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Chemical structure of 1-hydroxypyrene
IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.152.834
Molar mass 218.26 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

1-Hydroxypyrene is a human metabolite. It can be found in urine of outdoor workers exposed to air pollution.[1]


Experiments in pig show that urinary 1-hydroxypyrene is a metabolite of pyrene, when given orally.[2]

A Mycobacterium sp. strain isolated from mangrove sediments produced 1-hydroxypyrene during the degradation of pyrene.[3]

Relationship with smoking[edit]

Highly significant differences and dose-response relationships with regard to cigarettes smoked per day were found for 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene and 1-hydroxypyrene, but not for 1-hydroxyphenanthrene.[4]


  1. ^ Ciarrocca, Manuela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Tomei, Francesco; Capozzella, Assuntina; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Bacaloni, Alessandro; Casale, Teodorico; Andrè, Jean Claude; Fioravanti, Mario; Cuartas, Maria Fernanda; Caciari, Tiziana (2013). "Is urinary 1-hydroxypyrene a valid biomarker for exposure to air pollution in outdoor workers? A meta-analysis". Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. 24 (1): 17–26. doi:10.1038/jes.2012.111. PMID 23299300. 
  2. ^ Keimig, S. D; Kirby, K. W; Morgan, D. P; Keiser, J. E; Hubert, T. D (2009). "Identification of 1-hydroxypyrene as a major metabolite of pyrene in pig urine". Xenobiotica. 13 (7): 415. doi:10.3109/00498258309052279. PMID 6659544. 
  3. ^ Zhong, Y; Luan, T; Zhou, H; Lan, C; Tam, N. F (2006). "Metabolite production in degradation of pyrene alone or in a mixture with another polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon by Mycobacterium sp". Environmental toxicology and chemistry. 25 (11): 2853–9. PMID 17089707. 
  4. ^ Heudorf, U; Angerer, J (2001). "Urinary monohydroxylated phenanthrenes and hydroxypyrene - the effects of smoking habits and changes induced by smoking on monooxygenase-mediated metabolism". International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 74 (3): 177. doi:10.1007/s004200000215. PMID 11355291.