1,3,5-Trioxane

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1,3,5-Trioxane
S-Trioxane.svg
Trioxane molecule
Names
IUPAC name
1,3,5-Trioxane
Other names
s-Trioxane; 1,3,5-Trioxacyclohexane; Trioxymethylene; Metaformaldehyde; Trioxin
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.466
RTECS number YK0350000
UNII
Properties
C3H6O3
Molar mass 90.078 g·mol−1
Appearance White crystalline solid
Density 1.17 g/cm3 (65 °C)[1]
Melting point 62 °C (144 °F; 335 K)[1]
Boiling point 115 °C (239 °F; 388 K)[1]
221 g/L[1]
Hazards
R-phrases (outdated) R22
S-phrases (outdated) S24/25
NFPA 704
Flammability code 2: Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperature before ignition can occur. Flash point between 38 and 93 °C (100 and 200 °F). E.g. diesel fuelHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g. chloroformReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
2
2
0
Flash point 45 °C (113 °F)[1]
Related compounds
Related compounds
Formaldehyde

1,2,4-Trioxane Polyoxymethylene

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

1,3,5-Trioxane, sometimes also called trioxane or trioxin, is a chemical compound with molecular formula C3H6O3. It is a white solid with a chloroform-like odor, it is a stable cyclic trimer of formaldehyde, and one of the three trioxane isomers; its molecular backbone consists of a six-membered ring with three carbon atoms alternating with three oxygen atoms. Thus, cyclotrimerization of formaldehyde affords 1,3,5-trioxane:

Trioxane Synthesis V.1.svg

Production[edit]

Trioxane is produced by trimerization of formaldehyde using acid catalysts; the reaction is conducted in concentrated aqueous solution and the product is separated by solvent extraction. An idealized mechanism is shown below:

Synteza 1,3,5-trioksanu z formaldehydu

Uses[edit]

Trioxane is mainly consumed in the production of polyoxymethylene plastics, of which about one million tons per year are produced.[2] Other applications exploit its tendency to release formaldehyde; as such it is used as a binder in textiles, wood products, etc. Trioxane is combined with hexamine and compressed into solid bars to make hexamine fuel tablets, used by the military and outdoorsmen as a cooking fuel.

In the laboratory, trioxane is used as an anhydrous source of formaldehyde.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
  2. ^ Günther Reuss, Walter Disteldorf, Armin Otto Gamer, Albrecht Hilt "Formaldehyde" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a11_619
  3. ^ W. O. Teeters and M. A. Gradsten "Hexahydro-1,3,5-tripropionyl-s-triazine" Org. Synth. 1950, volume 30, 51. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.030.0051