1,1-Dichloroethane

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1,1-Dichloroethane
1,1-Dichloroethane
1,1-dichloroethane-3D-vdW.png
Names
IUPAC name
1,1-Dichloroethane
Other names
ethylidene dichloride
ethylidene chloride
CFC-150a
1,1-DCA
Asymmetrical dichloroethane
1,1-Ethylidene dichloride
geminal dichloroethane
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.785
KEGG
Properties
C2H4Cl2
Molar mass 98.96 g/mol
Appearance colorless, oily liquid[1]
Odor chloroform-like[1]
Density 1.2 g/cm3
Melting point −97 °C (−143 °F; 176 K)
Boiling point 57.2 °C (135.0 °F; 330.3 K)
0.6%[1]
Vapor pressure 182 mmHg (20°C)[1]
-57.4·10−6 cm3/mol
Hazards
Flash point −17 °C; 2 °F; 256 K [1]
Explosive limits 5.4%-11.4%[1]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 100 ppm (400 mg/m3)[1]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 100 ppm (400 mg/m3)[1]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
3000 ppm[1]
Related compounds
Related compounds
1,2-Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride); *1,1-Dichloroethene
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

1,1-Dichloroethane is a chlorinated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless oily liquid with a chloroform-like odor, it is not easily soluble in water, but miscible with most organic solvents.

Large volumes of 1,1-dichloroethane are manufactured, with annual production exceeding 1 million pounds in the United States, it is mainly used as a feedstock in chemical synthesis, chiefly of 1,1,1-trichloroethane. It is also used as a solvent for plastics, oils and fats, as a degreaser, as a fumigant in insecticide sprays, in halon fire extinguishers, and in cementing of rubber. It is used in manufacturing of high-vacuum resistant rubber and for extraction of temperature-sensitive substances. Thermal cracking at 400–500 °C and 10 MPa yields vinyl chloride. In the past, 1,1-dichloroethane was used as a surgical inhalational anesthetic.

In the atmosphere, 1,1-dichloroethane decomposes with half-life of 62 days, chiefly by reaction of photolytically produced hydroxyl radicals.

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