Presto card

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Presto card
PRESTO card. Note the Braille 'P'.
Location Greater Toronto, Hamilton, and Ottawa
Launched Fall 2009
Technology
Operator Accenture
Manager Metrolinx
Currency CAD ($10 minimum load, $1000 maximum load)
Stored-value e-Purse, period pass
Credit expiry None
Auto recharge Autoload
Validity
Retailed
  • Online
  • Participating transit agencies
Website prestocard.ca

The Presto card (stylized as PRESTO) is a contactless smart card fare payment system used on participating public transit systems in the province of Ontario, Canada, specifically in Greater Toronto, Hamilton, and Ottawa. Presto card readers were trialled from June 25, 2007 to September 30, 2008. Full implementation began in November 2009 and it will be rolled out across the province in stages. Presto is an operating division of Metrolinx, the Ontario government agency that manages and integrates road transport and public transportation in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area.

History[edit]

One of the 10 strategies of The Big Move, the GTHA's regional transportation plan, was to create an integrated transit fare system amongst the 10 public transit agencies in the GTHA, the Presto system was designed to support the use of one common method of fare payment on various participating public transit systems, comparable with other systems such as London's Oyster card and Hong Kong's Octopus card.[1]

The Ontario Ministry of Transportation (MTO), GO Transit, Ottawa’s OC Transpo, and eight municipal transit partners within the GTHA undertook the design and development of a seamless regional transit farecard system (Presto) based on contactless technology.[citation needed]

Thales Group and Accenture were awarded the contract to supply this system in October 2009. Implementation is the responsibility of Metrolinx, of which Presto became an operating division in 2011, the Presto project was strongly criticized by the Auditor General of Ontario in 2012 for "roll-out glitches, cost escalations and untendered contract extensions.".[2] The ongoing Presto rollout on the TTC's bus, subway and streetcar network have been marred with abnormally high failure rates of the readers themselves[3] and cost overruns.[4]

Card use[edit]

Presto cards are available at transit stations, over the phone and online.[5] Beginning in Stage 3, cardholders will also be able to load passes for up to three transit systems at a time on to their Presto card. When boarding, riders tap the prepaid card, embedded with an RFID chip, on to a reader, the reader will then check for either a valid transit pass, or automatically deduct the lowest available fare from the card. Loyalty programs are also available on some transit systems, where frequent use of the system results in greater discounts on fare payment.

The Presto card works on several transit systems and has other features:

  • Autoload: The Autoload feature allows cardholders to have a predetermined value automatically loaded onto their Presto card, when the e-Purse value reaches a specified threshold.
  • Lost card replacement: If a registered cardholder loses their Presto card, they can have their lost card blocked within 24 hours of and the remaining balance transferred to a replacement card.
  • Underpayment allowance: If a registered card has insufficient funds to pay a fare, but the balance is greater than $0 and has sufficient funds to cover the minimum base fare, the cardholder can incur a negative balance for one trip for a small fee.

A June 3, 2017 story in the Toronto Star first reported that customers' Presto travel histories were provided to police authorities 12 times in the previous year, only requiring a warrant for 2 of those disclosures and typically not notifying the customer that their records had been shared.[6] The figures were confirmed by Metrolinx in later reports, stating that they had granted 12 of 26 requests received from various police agencies;[7] in response to calls for reforming the data sharing system from experts and transit riding advocates, Metrolinx launched a formal review of its privacy policies.[8]

Participation[edit]

A Presto card reader at a YRT/Viva bus station.

The following transit service providers use Presto:

Rollout[edit]

In July 2007, 500 commuters who normally commuted from Meadowvale and Cooksville GO stations in Mississauga to Union Station in downtown Toronto received a free card and tried the system under a trial termed "Launch 1".[9] Officials decided to test the fare system on Mississauga's neighbourhood shuttle service in Meadowvale and Cooksville that transports passengers to GO Transit, during the Launch 1 trial, the Presto card could be used at:

The Launch 1 trial concluded September 30, 2008.[10]

The Presto card has been introduced in stages beginning in fall 2009.

Stage One

The first stage of the production rollout schedule was launched on November 30, 2009 and included a limited number of recruited customers to test the system.[45] Stage One included Oakville, Bronte and Union GO Stations, TTC Union Subway Station, and ten Oakville Transit buses on three routes.

Stage Two

The second stage of the production rollout schedule was launched on May 10, 2010; in this stage, the Presto system became available to the general public and transit users were able to purchase Presto cards and use them at participating stations and transit systems. Stage Two was launched similarly to Stage One, but with full participation from Oakville Transit and Burlington Transit. GO Transit continued its system-wide rollout, with the Lakeshore East, Milton and Georgetown lines coming online at a rate of a few stations a week, the Toronto Transit Commission added six downtown stations (St. George, Queen’s Park, St. Patrick, Dundas, College, Bloor/Yonge) to the Presto system. Two more stations (Kipling and Islington) were added in summer 2010, the third stage of the production rollout schedule was scheduled for fall of 2010 to bring more transit systems and stations into the Presto system.

Stage Three

The third stage of the rollout schedule expanded the rollout to a larger scale, covering the entire 905 region and Hamilton. GO Transit completed its rollout for trains and buses in summer 2012, since then, three additional GO Train stations have been added to the system, all of which are Presto-active: the Allandale Waterfront, Kitchener and Guelph Central GO Stations.

In the end of this stage, all but two local transit systems will have completed their rollout. Hamilton Street Railway was the first to roll out in this stage on May 3, 2011. Brampton Transit became fully Presto-enabled on May 30, 2011, on the same date, MiWay made the farecard available to adult passengers only.[34] Durham Region Transit launched Presto card for co-fares with GO Transit on June 27, 2011. Almost a month later, York Region Transit launched the Presto card in all of its Vivastations and buses, the TTC has added Presto card as fare payment option in Don Mills, Downsview, Finch, Yorkdale and York Mills subway stations. In this stage, concession fares were added for GO Transit, Oakville Transit, Burlington Transit, Brampton Transit, York Region Transit and MiWay; and co-fares for GO buses have been offered by MiWay and Brampton Transit exclusively for Presto cardholders. Also in this stage, only Durham Region Transit remains to roll out its regular fares.

Presto's self-service kiosks have debuted at Union Station for a pilot project. So far, reception of the kiosk has been favourable.[46]

Stage Four and Presto Next Generation

The fourth stage of the rollout added Ottawa's OC Transpo, commencing as a soft launch in spring 2012 and as a full rollout on May 18, 2013, it is the only agency to receive the Presto card so far outside the Greater Toronto and Hamilton area. This stage involves the initial rollout of Presto Next Generation (PNG). OC Transpo's Presto readers are compatible with the Société de transport de l'Outaouais's new Multi farecards and Presto cards are compatible with pass readers on STO buses, thus facilitating transfers between the two.

Stage Four also marks the extensive rollout of the Presto fare system on the TTC, also using the Presto Next Generation system, while the participating transit systems that have already fully rolled out in the earlier stages were to receive Presto Next Generation cards in late fall 2012. Payment by other means, such as open payment and mobile payment systems, will also be made compatible with this updated version of Presto card.[47]

Stage Four and Presto Next Generation have been criticized for numerous delays with launching OC Transpo service. Metrolinx set July 1, 2012 as the Presto launch date for Ottawa, but in June 2012, it was postponed to February 1, 2013. City staff decided to launch Presto in several stages for 2013, the last of which occurred on May 18, 2013.[48]

The first major addition of Presto on the TTC took place in fall 2014, with the introduction of Presto card machines in several more Toronto subway stations, and the launch of new streetcars equipped with this system (see below).

TTC participation[edit]

In 2007, the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) committed to implement the Presto system at 14 of its major subway stations; in 2008, the TTC approved the use of a smartcard system[49] and is working with Presto in addressing the TTC’s business requirements for “full” system participation.[50] An initial funding allocation of $140 million has been earmarked by the provincial and federal governments and the City of Toronto; however, the TTC has estimated in its 2009-2013 budget that the project would take $365 million to complete.[51] At a provincial funding announcement in March 2011, it was announced that Presto would become the TTC's fare card of choice, though details of financing were still to be worked out.[52]

On November 28, 2012, TTC CEO Andy Byford and Chair Karen Stintz and Metrolinx signed the master agreement committing the TTC to the Presto fare payment system, the agreement falls under another master agreement that for the next ten years the new four LRT lines would be built by Metrolinx and operated by the TTC. The TTC was the last system to commit to Presto, and is the system with the most users, on November 30, 2014, the new low-floor Flexity Outlook streetcars became the first surface vehicles on the TTC to be equipped with this system. The older Canadian Light Rail Vehicle (CLRV) and Articulated Light Rail Vehicle (ALRV) streetcars would follow one year later on December 14, 2015, when those cars were retrofitted with Presto machines as well, and all remaining surface vehicles (including buses) and at least one entrance of all subway stations were equipped with this system by December 23, 2016.[53][54]

In April 2016, Main Street was the first station on the Toronto subway system to have the new paddle-door fare gates which replaced the turnstiles. All subway stations (at least one entrance per station) became fully Presto-compatible by December 22, 2016.

From May to December 2016, Presto readers were installed in TTC buses from west to east, as of May 31, 2016, all Queensway division buses were equipped with Presto readers. This was followed by Wilson and Arrow Road divisions in August 2016 and Malvern and Mount Dennis divisions in October 2016. Birchmount and Eglinton divisions were the last two divisions to have the Presto readers rolled out, with installations completed by December 23, 2016.

Since December 23, 2016, Presto readers have been widely available on all TTC buses and streetcars, as well as in at least one entrance of every subway station across the TTC transit network.[55][56]

The TTC is now in the process of installing new Presto-compatible glass-paddle fare gates at all of its remaining subway station entrances that still have legacy turnstiles (which already have Presto card fare readers attached on them) and floor-to-ceiling gates used at automatic entrances (which do not accept Presto).

It has been frequently reported that Presto loading machines, fare gates, and the units for tapping cards are not functioning as initially expected, the prevalence of these outages has the TTC calling the situation "unacceptable", although Byford remained confident about the dependability of the fare system.[57]

Expansion[edit]

  • Toronto Transit Commission: Expansions in the TTC will be Presto-equipped in the opening day, which includes all of the stations in the Spadina subway extension and the Eglinton Crosstown line.
  • GO Transit: All future GO stations will be Presto-equipped as early as the station opening.
  • Other transit systems: Requirements are being developed in order to incorporate additional transit agencies into Presto card. Many transit systems in the Greater Golden Horseshoe have expressed interest in adopting the Presto card as a fare payment system:
    • Milton Transit, the only transit system in the Greater Toronto Area that has not participated during the first phase, is working with Metrolinx to adopt the farecard.[58]
    • Guelph Transit is exploring its options in adopting the Presto card as a fare payment system.[47]
    • Grand River Transit expressed interest in participating with the rollout of the Presto card but now has decided to go to another system.[47][59]
    • Negotiations with Barrie Transit are ongoing with regards to the adoption of Presto card.[60]
    • Niagara Falls Transit's new fareboxes are designed to be capable of handling Presto cards, and are now participating for those transferring from a GO Bus or Train.[61]
    • Discussions in St. Catharines Transit are underway for participation in Presto.[62]
    • Niagara Region Transit's operators are also interested in adopting the farecard.[62]

Fares[edit]

Participating transit systems have different fares and fare policies when using the Presto card compared to traditional fare media; generally, passengers receive a discount using Presto compared to cash fares. The implementation of the Presto card has also unified the fare categories of GO Transit and local transit agencies, with local transit agencies adopting the GO Transit standard: local transit agencies used to have different age limits for child and senior fares and different types of students that may use student fares (some excluding post-secondary students while others do not). Registered Presto card holders are assessed the senior or child fares as appropriate. Student fare classification must be activated by the card-issuing transit authority through its normal procedures, which differ between transit systems, for example, post-secondary student fares are classified as students in only GO Transit and MiWay, while the rest classify them under the adult category.

Base Fares
Agency Adult Senior Child Student/Youth GO co-fare Period Pass Loyalty Program Notes
Brampton Transit $2.90 $1.55 $2.50 $2.50 $0.75 Yes No Fares are comparable to transit ticket levels.
Burlington Transit $2.70 $1.85 $1.85 $1.85 $0.70 Yes Yes1 Fares are comparable to transit ticket levels. Passengers taking more than a specified number of non co-fare trips in a calendar month (32 for seniors, 36 for adults, and 38 for students) may ride the system for free for the remainder of the month.
1 Except Child
Durham Region Transit $3.10 $2.10 $2.10 $2.80 $0.80 Yes No Fares are comparable to transit ticket levels.
GO Transit $5.30 $2.70 $2.70 $5.30 N/A No Yes Minimum fare required to begin travel. GO Transit fares depend on originating and destination fare zones and must be tapped on when starting travel and tapped off upon completion of travel on a GO bus. Fare adjustments will be reconciled upon tapping off.
Hamilton Street Railway $2.30 $1.90 $1.90 $1.90 $0.60 Yes Yes Fares are comparable to transit ticket levels. All HSR passes, except day passes, HSR Golden Age Bus Pass, and Summer Youth Pass, may be stored as period passes on Presto. Passengers taking more than 11 non-co-fare trips in a calendar week (starting in Monday and ending the following Sunday) may ride the system for free for the remainder of the week.
MiWay (Mississauga) $2.90 $1.90 $1.65 $2.25 $0.80 Yes Yes Fares are comparable to transit ticket levels. Passengers taking more than 12 non-co-fare trips in a calendar week (starting in Monday and ending the following Sunday) may ride the system for free for the remainder of the week. Presto Cards cannot be used on the TTC's 52 Lawrence West buses in Mississauga.
Oakville Transit $2.80 $1.80 $2.20 $2.20 $0.75 Yes Yes Passengers taking more than a specified number of non-co-fare trips in a calendar month (28 for child/student, 29 for seniors, and 35 for adults) may ride the system for free for the remainder of the month.
OC Transpo (Ottawa) $3.35 $2.55 $1.70 $3.35 N/A Yes No Youth passengers are offered a discounted monthly pass.
Toronto Transit Commission $3.00 $2.05 free $2.05 Planned Yes Planned Fares are identical to ticket and token levels (see Toronto Transit Commission fares for details). [63]
Union Pearson Express $9.00 $5.64 free $9.00 No No No Presto use offers discounts compared to cash fares.[64]
York Region Transit $3.40 $2.10 $2.10 $2.60 $0.75 Yes Planned Fares are comparable to transit ticket levels. Fares shown are for travel within one fare zone. Presto Cards are not accepted for Route 50B Beaverton—Pefferlaw and TTC operated routes in York Region. [65]
Presto reader at Unionville GO Station.

Other Presto card fare notes:

  • Durham Region Transit - DRT/GO Bus integration is not supported with the Presto card. Passengers taking a GO Transit route where DRT fare media is accepted will be charged GO Transit fares.
  • GO Transit - Fares for adult and student passengers between two fare zones are reduced to levels comparable to that of 10-ride tickets formerly offered by GO Transit. The loyalty discount system is in place where passengers frequently travelling between two fare zones will receive further discounts after 30 (student) or 35 trips (adult) in a single month, so the fare paid per month never exceeds that of the corresponding GO Transit monthly pass. Fares for child and senior passengers do not receive a further discount beyond the same 50% of adult (ticket) prices offered via traditional fare media. See GO Transit fares for more information.
    • Passengers connecting to local transit from GO Transit will only be assessed the co-fare, if applicable, on the Presto card if the GO Transit trip was also assessed to the Presto card; the full local fare will be assessed otherwise. Passengers connecting to GO transit from local transit will have their co-fare discounts assessed when disembarking from their GO Transit trips.
  • Hamilton Street Railway - GO Transit co-fares are done differently for Presto card holders compared to holders of traditional fare media. Passengers transferring to HSR from GO Transit will receive a $0.55 discount on the HSR fare, while passengers transferring to GO Transit from HSR will receive a $1.60 discount on the GO Transit fare.
  • MiWay (Mississauga) - Although MiWay supports period passes on the Presto card, it is expected that period passes will be phased out in favour of expanding the present loyalty program.
  • OC Transpo (Ottawa) - Presto cards registered to addresses in Quebec may not use the Presto card when boarding OC Transpo buses, as per existing residency policies between OC Transpo and STO; STO fare media (including the STO Passe-Partout PLUS Card) must be used instead.
    • The "free fares for Seniors category on Wednesdays" is not enforced by Presto systems; a full fare will be assessed. Seniors riding OC Transpo buses on Wednesdays are encouraged to avoid tapping their Presto cards therein, unless intending to transfer to STO buses.
Presto card readers at Finch subway station. Legacy turnstile faregates like these are being removed and replaced with new paddle-doored fare gates, already in use in many subway stations across the TTC subway network.
  • Toronto Transit Commission - As of January 2017, the TTC has implemented the Presto card machines at all 69 subway stations, and on-board all TTC conventional buses. All TTC streetcars have been equipped with Presto card devices since December 2015. Please note that there are no free transfer privileges for Presto card holders when transferring from/to TTC, GO Transit, Union Pearson Express from/to other Presto-enabled Greater Toronto Area transit services meaning a full fare applies when transferring between these agencies.
Viva OneRide and Presto machines at a Vivastation
  • York Region Transit - Zone fares may be deducted on request for passengers travelling across fare zone boundaries, or from the ticket vending machines at Vivastations. YRT Express fare supplements will also be automatically deducted.
    • Zone fares and YRT Express fares cannot be assessed on their own; passengers using the GTA Weekly Pass thus cannot use the Presto card for these fare upgrades.
    • Passengers making a two-zone trip on a one-zone fare (or a three-zone trip on a smaller fare) will be assessed a second full fare when making a connection past the fare zone boundary instead of a free transfer or a zone upgrade fare. Accidental crossings of the zone boundaries cannot be reconciled when disembarking: the full fare must be paid when boarding the first YRT bus.
    • YRT fares are assessed when boarding Züm buses in York Region due to fare integration with Viva Orange, even though both YRT and Brampton Transit fare media are accepted for Züm buses in York Region. Passengers holding a Brampton Transit period pass will not be assessed a fare when boarding a Züm bus in York Region, but will be assessed a fare for boarding Viva Orange, as Viva Orange is on a proof-of-payment system while Züm buses are pay-as-you-board, it does not matter whether fares are deducted at the Vivastation vending machine or on board a Züm bus, except in the case of Brampton Transit period pass holders.
    • Currently customers using TTC in York Region are advised NOT to use Presto, and to continue using cash, paper tickets, passes or the new YRT/Viva pay app, this is because the TTC has not yet integrated the YRT co-fare arrangement(s) on TTC buses operated on behalf of YRT while operating within York Region. Also bear in mind that YRT does NOT issue paper transfers to customers who pay by Presto, which means these customers will be required to pay again when transferring between YRT and TTC routes, even the ones operating within York Region.

Inter-agency transfers[edit]

Local transit systems within the Presto card's service area have always honoured transfers from neighbouring transit systems, and transferring between neighbouring transit systems continues to be honoured with the Presto Card where they were honoured with traditional fare media (except for TTC, GO Transit, Union Pearson Express and OC Transpo).

On most transit agencies, paper transfers are not required for Presto card users since the card itself acts as proof-of-payment (POP) which can also be used to transfer from vehicle to vehicle or vehicle to station (vice-versa) and/or to show enforcement officers on designated POP routes on which they carry hand-held devices to verify that you have paid your fare (tapped on upon entry to the station or vehicle) except in the following cases:

  • "Companion fares" - using stored value on the Presto card e-Purse to pay fares for two or more passengers; paper transfers will be issued for all passengers other than the cardholder.
  • Transferring from a MiWay bus to TTC route 52 Lawrence West in Mississauga, which operates on behalf of MiWay while in Mississauga. [66]
  • Depending on the transit operators involved, transferring from a local transit agency where the passenger has a local period pass to a neighbouring transit agency where the passenger does not (such as from Hamilton Street Railway to Burlington Transit while the Presto Card has a period pass for HSR); a full fare for the second transit agency will otherwise be assessed to the Presto Card.
  • "TTC Times Two with GO Transit and/or Union Pearson Express" - Currently, passengers who use Presto will need a paper transfer if they wish to transfer from the TTC to GO Transit/Union Pearson Express and back on the TTC for their second ride to prevent a second fare from being deducted from their Presto card(s) when boarding the next TTC vehicle to complete their one-way trip as this functionality is not yet supported by Presto. The procedure is as follows:
    • When boarding a TTC bus or legacy (older) CLRV/ALRV streetcar, board at the front, tap card on the green fare readers and request for a paper transfer from the driver/operator.
    • On the TTC's newer Flexity Outlook streetcars, tap card on the green fare readers by the doors and again at the grey "Fares and Transfers" machine at the second and third doors for a paper transfer.
    • When entering a subway station, use the main entrance, tap card at the fare gates and take a paper transfer from the red transfer box after you pass through the gates. [67]
  • Transferring from an OC Transpo to an OC Transpo or STO route that requires a fare supplement. The fare supplement may be paid using a cash fare instead of stored value on the Presto card e-Purse; in which case a paper pass will be issued.

As the Presto card is meant to replace paper transfers along with cash, tickets, tokens and paper passes, local transit operators have generally adopted the Presto card's transfer policies in their paper transfers (in the sense that, with the exception of the TTC, GO Transit, Union Pearson Express and OC Transpo, all local transit operators accept each other's transfers, and will not reissue transfers originally issued by other local transit operators), except for a generally longer transfer window provided by the Presto card.

Use with non-Presto agencies[edit]

  • Barrie Transit - GO Transit users allowed to transfer to Barrie Transit buses for free by presenting their Presto cards at applicable connection points.
  • Guelph Transit - GO Transit co-fares are offered for those who show Presto card or other GO media.
  • Grand River Transit - GO Transit co-fares are offered for Presto card users at Kitchener GO Station.
  • Milton Transit - GO Transit co-fares are offered for Presto Card users.
  • Société de transport de l'Outaouais (STO) - The Société de transport de l'Outaouais is not a participating Presto Card agency, though the Presto card is accepted on its system via the STO Passe-Partout PLUS Card readers on their buses. Passengers may use the Presto card to transfer to STO from OC Transpo; passengers with an OC Transpo monthly pass loaded on the Presto card may also board STO buses without having previously transferred from OC Transpo.
    • Presto cards are not accepted on STO trips departing from Gatineau before 9AM. Passengers are required to obtain the STO-OC Transpo Rider Smart Card, issued by STO to Ontario residents living within OC Transpo's service area, for such trips. Passengers residing outside OC Transpo's service area must pay STO fares.
    • STO Passe-Partout PLUS Card readers are unable to deduct cash fares from Presto card holders. As such, the Presto cards may not be used to board an STO bus directly, nor provide companion fares. Passengers transferring to an STO Express or STO Interzone route must pay any fare supplements in cash.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Lorinc, John (15 January 2014). "Presto Technology sold to Washington DC raises questions". Spacing Magazine. Archived from the original on 18 January 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2017. 
  3. ^ "12% of Presto card readers on buses don’t work, Metrolinx audit says | Toronto Star". thestar.com. Retrieved 2016-12-04. 
  4. ^ "Presto card rollout on TTC running millions over budget | Toronto Star". thestar.com. Retrieved 2016-12-04. 
  5. ^ "Presto Card - Get It". Presto Card official site. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  6. ^ Spurr, Ben (June 3, 2017). "Metrolinx has been quietly sharing Presto users’ information with police". Toronto Star. Retrieved June 20, 2017. 
  7. ^ Pelley, Lauren (June 3, 2017). "Metrolinx provided customer Presto data to police 12 times in past year". CBC News. Archived from the original on June 3, 2017. 
  8. ^ Spurr, Ben (June 5, 2017). "Metrolinx to review Presto privacy policy". Toronto Star. Retrieved June 20, 2017. 
  9. ^ "Launch 1". Queens Printer for Ontario. Retrieved 2008-05-16. 
  10. ^ "Launch 1". Queens Printer for Ontario. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
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  12. ^ a b c d e "Tap, "GO", PRESTO!". Transit Toronto. 4 June 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2010. Aldershot GO Station and the Hamilton GO Centre become PRESTO service agencies this Monday, June 7 ... Oakville GO Station became a PRESTO service agencies, on Monday, May 10. Bronte GO Station became an agency on Monday, May 17. Appleby GO Station became a PRESTO agency on Tuesday, May 25 and Burlington GO Station on Monday, May 31. 
  13. ^ "Clarkson GO Station now a PRESTO agency". Transit Toronto. 21 June 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2010. 
  14. ^ "Port Credit GO Station now a PRESTO agency". Transit Toronto. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2010. 
  15. ^ "Long Branch GO Station now a PRESTO agency". Transit Toronto. 5 July 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2010. 
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  17. ^ "Exhibition GO Station now a PRESTO agency". Transit Toronto. 15 July 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2010. 
  18. ^ "PRESTO card". 27 July 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2010. Use your PRESTO card at Milton GO Station starting tomorrow! 
  19. ^ "PRESTO card". Presto card official Twitter feed. 21 July 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2010. TTC Kipling and Islington stations will be up and running on Monday, July 26 
  20. ^ "PRESTO card". 9 August 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2010. Use your PRESTO card at Lisgar GO Station starting today 
  21. ^ "PRESTO card". 12 August 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2010. Use your PRESTO card at Meadowvale GO Station starting tomorrow 
  22. ^ "PRESTO card". 18 August 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2010. Streetsville GO Station is going online tomorrow 
  23. ^ "PRESTO card". 21 August 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2010. Starting Monday, use your PRESTO card at Dixie GO Station! 
  24. ^ "PRESTO card". 30 August 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2010. Kipling GO station is PRESTO-equipped today! 
  25. ^ "PRESTO card". 23 September 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2010. Cooksville GO Station went live today 
  26. ^ "PRESTO card". 24 September 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2010. Erindale GO went live today 
  27. ^ "You can use PRESTO fare cards at Mount Pleasant GO Station, October 6". Transit Toronto. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2011. 
  28. ^ "You can use PRESTO fare cards at Etobicoke North GO Station, October 14". Transit Toronto. 13 October 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2011. 
  29. ^ "You can use PRESTO fare cards at Malton GO Station, October 19". Transit Toronto. 18 October 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2011. 
  30. ^ "You can use PRESTO fare cards at Bloor GO Station, November 11". Transit Toronto. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2011. 
  31. ^ "You can use PRESTO fare cards at Weston GO Station, November 17". Transit Toronto. 16 October 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2011. 
  32. ^ "PRESTOSystem" (PDF). Metrolinx. Metrolinx. 2010-11-16. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  33. ^ http://gotransit.com/public/en/fares/prestofaresMay1.aspx
  34. ^ a b "Mississauga.ca - MiWay - Presto". Retrieved 3 January 2011. 
  35. ^ "You can use PRESTO cards on HSR buses, starting May 4". Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  36. ^ "MiWay - Presto". Retrieved 26 May 2011. 
  37. ^ "City of Brampton - PRESTO". Retrieved 26 May 2011. 
  38. ^ "YRT/Viva". Yrt.ca. Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
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  40. ^ "MiWay - PRESTO Concession". Mississauga.ca. Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  41. ^ [1]
  42. ^ "On the Subway". www.ttc.ca. 
  43. ^ http://ttc.ca/Service_Advisories/Construction/PRESTO_construction.jsp
  44. ^ http://www.ttc.ca/PDF/Maps/Presto_Station_Map.pdf
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  46. ^ "Microsoft PowerPoint - Public Metrolinx Board_Feb Final [Compatibility Mode]" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  47. ^ a b c "Microsoft PowerPoint - Public Metrolinx Board_September_V12.ppt [Compatibility Mode]" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  48. ^ Willing, Jon. "Presto: More delays in OC Transpo smart cards | Ottawa & Region | News | Ottawa". Ottawasun.com. Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  49. ^ "Minutes - Toronto Transit Commission - Meeting No. 1883 Wednesday, June 13, 2007". TTC. 2008-06-13. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  50. ^ "2009-2013 Capital Program and 10 Year Capital Forecast" (PDF). TTC. 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  51. ^ "2009-2013 Capital Program and 10 Year Capital Forecast" (PDF). TTC. 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  52. ^ Kalinowski, Tess (31 March 2011). "It’s official: Province and city to build Eglinton LRT". Toronto Star. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  53. ^ "TTC stations, vehicles to use Presto card by 2016". CBC. Nov 28, 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  54. ^ Kalinowski, Tess (November 28, 2012). "TTC signs up for Presto fare card". Toronto Star. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  55. ^ http://ttc.ca/PDF/Maps/Presto_Station_Map.pdf
  56. ^ Wilson, Codi (22 December 2016). "TTC has now rolled out PRESTO at every subway station". 
  57. ^ "Failing Presto fare gates madden passengers". Toronto Star. Retrieved 19 January 2017. 
  58. ^ "2009-2013 Strategic Plan for Transit Services Draft" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  59. ^ [2]
  60. ^ nurun.com. "Presto! New card unveiled". Barrie Examiner. Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  61. ^ http://floridaapts.lctr.org/RFPs/EFPS/Niagara%20Falls%20Transit.pdf
  62. ^ a b "Just tap to GO". Niagarathisweek.com. 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  63. ^ "New TTC, GO Transit deal means cheaper rides if you use both services". CBC Toronto. Retrieved 2017-10-04. 
  64. ^ "Union Pearson Express Information". Metrolinx. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  65. ^ "About PRESTO". www.yrt.ca. 
  66. ^ "Mississauga.ca - MiWay - Bus Fares". www.mississauga.ca. 
  67. ^ TTC times two with Metrolinx

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]