1-Nitropropane

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1-Nitropropane
1-nitropropaan t.png
1-Nitropropane Ball and Stick.png
Names
IUPAC name
1-Nitropropane
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
Abbreviations 1-NP
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.223
EC Number 203-544-9
MeSH C035314
Properties
C3H7NO2
Molar mass 89.09 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid[1]
Odor Disagreeable[2]
Density 0.998 g/cm3
Melting point −108 °C (−162 °F; 165 K)
Boiling point 132 °C (270 °F; 405 K)
1.4 mg/L
Solubility soluble in chloroform
Vapor pressure 8 mmHg (20°C)[2]
Acidity (pKa) 17.0 [3]
Viscosity 0.844 cP
Hazards
NFPA 704
Flammability (red): no hazard codeHealth code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gasReactivity code 2: Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water. E.g., phosphorusSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
3
2
Flash point 35 °C (95 °F; 308 K)
420 °C (788 °F; 693 K)
Explosive limits 2.6-11.0%
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
800 mg/kg (mouse, oral)
455 mg/kg (rat, oral)[4]
250 mg/kg (rabbit, oral)[4]
3100 ppm (rat, 8 hr)[4]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 25 ppm (90 mg/m3)[2]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 25 ppm (90 mg/m3)[2]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
1000 ppm[2]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

1-Nitropropane (1-NP) is a solvent. It is a colorless liquid, an isomer of 2-nitropropane (2-NP), and classified as a nitro compound.

Preparation[edit]

1-nitropropane is produced industrially by the reaction of propane and nitric acid. This reaction forms four nitroalkanes: nitromethane, nitroethane, 1-nitropropane, and 2-nitropropane. 1-nitropropane is also a byproduct of the process for making 2-nitropropane, which is done by vapour phase nitration of propane.

Uses[edit]

Most 1-nitropropane is used as a starting material for other compounds. The other uses are solvent-based paints, solvent-based inks and adhesives, and as a solvent for chemical reactions.[5]

Safety[edit]

1-nitropropane is toxic to humans and can cause damage to the kidneys and liver. The vapours are irritating for the lungs and eyes and the maximum exposure rate is 25 ppm.[6] It is not known to be a carcinogen.

Reactions[edit]

1-nitropropane decomposes under the influence of heat into toxic gases. It also reacts violently with oxidizing agents and strong bases.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ - MDMS sheets
  2. ^ a b c d e "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0459". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  3. ^ Reich, Hans. "Bordwell pKa table: "Nitroalkanes"". University of Wisconsin Chemistry Department. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  4. ^ a b c "1-Nitropropane". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  5. ^ "- information sheet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-25. Retrieved 2018-08-24.
  6. ^ - MDMS sheets
  7. ^ - Dutch Wikipedia