The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Roadrunner Records is a major record label that concentrates primarily on heavy metal and hard rock bands. It is a division of Warner Music Group and is based in New York City, the label was launched in 1980 in the Netherlands. Roadrunners initial business was importing North American metal-band recordings into Europe, in 1986, Roadrunner opened its US headquarters in New York City and opened offices in the United Kingdom, France, Australia, Denmark and the latest in Canada. Early successes included albums from King Diamond and Annihilator, the label handled early Metallica releases in the Scandinavian region. The end of the 1980s saw the release of two albums that are now considered classics of their genres, Obituarys Slowly We Rot. The 1990s saw the arrival of such as Life of Agony, Machine Head, Type O Negative. As the 1990s wore on, several of Roadrunners bands managed to make an impact on the mainstream, most notably Sepultura, Sepulturas 1993 album, Chaos A. D. became the first Roadrunner band to crack the Top 40 on the Billboard album chart.
Type O Negative became the first Roadrunner band to receive a certification from the RIAA, this was a Gold award for the 1993 album Bloody Kisses, the band became the first Roadrunner band to receive radio play. In 2000, Slipknot became the first Roadrunner band to go Platinum, nickelback were very successful on the label. Derek Shulman ran the label in the late 90s, beginning in 2001, Roadrunner was distributed by the Universal Music Group through a share of the label owned by The Island Def Jam Music Group. On December 18,2006, Warner Music Group signed an agreement to purchase a majority in shares of Roadrunner Records parent company and this deal became finalized on January 29,2007 after receiving regulatory approval in Germany. On June 11,2008, Roadrunner Records was voted as the Best Metal Label by Metal Hammer at their Golden Gods Awards, the award was accepted by Sharon Den Adel and Ruud Jolie of Within Temptation, one of Roadrunners biggest acts. However, Roadrunner has accused of being a label only interested in current or trendy alternative music, reflected by their roster of mainly popular.
One of the earliest names on the label, King Diamond, left the label due to alleged lack of support for the 1990 King Diamond release. In 2008, punk cabaret chanteuse Amanda Palmer was told by the label that wanted to re-edit her video for Leeds United to make her look slimmer. On April 6,2010, Palmer announced on her Twitter account that Roadrunner had dropped her, the most recent complaints about Roadrunner have come from one of the labels biggest bands Megadeth. Roadrunner Records was significantly affected by Warner Music Groups legal dispute against YouTube, most of the videos on their channel, are still viewable. There is even a disclaimer talking about Warners dispute right on the channel, on November 11,2010, Warner Music Group announced they had acquired the remaining of Roadrunners stock
Illdisposed is a death metal band from Aarhus, Denmark that was formed in 1991 by vocalist Bo Summer and guitarist Lasse Bak. Illdisposed have developed their own form of metal with groovy rhythms, melodic but still hard hitting riffs. In early 1991, Illdisposed was formed and soon released their first demo entitled The Winter of Our Discontempt, in 1994 guitarist Hans Wagnerwas fired, due to problems with alcoholism, is temporarily replaced by Morten Gilsted. In 1994 The first EP Return from tomorrow was released, during the tour in Germany to promote the album, guitarist Lasse Bak played several concerts naked. In the State of Denmark is the studio album, and was released in 1997. This album marked the departure of guitarist Morten Gilsted replaced by ex-roadie Tore Mogensen, while recording the album, the band was featured in the documentary Headbang i Hovedlandet alongside future member Jakob Batten Hansens band Infernal Torment in 1997. In 2000, Illdisposed released the tribute album Retro, with covers of such as Carcass, Darkthrone, Motörhead.
It was the first album to feature guitarist Jakob Batten Hansen and this was followed by their fourth album Kokaiinum in 2001, which featured original songs only. The song Fear Bill Gates was only one example for the bands sense of humor. Kokaiinum sometimes fused more melodic elements in the music, but still retained the metal style. The band went on hiatus because Bo needed time to cure his alcoholism. In 2003, they went back together, to release the Demo 2003 EP, which included some songs from the upcoming album 1-800 Vindication. The band had found new members in Thomas Muskelbux Jensen on drums, Tore Mogensen left the band during that time and started working at TC Electronics, while Jakob Batten Hansen switched from bass to lead guitar. In 2004, 1-800 Vindication was released and it was the bands most successful album, released on Roadrunner Records. The song Still Sane was released as a single and a video was shot for it by Lasse Hoile, the release was followed by a tour and a DVD, shot in Arhus, entitled We suck - live in Arhus.
This DVD was during that time available as a bootleg. In 2005, guitarist and founding member Lasse Bak left the band to join his former Illdisposed band comrades Rolf Hansen and Morten Gilsted in Slow Death Factory. The music on Burn Me Wicked was written almost entirely by Jakob Hansen, the two Roadrunner albums are the most successful Illdisposed albums to date, with sales of 30,000 copies each
Album, is a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item on CD, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century, first as books of individual 78rpm records, vinyl LPs are still issued, though in the 21st century album sales have mostly focused on compact disc and MP3 formats. The audio cassette was a format used from the late 1970s through to the 1990s alongside vinyl, an album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places. Recording may take a few hours to years to complete, usually in several takes with different parts recorded separately. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed live, the majority of studio recordings contain an abundance of editing, sound effects, voice adjustments, etc. With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, and sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, the term album was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format.
In musical usage the word was used for collections of pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Later, collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums, the LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. It was adopted by the industry as a standard format for the album. Apart from relatively minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, the term album had been carried forward from the early nineteenth century when it had been used for collections of short pieces of music. Later, collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums, as part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some commenters have declared that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. Sometimes shorter albums are referred to as mini-albums or EPs, Albums such as Tubular Bells, Hergest Ridge by Mike Oldfield, and Yess Close to the Edge, include fewer than four tracks.
There are no rules against artists such as Pinhead Gunpowder referring to their own releases under thirty minutes as albums. These are known as box sets, material is stored on an album in sections termed tracks, normally 11 or 12 tracks. A music track is a song or instrumental recording. The term is associated with popular music where separate tracks are known as album tracks. When vinyl records were the medium for audio recordings a track could be identified visually from the grooves
Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music. Building from the structure of thrash metal and early black metal. Bands such as Venom, Celtic Frost and Kreator were important influences on the genres creation and Death, along with bands such as Obituary and Morbid Angel, are often considered pioneers of the genre. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, death metal gained more attention as popular genre niche record labels like Combat, Earache. Since then, death metal has diversified, spawning several subgenres, melodic death metal combines death metal elements with those of the new wave of British heavy metal. Technical death metal is a style, with uncommon time signatures, atypical rhythms. Death-doom combines the deep growled vocals and double-kick drumming of death metal with the slow tempos, deathgrind and pornogrind mix the complexity of death metal with the intensity and brevity of grindcore. Deathcore combines death metal with metalcore traits, Death n roll combines death metals growled vocals and highly distorted, detuned guitar riffs with elements of 1970s hard rock and heavy metal.
English heavy metal band Venom, from Newcastle, crystallized the elements of what became known as thrash metal, death metal and black metal. Their dark, blistering sound, harsh vocals, and macabre, another highly influential band, formed in 1981. Although the band was a metal act, Slayers music was more violent than their thrash contemporaries Metallica, Megadeth. Their breakneck speed and instrumental prowess combined with lyrics about death, war, according to AllMusic, their third album Reign in Blood inspired the entire death metal genre. It had a big impact on the genre such as Death, Obituary. While attributed as having a Slayer influence and former members of the band had actually cited Venom and Motörhead, as well as work by Exodus. Possessed arguably did more to further the cause of Death Metal than any of the acts on the scene back in the mid-late 80s. During the same period as the dawn of Possessed, an influential metal band was formed in Florida. Death, originally called Mantas, was formed in 1983 by Chuck Schuldiner, Kam Lee, in 1984 they released their first demo entitled Death by Metal, followed by several more.
The tapes circulated through the tape trader world, quickly establishing the bands name, with Death guitarist Schuldiner adopting vocal duties, the band made a major impact on the scene
Hatesphere is a Danish death and thrash metal band from Aarhus. The band was formed in 1998 by guitarist Peter Pepe Hansen, as of 2017, the band consists of vocalist Esben Esse Elnegaard Kjaer Hansen, guitarists Peter Pepe Lyse Hansen, and Kasper Kirkegaard, bass player Jimmy Nedergaard and drummer Mike Park Nielsen. The band has released nine albums and two EPs to date, hateSphere’s first three albums, Bloodred Hatred and Ballet of the Brute, upgraded the band’s status from local sensation to Europe’s hottest up and coming thrash quintet. In 2005, HateSphere inked a deal with SPV Records and assembled a team of established Danish producers, including Tommy Hansen, Jacob Hansen. The Sickness Within was released in September of that year receiving rave reviews from the worldwide metal media. The pure ferocity and brutal grooves enshrined in the album, landed HateSphere on multiple tours of Europe with Kreator, Morbid Angel, Dark Tranquillity, and Chimaira. In addition to headlining shows in support of The Sickness Within, the band made appearances at Wacken Open Air, Metal Camp, HateSphere again made history by being the first Danish band to tour China.
Serpent Smiles and Killer Eyes shot up to position 26 on the Danish National Music Charts, soon thereafter, HateSphere amicably parted ways with vocalist Jacob Bredahl, who chose to concentrate on other musical endeavors. All doubt cast over the band’s lineup instantly shattered as the hit the ground running with a monthlong co-headlining tour of Europe with Swedish legends Dismember. HateSphere was indeed back in business, HateSphere entered Antfarm Studios in November 2008 to record the next album entitled To the Nines. To the Nines was recorded and mastered in less than a month under the leadership of longtime friend and producer Tue Madsen at AntFarm Studios in Aarhus and was released by Napalm Records. In July 2010 the band announced that a permanent replacement for Jonathan Joller Albrechtsen had been found in Esben Esse Hansen, the band toured the US and Canada September–November 2010 supporting Nevermore and Parasite Inc. In May 2011 the band announced that Gob Squad bass player Jimmy Nedergaard had joined the band, Esben Esse Hansen - vocal Peter Pepe Lyse Hansen – rhythm and lead guitar Jakob Nyholm – rhythm guitar Mike Park - drums Jimmy Nedergaard - bass Vocals Jacob Dr
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performers music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has many roles during the recording process, the roles of a producer vary. The producer may perform these roles himself, or help select the engineer, the producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record companies budget. A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording. Producers often take on an entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, contracts. In the 2010s, the industry has two kinds of producers with different roles, executive producer and music producer. Executive producers oversee project finances while music producers oversee the process of recording songs or albums. In most cases the producer is a competent arranger, composer. The producer will liaise with the engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording.
Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record, indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation actually is music director. The music producers job is to create and mold a piece of music, at the beginning of record industry, producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1950s and 1960s due to technological developments, the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously, all of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio and the performance had to be recorded. As well, for a song that used 20 instruments, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. Examples include the rock sound effects of the 1960s, e. g. playing back the sound of recorded instruments backwards or clanging the tape to produce unique sound effects.
These new instruments were electric or electronic, and thus they used instrument amplifiers, new technologies like multitracking changed the goal of recording, A producer could blend together multiple takes and edit together different sections to create the desired sound. For example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis album Bitches Brew, producers like Phil Spector and George Martin were soon creating recordings that were, in practical terms, almost impossible to realise in live performance. Producers became creative figures in the studio, other examples of such engineers includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, and Biddu