes may not be used in combination and this applies to mass, for which the SI base unit already contains a prefix. For example, milligram is used instead of microkilogram, in the arithmetic of measurements having units, the units are treated as multiplicative factors to values. If they have prefixes, all but one of the prefixes must be expanded to their numeric multiplier,1 km2 means one square kilometre, or the area of a square of 1000 m by 1000 m and not 1000 square metres.
2 Mm3 means two cubic megametres, or the volume of two cubes of 1000000 m by 1000000 m by 1000000 m or 2×1018 m3, and not 2000000 cubic metres, examples 5 cm = 5×10−2 m =5 ×0.01 m =0. The prefixes, including those introduced after 1960, are used with any metric unit, metric prefixes may be used with non-metric units. The choice of prefixes with a unit is usually dictated by convenience of use. Unit prefixes for amounts that are larger or smaller than those actually encountered are seldom used
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet, Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols, The use of Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire. The numbers 1 to 10 are usually expressed in Roman numerals as follows, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, Numbers are formed by combining symbols and adding the values, so II is two and XIII is thirteen. Symbols are placed left to right in order of value. Named after the year of its release,2014 as MMXIV, the year of the games of the XXII Olympic Winter Games The standard forms described above reflect typical modern usage rather than a universally accepted convention. Usage in ancient Rome varied greatly and remained inconsistent in medieval, Roman inscriptions, especially in official contexts, seem to show a preference for additive forms such as IIII and VIIII instead of subtractive forms such as IV and IX.
Both methods appear in documents from the Roman era, even within the same document, double subtractives occur, such as XIIX or even IIXX instead of XVIII. Sometimes V and L are not used, with such as IIIIII. Such variation and inconsistency continued through the period and into modern times. Clock faces that use Roman numerals normally show IIII for four o’clock but IX for nine o’clock, this is far from universal, for example, the clock on the Palace of Westminster in London uses IV. Similarly, at the beginning of the 20th century, different representations of 900 appeared in several inscribed dates. For instance,1910 is shown on Admiralty Arch, London, as MDCCCCX rather than MCMX, although Roman numerals came to be written with letters of the Roman alphabet, they were originally independent symbols. The Etruscans, for example, used
Long and short scales
Thus, billion means a million millions, trillion means a million billions, and so on. Short scale Every new term greater than million is one thousand times larger than the previous term, billion means a thousand millions, trillion means a thousand billions, and so on. For whole numbers less than a million the two scales are identical. From a thousand million up the two scales diverge, using the words for different numbers, this can cause misunderstanding. Countries where the scale is currently used include most countries in continental Europe and most French-speaking, Spanish-speaking. The short scale is now used in most English-speaking and Arabic-speaking countries, in Brazil, in former Soviet Union, number names are rendered in the language of the country, but are similar everywhere due to shared etymology. Some languages, particularly in East Asia and South Asia, have large number naming systems that are different from both the long and short scales, for example the Indian numbering system.
After several decades of increasing informal British usage of the scale, in 1974 the government of the UK adopted it. With very few exceptions, the British usage and American usage are now identical, the first recorded use of the terms short scale and long scale was by the French mathematician Geneviève Guitel in 1975. At and above a million the same names are used to refer to numbers differing by a factor of an integer power of 1,000. Each scale has a justification to explain the use of each such differing numerical name. The short-scale logic is based on powers of one thousand, whereas the long-scale logic is based on powers of one million, in both scales, the prefix bi- refers to 2 and tri- refers to 3, etc. However only in the scale do the prefixes beyond one million indicate the actual power or exponent. In the short scale, the prefixes refer to one less than the exponent, the word, derives from the Old French, from the earlier Old Italian, milione, an intensification of the Latin word, mille, a thousand.
That is, a million is a big thousand, much as a great gross is a dozen gross or 12×144 =1728, the word, milliard, or its translation, is found in many European languages and is used in those languages for 109. However, it is unknown in American English, which uses billion, and not used in British English, which preferred to use thousand million before the current usage of billion. The financial term, which derives from milliard, is used on financial markets, as, unlike the term, billion, it is internationally unambiguous and phonetically distinct from million. Likewise, many long scale use the word billiard for one thousand long scale billions
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria that first appeared during the Triassic. Although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research and they became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201 million years ago. Their dominance continued through the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods and ended when the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event led to the extinction of most dinosaur groups 66 million years ago, until the late 20th century, all groups of dinosaurs were believed to be extinct. As such, birds were the dinosaur lineage to survive the mass extinction event. This article deals primarily with non-avian dinosaurs, Dinosaurs are a varied group of animals from taxonomic and ecological standpoints. Birds, at over 10,000 living species, are the most diverse group of vertebrates besides perciform fish, using fossil evidence, paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct genera and more than 1,000 different species of non-avian dinosaurs.
Dinosaurs are represented on every continent by both extant species and fossil remains, while dinosaurs were ancestrally bipedal, many extinct groups included quadrupedal species, and some were able to shift between these stances. Elaborate display structures such as horns or crests are common to all dinosaur groups, evidence suggests that egg laying and nest building are additional traits shared by all dinosaurs.7 meters and heights of 18 meters and were the largest land animals of all time. Still, the idea that dinosaurs were uniformly gigantic is a misconception based in part on preservation bias, as large. Many dinosaurs were small, for example, was only about 50 cm long. Through the first half of the 20th century, before birds were recognized to be dinosaurs, most of the community believed dinosaurs to have been sluggish. Most research conducted since the 1970s, has indicated that all dinosaurs were active animals with elevated metabolisms and numerous adaptations for social interaction.
The large sizes of some groups, as well as their seemingly monstrous and fantastic nature, have ensured dinosaurs regular appearance in best-selling books and films. Persistent public enthusiasm for the animals has resulted in significant funding for dinosaur science, the term is derived from the Greek words δεινός and σαῦρος. Though the taxonomic name has often interpreted as a reference to dinosaurs teeth, claws. Instead, like many forms of reptile sub-groups, did not exhibit characteristics which were traditionally regarded as reptilian. Under phylogenetic nomenclature, dinosaurs are usually defined as the group consisting of Triceratops, their most recent common ancestor, Birds are now recognized as being the sole surviving lineage of theropod dinosaurs. In traditional taxonomy, birds were considered a class that had evolved from dinosaurs
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms. Multicellular organisms arise in different ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of many single cells. Colonial organisms are the result of identical individuals joining together to form a colony. Multicellularity has evolved independently at least 46 times, including in some prokaryotes, like cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, complex multicellular organisms evolved only in six eukaryotic groups, fungi, brown algae, red algae, green algae, and land plants. It evolved repeatedly for Chloroplastida, once or twice for animals, once for brown algae, the first evidence of multicellularity is from cyanobacteria-like organisms that lived 3–3.5 billion years ago. To reproduce, true multicellular organisms must solve the problem of regenerating a whole organism from germ cells, animals have evolved a considerable diversity of cell types in a multicellular body, compared with 10–20 in plants and fungi.
Loss of multicellularity occurred in some groups, fungi are predominantly multicellular, though early diverging lineages are largely unicellular and there have been numerous reversions to unicellularity across fungi. It may have occurred in some red algae, but it is possible that they are primitively unicellular), loss of multicellularity is considered probable in some green algae. In other groups, generally parasites, a reduction of multicellularity occurred, multicellular organisms, especially long-living animals, face the challenge of cancer, which occurs when cells fail to regulate their growth within the normal program of development. Changes in tissue morphology can be observed during this process, cancer in animals has often been described as a loss of multicellularity. There is a discussion about the possibility of existence of cancer in other organisms or even in protozoa. For example, plant galls have been characterized as tumors but some argue that plants do not develop cancer. In some multicellular groups, which are called Weismannists, a separation between a sterile somatic cell line and a cell line evolved.
However, Weismannist development is relatively rare, as part of species have the capacity for somatic embryogenesis. One hypothesis for the origin of multicellularity is that a group of function-specific cells aggregated into a mass called a grex. This is essentially what slime molds do, another hypothesis is that a primitive cell underwent nucleus division, thereby becoming a coenocyte. A membrane would form around each nucleus, thereby resulting in a group of connected cells in one organism and this is what plant and animal embryos do as well as colonial choanoflagellates. Because the first multicellular organisms were simple, soft organisms lacking bone, shell or other body parts
Orders of magnitude (length)
The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths. To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various lengths between 1. 6×10−35 meters and 101010122 meters,100 pm –1 Ångström 120 pm – radius of a gold atom 150 pm – Length of a typical covalent bond. 280 pm – Average size of the water molecule 298 pm – radius of a caesium atom, light travels 1 metre in 1⁄299,792,458, or 3. 3356409519815E-9 of a second. 25 metres – wavelength of the broadcast radio shortwave band at 12 MHz 29 metres – height of the lighthouse at Savudrija, Slovenia. 31 metres – wavelength of the broadcast radio shortwave band at 9.7 MHz 34 metres – height of the Split Point Lighthouse in Aireys Inlet, Australia. 1 kilometre is equal to,1,000 metres 0.621371 miles 1,093.61 yards 3,280.84 feet 39,370.1 inches 100,000 centimetres 1,000,000 millimetres Side of a square of area 1 km2. Radius of a circle of area π km2,1.637 km – deepest dive of Lake Baikal in Russia, the worlds largest fresh water lake.
2.228 km – height of Mount Kosciuszko, highest point in Australia Most of Manhattan is from 3 to 4 km wide, farsang, a modern unit of measure commonly used in Iran and Turkey. Usage of farsang before 1926 may be for a precise unit derived from parasang. It is the altitude at which the FAI defines spaceflight to begin, to help compare orders of magnitude, this page lists lengths between 100 and 1,000 kilometres. 7.9 Gm – Diameter of Gamma Orionis 9, the newly improved measurement was 30% lower than the previous 2007 estimate. The size was revised in 2012 through improved measurement techniques and its faintness gives us an idea how our Sun would appear when viewed from even so close a distance as this. 350 Pm –37 light years – Distance to Arcturus 373.1 Pm –39.44 light years - Distance to TRAPPIST-1, a star recently discovered to have 7 planets around it. 400 Pm –42 light years – Distance to Capella 620 Pm –65 light years – Distance to Aldebaran This list includes distances between 1 and 10 exametres.
13 Em –1,300 light years – Distance to the Orion Nebula 14 Em –1,500 light years – Approximate thickness of the plane of the Milky Way galaxy at the Suns location 30.8568 Em –3,261. At this scale, expansion of the universe becomes significant, Distance of these objects are derived from their measured redshifts, which depends on the cosmological models used. At this scale, expansion of the universe becomes significant, Distance of these objects are derived from their measured redshifts, which depends on the cosmological models used. 590 Ym –62 billion light years – Cosmological event horizon, displays orders of magnitude in successively larger rooms Powers of Ten Travel across the Universe