1,4-Dioxane is a heterocyclic organic compound, classified as an ether. It is a colorless liquid with a faint sweet odor similar to that of diethyl ether; the compound is called dioxane because the other dioxane isomers are encountered. Dioxane is used as a solvent for a variety of practical applications as well as in the laboratory, as a stabilizer for the transport of chlorinated hydrocarbons in aluminum containers. Dioxane is produced by the acid-catalysed dehydration of diethylene glycol, which in turn is obtained from the hydrolysis of ethylene oxide. In 1985, the global production capacity for dioxane was between 14,000 tons. In 1990, the total U. S. production volume of dioxane was between 9,150 tons. The dioxane molecule is centrosymmetric, meaning that it adopts a chair conformation, typical of relatives of cyclohexane. However, the molecule is conformationally flexible, the boat conformation is adopted, e.g. in the chelation of metal cations. Dioxane resembles a smaller crown ether with only two ethyleneoxyl units.

In the 1980s, most of the dioxane produced was used as a stabilizer for 1,1,1-trichloroethane for storage and transport in aluminium containers. Aluminium is protected by a passivating oxide layer, but when these layers are disturbed, the metallic aluminium reacts with trichloroethane to give aluminium trichloride, which in turn catalyses the dehydrohalogenation of the remaining trichloroethane to vinylidene chloride and hydrogen chloride. Dioxane "poisons" this catalysis reaction by forming an adduct with aluminum trichloride. Dioxane is used in a variety of applications as a versatile aprotic solvent, e. g. for inks and cellulose esters. It is substituted for tetrahydrofuran in some processes, because of its lower toxicity and higher boiling point. While diethyl ether is rather insoluble in water, dioxane is miscible and in fact. At standard pressure, the mixture of water and dioxane in the ratio 17.9:82.1 by mass is a positive azeotrope that boils at 87.6 C. The oxygen atoms are Lewis-basic, so dioxane is able to solvate many inorganic compounds and serves as a chelating diether ligand.

It reacts with Grignard reagents to precipitate the magnesium dihalide. In this way, dioxane is used to drive the Schlenk equilibrium. Dimethylmagnesium is prepared in this manner: 2 CH3MgBr + 2 → MgBr22 + 2Mg Dioxane is used as an internal standard for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in deuterium oxide. Dioxane has an LD50 of 5170 mg/kg in rats; this compound is irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract. Exposure may cause damage to the central nervous system and kidneys. In a 1978 mortality study conducted on workers exposed to 1,4-dioxane, the observed number deaths from cancer was not different from the expected number. Dioxane is classified by the National Toxicology Program as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen", it is classified by the IARC as a Group 2B carcinogen: carcinogenic to humans because it is a known carcinogen in other animals. The United States Environmental Protection Agency classifies dioxane as a probable human carcinogen, a known irritant at concentrations higher than those found in commercial products.

Under California Proposition 65, dioxane is classified in the U. S. State of California to cause cancer. Animal studies in rats suggest that the greatest health risk is associated with inhalation of vapors in the pure form. Like some other ethers, dioxane combines with atmospheric oxygen upon prolonged exposure to air to form explosive peroxides. Distillation of dioxanes concentrates these peroxides. Dioxane has affected groundwater supplies in several areas. Dioxane at the level of 1 μg/L has been detected in many locations in the US. In the State of New Hampshire alone in 2010 it had been found at 67 sites, ranging in concentration from 2 ppb to over 11,000 ppb. Thirty of these sites are solid waste landfills, it has low toxicity to aquatic life and can be biodegraded via a number of pathways. The problems are exacerbated since dioxane is soluble in water, does not bind to soils, leaches to groundwater, it is resistant to occurring biodegradation processes. Due to these properties, a dioxane plume can be larger than the associated solvent plume.

As a byproduct of the ethoxylation process, a route to some ingredients found in cleansing and moisturizing products, dioxane can contaminate cosmetics and personal care products such as deodorants, shampoos and mouthwashes. The ethoxylation process makes the cleansing agents, such as sodium laureth sulfate and ammonium laureth sulfate, less abrasive and offers enhanced foaming characteristics. 1,4-Dioxane is found in small amounts in some cosmetics, a yet unregulated substance used in cosmetics in both China and the U. S. Since 1979 the U. S. Food and Drug Administration have conducted tests on cosmetic raw materials and finished products for the levels of 1,4-dioxane. 1,4-Dioxane was present in ethoxylated raw ingredients at levels up to 1410 ppm, at levels up to 279 ppm in off the shelf cosmetic products. Levels of 1,4-dioxane exceeding 85 ppm in children's shampoos indicate that close monitoring of raw materials and finished products is warranted. While the FDA encourages manufacturers to remove 1,4-dioxane, it is not required

Philosophical Radicals

The Philosophical Radicals were a philosophically-minded group of English political radicals in the nineteenth century inspired by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill. Individuals within this group included Francis Place, George Grote, Joseph Parkes, John Arthur Roebuck, Charles Buller, John Stuart Mill, Edward John Trelawny, William Molesworth. Several became Radical members of Parliament, the group as a whole attempted to use the Westminster Review to exert influence on public opinion, they rejected any philosophical or legal naturalism and furthered Jeremy Bentham's utilitarian philosophy. Utilitarianism as a moral philosophy argues that maximizing happiness should be the moral standard by which our actions should be measured, it thereby stands in contrast to the rationalistic ethics of Immanuel Kant as well as to the convictions of idealism, amongst others. Born in the first half of the eighteenth century, Bentham proved a conduit for enlightenment ideas to reach nineteenth century Britain. A disciple of Helvetius, who saw all society as based on the wants and desires of the individual, Bentham began with a belief in reform through enlightened despotism, before becoming a philosophical radical and supporter of universal suffrage.

G. M. Trevelyan considered that “Parliamentary, scholastic, economic reform all sprang from the spirit of Bentham’s perpetual enquiry, ‘what is the use of it?’ - his universal shibboleth”. The philosophical radicals, as a group, came to prominence in the 1820s; when radicalism re-emerged from the defeat of the Six Acts, it was “the Radicalism – respectable, middle-class and calculating – of Bentham and his followers”. Central to their political aims was the reduction of aristocratic power and abuse. In his article in the opening number of the Westminster Review, James Mill dissected the aristocratic nature of the British Constitution, the House of Commons nominated by some hundred borough-managers, the landlord culture propped up by the Law and the Church, his son veered in many respects from his views, but never ceased to consider “the predominance of the aristocratic classes, the noble and the rich, in the English Constitution, an evil worth any struggle to get rid of”. Some of their remedies – universal suffrage.

Alongside their political radicalism, the group shared a liberal view of political economy influenced by David Ricardo, favouring laissez faire. By the second half of the 19thC, much of the philosophical radicals’ program had been realised, much had become to be seen as inadequate – aristocratic privilege no longer appearing as the central social problematic. Setting out “to free philosophical radicalism from the reproach of sectarian Benthamism”, J. S. Mill introduced new themes – the dangers of excessive centralisation, and a New Liberalism would succeed to the formative role of the philosophical radicals. Sir Walter Scott in 1819 wrote that "Radical is a word in bad odour...a set of blackguards". J. C. D. Clark has stressed that the actual term'Philosophical Radical' was only introduced as late as 1837 by the younger Mill. Http:// Elie Halevy The Philosophic Radicals Joseph Hamburger Intellectuals in Politics: John Stuart Mill and the Philosophical Radicals William Thomas The Philosophical Radicals: Nine Studies in Theory and Practice

Pat Cashman

Pat Cashman is an American comedian and television and radio personality, based in the Seattle metropolitan area. Born and raised in Bend, Oregon, he has a younger brother named Mike Cashman, a former player for the Los Angeles Lakers, now works as a substitute teacher in the Mukilteo School District. Cashman graduated from Bend High School in 1968 and majored in journalism and communications at the University of Portland. After graduation, he worked in radio in Bend and Eugene switched to television, where he made local commercials at KEZI, he went to KTVB in Boise, where he was production director and originated "Peculiar Playhouse," a local comedy show aired after Saturday Night Live. Cashman moved to KING-TV in Seattle in 1980, where he again worked in making local commercials, including spots for the Seattle Mariners baseball team, he was a regular cast member of the long-running local comedy show Almost Live! with his co-star John Keister, as well as the announcer for Bill Nye the Science Guy.

On radio, he has hosted the Pat Cashman Show, a morning drive-time show on several Seattle stations, his familiar bassy voice is heard in local commercials. Among the local commercials he voices are the commercials for Jerry's Hardware in Eugene and Springfield, Oregon---and Grover's Electric and Plumbing with multiple Northwest locations, he is featured on one of the world's most popular video games: Wii's Super Smash Bros. Brawl as the game's announcer, Master Hand, Crazy Hand. Cashman writes for several local newspapers in the Seattle region, he presents his comical view on a wide variety of subjects in a single article. Cashman has been in many advertisements for Taco Time, he appeared in Visioneers as a telethon host. In January 2013, Cashman returned to Seattle TV with a new regional comedy show called The 206, along with his son Chris and former Almost Live! costar John Keister. Keister subsequently left the show in 2014. In 2015, a revamped version of the show, Up Late Northwest, began airing in other markets as well as Seattle.

The program is hosted by both Chris Cashman. YouTube – Popular Pat Cashman & Almost Live! Videos YouTube – Almost Live Pat Cashman Pat Cashman on IMDb Pat Cashman website Pat Cashman's booking agent's Web site Pat Cashman fan website The official site