1,3-Propanedithiol

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1,3-Propanedithiol
1,3-Propanedithiol
1,3-Propanedithiol molecule
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Propane-1,3-dithiol
Other names
1,3-Dimercaptopropane
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.371
RTECS number TZ2585500
Properties
C3H8S2
Molar mass 108.22 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Density 1.078 g/cm3
Melting point −79 °C (−110 °F; 194 K)
Boiling point 169 °C (336 °F; 442 K)
slight
Solubility in solvents all organic solvents
1.539
Structure
0 D
Hazards
Main hazards stench
R-phrases (outdated) R36/37/38
S-phrases (outdated) S26
Flash point 138 °C (280 °F; 411 K)
Related compounds
Related compounds
1,2-ethanedithiol
1,2-propanedithiol
lipoic acid
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

1,3-Propanedithiol is the chemical compound with the formula HSCH2CH2CH2SH. This dithiol is a useful reagent in organic synthesis, this liquid, which is readily available commercially, has an intense stench.

Use in organic synthesis[edit]

1,3-Propanedithiol is mainly used for the protection of aldehydes and ketones via their reversible formation of dithianes.[1] A prototypical reaction is its formation of 1,3-dithiane from formaldehyde,[2] the reactivity of this dithiane illustrates the concept of umpolung. Alkylation gives thioethers, e.g. 1,5-dithiacyclooctane.

The unpleasant odour of 1,3-propanedithiol has encouraged the development of alternative reagents that generate similar derivatives.[3]

1,3-Propanedithiol is used in the synthesis of tiapamil.

Use in inorganic synthesis[edit]

1,3-Propanedithiol reacts with metal ions to form chelate rings. Illustrative is the synthesis of the derivative diiron propanedithiolate hexacarbonyl upon reaction with triiron dodecacarbonyl:[4]

Fe3(CO)12 + C3H6(SH)2 → Fe2(S2C3H6)(CO)6 + H2 + Fe(CO)5 + CO

Safety[edit]

The stench of 1,3-propanedithiol can be neutralized with bleach.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Conrow, R. E.; Le Huérou, Y. (2004). "1,3-Propanedithiol". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis (Ed: L. Paquette). J. Wiley & Sons, New York. doi:10.1002/047084289. 
  2. ^ Corey, E. J.; Seebach, D. (1988). "1,3-Dithiane". Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol., 6, p. 556 
  3. ^ Liu, Q.; Che, G.; Yu, H.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Dong, D. (2003). "The First Nonthiolic, Odorless 1,3-Propanedithiol Equivalent and Its Application in Thioacetalization". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 68 (23): 9148–9150. doi:10.1021/jo034702t. PMID 14604400. 
  4. ^ Winter, A.; Zsolnai, L.; Huttner, G. (1982). "Zweikernige und dreikernige Carbonyleisenkomplexe mit 1,2- und 1,3-Dithiolatobrückenliganden". Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. 37b: 1430–1436.