1,1-Difluoroethylene

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1,1-Difluoroethylene
1,1-difluoroethylene.svg
1,1-Difluoroethylene.png
Names
IUPAC name
1,1-Difluoroethene
Other names
Difluoro-1,1-ethylene; R-1132a; Halocarbon 1132 A; Freon 1132A; Vinylidene difluoride; Vinylidene fluoride[1]
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
Abbreviations VDF
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.789
Properties
C2H2F2
Molar mass 64.03 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless gas[2]
Odor Slightly ethereal[1]
Density 2.89 kg/m3 (vapor, 0 °C)[2]
1.122 g/mL (liquid, -84 °C)[2]
Melting point −144 °C (−227 °F; 129 K)[2]
Boiling point −84 °C (−119 °F; 189 K)[2]
0.254 g/L[3]
Vapor pressure 35.2 atm (20°C)[4]
Hazards
Main hazards Flammable[4]
380 °C (716 °F; 653 K)[1]
Explosive limits 5.5%-21.3%[4]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
none[4]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 1 ppm C 5 ppm[4]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
N.D.[4]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

1,1-Difluoroethylene also known as vinylidene fluoride, is a hydrofluoroolefin. It is a flammable gas. Global production in 1999 was approximately 33,000 metric tons.[3] It is primarily used in the production of fluoropolymers such as polyvinylidene fluoride.

Preparation[edit]

1,1-Difluoroethylene can be prepared by elimination reaction from a 1,1,1-trihaloethane compound, for example, loss of hydrogen chloride from 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane:.[5]

Preparation of 1,1-difluoroethylene from 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane

or loss of hydrogen fluoride from 1,1,1-trifluoroethane:[6]

Preparation of 1,1-difluoroethylene from 1,1,1-trifluoroethane

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Difluoro-1,1-ethylene". Gas Encyclopaedia. Air Liquide. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
  3. ^ a b "1,1'-Difluoroethylene (VDF,VF2)" (PDF). International Programme on Chemical Safety. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0662". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  5. ^ Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (4 ed.). John Wiley and Sons. 1994. pp. V11. Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  6. ^ Gerhartz, W (1985). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (5 ed.). VCH Publisher. pp. VA11. Retrieved 8 July 2017.