The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. The phonograph disc record was the medium used for music reproduction until late in the 20th century. It had co-existed with the cylinder from the late 1880s. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as compact cassette were mass-marketed, by the late 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, and the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. The phonograph record has made a resurgence in the early 21st century –9.2 million records were sold in the U. S. in 2014. Likewise, in the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014, as of 2017,48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide,18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new, only two producers of lacquers remains, Apollo Masters in California, USA, and MDC in Japan. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to heat or broken.
The large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression, in the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008, along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph, unlike the phonautograph, it was capable of both recording and reproducing sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no evidence that Edisons phonograph was based on Scotts phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a paper tape, with the idea of creating a telephone repeater analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. The tinfoil was wrapped around a metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately, Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats.
A decade later, Edison developed a greatly improved phonograph that used a wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet. This proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device, the wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Berliners earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, but only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality
A cassette single is a music single in the form of a Compact Cassette. Bow Wow Wows C·30 C·60 C·90 Go was the first cassette single released in the U. K. in 1980, records released the first cassette single in the U. S. with the Go-Gos Vacation in 1982. The ZTT label made good use of the format by 1984, with singles by Frankie Goes to Hollywood, Art of Noise, the format was used as a promotion in the 1990s, with Disney giving a cassingle to attendees of Hercules promotional events. Originally, most cassette singles were released in a sleeve that slipped over the outside of the release. This was usually shrink wrapped in plastic, some singles contained one song on each side, much as 45s had done, but others repeated the songs on both sides. In some markets, cassette singles generally used the packaging as standard cassettes. As the cassette maxi-single was released, more intricate packaging was incorporated that looked similar to the packaging of a cassette release. These were placed in regular plastic cassette cases with a paper/cardstock insert, unlike a full-length cassette album, these were generally only one two-sided inlay instead of a fold-out.
Maxi-singles usually contained four versions of a song, i. e. unique mixes & edits. In the U. S. cassette singles were completely phased out by the early 2000s, one reason for their lesser popularity was because they appeared to be an inefficient use of the media to consumers - a cassette single took up the same storage space as a full album
This article is about the 12cm single. Not to be confused with 8cm single, the standard in the Red Book for the term CD single. A CD single is a single in the form of a standard size compact disc. It is not to be confused with the Mini CD single, the format was introduced in the mid-1980s but did not gain its place in the market until the early 1990s. With the rise in digital downloads in the early 2010s, sales of CD singles have decreased, commercially released CD singles can vary in length from two songs up to six songs like an EP. Some contain multiple mixes of one or more songs, in the tradition of 12 vinyl singles, depending on the nation, there may be limits on the number of songs and total length for sales to count in singles charts. Containing four tracks, it had a limited print run. CD singles were first made eligible for the UK Singles Chart in 1987, the Mini CD single format was originally created for use for singles in the late 1980s, but met with limited success, particularly in the US.
The smaller CDs were more successful in Japan and have become more common in Europe. By 1989, the CD3 was in decline in the US and it was common in the 1990s for US record companies to release both a two-track CD and a multi-track maxi CD. In the UK, record companies would release two CDs but, these consisted of three tracks or more each. Pressure from record labels made singles charts in some countries become song charts, allowing album cuts to chart based only on airplay, without a single ever being released. At the end of the 1990s, the CD was the single format in the UK, but in the US. In Australia, the Herald Sun reported the CD single is set to become extinct, while CD singles no longer maintain their own section of the store, copies are still distributed but placed with the artists albums. That is predominantly the case for popular Australian artists such as Jessica Mauboy, Kylie Minogue and, most recently, Delta Goodrem, the ARIA Singles Chart are now predominantly compiled from legal downloads, and ARIA stopped compiling their physical singles sales chart.
On a Mission by Gabriella Cilmi was the last CD single to be stocked in Kmart and Big W, sanity Entertainment, having resisted the decline for longer than the other major outlets, has ceased selling CD singles. In Greece and Cyprus, the term CD single is used to describe a play in which there may be anywhere from three to six different tracks. These releases charted on the Greek Singles Chart with songs released as singles, in September 2003, there was talk of ringtones for mobile phones outstripping CD singles sales for the year 2004
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performers music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has many roles during the recording process, the roles of a producer vary. The producer may perform these roles himself, or help select the engineer, the producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record companies budget. A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording. Producers often take on an entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, contracts. In the 2010s, the industry has two kinds of producers with different roles, executive producer and music producer. Executive producers oversee project finances while music producers oversee the process of recording songs or albums. In most cases the producer is a competent arranger, composer. The producer will liaise with the engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording.
Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record, indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation actually is music director. The music producers job is to create and mold a piece of music, at the beginning of record industry, producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1950s and 1960s due to technological developments, the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously, all of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio and the performance had to be recorded. As well, for a song that used 20 instruments, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. Examples include the rock sound effects of the 1960s, e. g. playing back the sound of recorded instruments backwards or clanging the tape to produce unique sound effects.
These new instruments were electric or electronic, and thus they used instrument amplifiers, new technologies like multitracking changed the goal of recording, A producer could blend together multiple takes and edit together different sections to create the desired sound. For example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis album Bitches Brew, producers like Phil Spector and George Martin were soon creating recordings that were, in practical terms, almost impossible to realise in live performance. Producers became creative figures in the studio, other examples of such engineers includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, and Biddu
Anthony Ian Berkeley
Anthony Ian Berkeley better known as Too Poetic, was a Trinidadian-born American rapper and producer. He was a member of the hip-hop group Gravediggaz. The eldest son of a minister, Poetic was born in Trinidad and raised in the town of Wyandanch on Long Island, New York. After forming his first hip-hop group, Brothers Grym, with younger siblings Brainstorm and E Sharp in 1989, Sharp handled some of the duties, while Poetic. The group created a buzz for itself in the underground with its first official demo, his deal with Tommy Boy fell through before the release of his first album, and Too Poetic fell on hard times, which included a period of homelessness. Poetic joined Wu-Tang Clans leader RZA, former De La Soul/Stetsasonic producer Prince Paul, concerning the origins of the supergroup, he said, Each member adopted a Gravedigga alias, and Poetic became known as the Grym Reaper. It was stated this stylistic change was adapted from his period of homelessness as his former DJ Koas said in an interview He went homeless.
He hit rock bottom and that opens your eyes to really go deep, I guess it makes you strong to want it that bad. Tommy Boy basically jerked a lot of people and this proved to be an impressive change, as his offbeat rhyming style quickly gained attention as the groups first album, 1994s 6 Feet Deep, garnered positive reviews and strong sales alike. During this time, Anthonys rhyming style had matured more, in April 1999, Anthony collapsed in his home studio with stomach pains and was subsequently diagnosed with colon cancer. During this period, he collaborated with The Prodigys Maxim Reality, contrary to popular belief, this moniker was created by Poetic himself. It was Poetic who made the reference to the metal being as hard as Poetic’s will to live. One of his solo compositions makes reference to his feeling light as aluminum. He created work under his name as well as continuing work on the third Gravediggaz album. The subsequent release, Nightmare in A-Minor, was the darkest work the group had done.
It makes many references to Poetics cancer, perhaps most notably on the track Burn, Burn and on the Last Emperors track One Life, which extensively detailed his brutal battle with the illness. Poetic died of cancer on July 15,2001,1, 45pm EST at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California. He had survived almost two and a half years beyond the doctors initial 3-month prognosis, an intimate memorial service for him was held at the Riverside Church in Harlem on August 4,2001, attended by his family and close friends including bandmates Frukwan and Prince Paul
Prince Paul (producer)
Paul Edward Huston, better known by his stage name Prince Paul, is an American disc jockey, record producer and recording artist from Amityville, New York. Paul began his career as a DJ for Stetsasonic, since he has worked on albums by Boogie Down Productions, MC Lyte, Big Daddy Kane and 3rd Bass, among others. In 1994, Paul joined RZA, Frukwan and Too Poetic in Gravediggaz and his first solo album, What Is It. came out in 1997, followed by a second album, A Prince Among Thieves, in 1999. Later that year Prince Paul formed Handsome Boy Modeling School with Dan the Automator, Prince Paul was one of the original members of Stetsasonic. He joined the group in 1984 after impressing Daddy-O with his routine in the Brevoit Day Celebration DJ battle in Brooklyn, Daddy-O was struck by Pauls energy, saying that he performed his routine with Liquid Liquids song Cavern, like he was mad at the turntables. Prince Paul produced tracks on 3rd Bass 1989 debut The Cactus Album, De La Soul is Dead received a five mic album review from The Source.
According to Paul,3 Feet High and Rising had a budget of about $20,000 dollars and took a month and a half to make. In Brian Colemans book Check the Technique Paul reflected on his work with De La Soul by saying, If there was ever a sign of the existence of God, I’ve never had such a perfect fit in any other production situation. In 1990, Russell Simmons gave Prince Paul an imprint under his Def Jam label, however the only album, in 1995, Prince Paul co-produced guitarist Vernon Reids solo debut with Teo Macero. In 1996, he appeared on the Red Hot Organizations compilation CD, America is Dying Slowly, alongside Wu-Tang Clan, the CD, meant to raise awareness of the AIDS epidemic among African American men, was called a masterpiece by The Source magazine. In 1996, during the recording sessions for Stakes Is High, De La Soul. Although Paul was not involved in the making of the album, he has praised it in interviews, once saying. I was trying to out the next thing I was going to do, I was going through a custody case for my son.
There were a lot of going on at the time and in a sense. After this he released two albums, What is It. and A Prince Among Thieves, featuring Big Daddy Kane, Kool Keith. Prince Paul formed Handsome Boy Modeling School with Dan the Automator, featured Sean Lennon, Del tha Funkee Homosapien, Alec Empire, and Don Novello. He was paired up with Deltron 3030 on their album for the song The Fantabulous Rap Extravaganza. Prince Pauls 2003 album Politics of the Business again featured many guests such as Chuck D, Ice-T, the Beatnuts, the latter collaborated on a track Paul composed for the SpongeBob SquarePants Movie soundtrack
Gravediggaz is an American hip hop group from New York City, known for its dark sense of humor and abrasive, menacing soundscapes. The group was formed in 1991, bringing together Prince Paul, Poetic and it came about largely due to the efforts of Prince Paul. The group pioneered the small hip-hop subgenre of horrorcore, the groups first album was originally to be titled Niggamortis, this potentially risqué title was changed to 6 Feet Deep for the American market, it was released on August 9,1994. In 1995, the three rapping members released a collaborative EP titled The Hell EP with UK trip hop artist Tricky. The second full-length Gravediggaz album The Pick, the Sickle and the Shovel was less humorous, dealing more with social and political issues, it used calmer and more conventional production. Prince Paul played a smaller role in the making of this album, with many of the production duties now taken care of by RZA. A bootleg Gravediggaz album surfaced in 1998, called Scenes From The Graveyard and it featured seven unreleased tracks plus some remixes from the first two albums.
Around 2000, Gravediggaz recruited DJ Diamond J. Poetic died of cancer in July 2001. Frukwan stated in an interview not long after Poetics death that a new album using leftover Poetic material would be released, Nightmare in A-Minor, the third official album for Gravediggaz, came out in 2001, it featured two of the original members and Frukwan. This album was their darkest work yet, including references to Poetics struggle with cancer. Although RZA did not take part in the album, some Wu-Tang Clan affiliates such as 4th Disciple, True Master, the album was mostly produced by Poetic and Frukwan. A different version of the album was released in 2002, for some of the tracks created by Poetic were replaced or altered. In 2003 Frukwan released his solo album, Life. The fourth Gravediggaz album 6 Feet Under was released in 2004 by Cleopatra Records and featured songs from Nightmare in A-Minor, according to Frukwan, he had nothing to do with the release and claimed that song titles were changed without permission, making it an unauthorized release.
In 2010, Gravediggaz recorded a new song,2 More Cups of Blood, in 2011, it was announced that the group had been recording new tracks involving Shabazz The Disciple & Killah Priest. According to Frukwan, the name means digging graves of the mentally dead. The groups lyrics mix black humor, criticism regarding the industry, cartoonish violence reminiscent of the Geto Boys. The group pioneered the horrorcore genre,6 Feet Deep The Pick, the Sickle and the Shovel Nightmare in A-Minor 6 Feet Under Gravediggaz at discogs Frukwan website
Robert Fitzgerald Diggs, better known by his stage name RZA, is an American rapper, record producer, actor and author. A prominent figure in hip hop, RZA is the de facto leader of the Wu-Tang Clan and he has produced almost all of Wu-Tang Clans albums as well as many Wu-Tang solo and affiliate projects. He is a cousin of the late group-mate Ol Dirty Bastard and he has released solo albums under the alter-ego Bobby Digital, along with executive producing credits for side projects. In addition to the Wu-Tang Clan and his releases, RZA was a founding member of the horrorcore group Gravediggaz where he used the name The RZArector. Furthermore, he has acted in movies, including Coffee and Cigarettes, American Gangster, Gospel Hill, Life Is Hot in Cracktown, Ghost Dog, Funny People, Due Date. He appeared in the Showtime TV series Californication and his directorial debut is for the film he co-wrote and in which he plays the title role, The Man with the Iron Fists, starring Russell Crowe. The magazine The Source placed him on its list of the 20 greatest producers in the magazines twenty-year history and he made the Elite 8 in the search for The Greatest Hip-Hop Producer of All Time by Vibe.
NME placed him on their list of the 50 Greatest Producers Ever, RZA was born in Brownsville, Brooklyn. He lived in North Carolina with his uncle from age three to seven, who encouraged him to read and study, RZA was introduced to hip hop music at the age of nine, and by eleven, was competing in rap battles. He relocated to Steubenville, Ohio in 1990, to live with his mother and he spent weekends in Pittsburgh, where his father ran a convenience store in the citys Hill District. RZA got involved with petty crime and drug-dealing, and was charged with attempted murder while in Steubenville and he was acquitted of the charge, giving him what he stated was a second chance. He is named after Robert Kennedy and John Fitzgerald Kennedy and his mother greatly admired the Kennedys, the RZA has called his given name an honorable name, given the legacy of both brothers Robert and John. Robert Diggs formed a rap group with his cousins Russell Jones and they enjoyed local success but never signed a record deal.
Diggs debuted on Tommy Boy Records in 1991 as a solo artist under the name Prince Rakeem, after a shoot-out in Ohio in 1992, he faced eight years in jail. When they said not guilty, my face stuck in a smile for three days, he recalled, I was just walking around town, thinking about my daughter and my wife. Right I said goodbye to anything that would put me in that situation again, I was up on trial on an attempted murder charge. I was a fool, with all that knowledge in my head. Diggs formed a new group with his cousins and five other childhood friends and this group would be named Wu-Tang Clan, releasing their debut album Enter the Wu-Tang,36 Chambers in 1993
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78,45, and 33 1/3 rpm phonograph records, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. Creedence Clearwater Revival had hits with both A-side and B-side releases, others took the opposite approach, producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side, the earliest 10-inch,78 rpm, shellac records were single sided. Double-sided recordings, with one song on side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records. There were no record charts until the 1930s, and radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s, in this time, A-sides and B-sides existed, but neither side was considered more important, the side did not convey anything about the content of the record. The term single came into use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s.
At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side, under this random system, many artists had so-called double-sided hits, where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the company wanted radio stations to play. It was not until 1968, for instance, that the production of albums on a unit basis finally surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s. The majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, by the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, and B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, with the advent of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful.
With the decline of cassette singles in the 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became virtually extinct, as the dominant medium. However, the term B-side is still used to refer to the tracks or coupling tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other media have declined. B-side songs may be released on the record as a single to provide extra value for money. There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record