SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

1-Propanol

1-Propanol is a primary alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH. This colorless liquid is known as propan-1-ol, 1-propyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, n-propanol, it is an isomer of 2-propanol. It is formed in small amounts during many fermentation processes and used as a solvent in the pharmaceutical industry for resins and cellulose esters. 1-Propanol shows the normal reactions of a primary alcohol. Thus it can be converted to alkyl halides. Reaction with acetic acid in the presence of an H2SO4 catalyst under Fischer esterification conditions gives propyl acetate, while refluxing propanol overnight with formic acid alone can produce propyl formate in 65% yield. Oxidation of 1-propanol with Na2Cr2O7 and H2SO4 gives only a 36% yield of propionaldehyde, therefore for this type of reaction higher yielding methods using PCC or the Swern oxidation are recommended. Oxidation with chromic acid yields propionic acid. 1-Propanol is manufactured by catalytic hydrogenation of propionaldehyde. The propionaldehyde is itself produced via the oxo process, by hydroformylation of ethylene using carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst such as cobalt octacarbonyl or a rhodium complex.

H2C=CH2 + CO + H2 → CH3CH2CH=OCH3CH2CH=O + H2 → CH3CH2CH2OHA traditional laboratory preparation of 1-propanol involves treating n-propyl iodide with moist Ag2O. 1-Propanol was discovered in 1853 by Gustave C. B. Chancel, who obtained it by fractional distillation of fusel oil. Indeed, 1-propanol is a major constituent of fusel oil, a by-product formed from certain amino acids when potatoes or grains are fermented to produce ethanol; this process is no longer a significant source of 1-propanol. 1-Propanol is thought to be similar to ethanol in its effects on the human body, but 2–4 times more potent. Oral LD50 in rats is 1870 mg/kg, it is metabolized into propionic acid. Effects include high anion gap metabolic acidosis; as of 2011, only one case of lethal 1-propanol poisoning was reported. Although this method is rare, it does exist. Propanol might be much more convenient than ethanol for inhalation because of its potency with nebulizers. 1-propanol has high octane numbers and it is suitable for engine fuel usage.

However, the production of propanol has been too expensive to make it a common fuel. The research octane number of propanol is 118 and anti-knock index is 108. Furniss, B. S.. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. TF-CRC. ISBN 0849304873. O'Neil MJ, ed.. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals and Biologicals. Merck. ISBN 091191000X. Perkin WH, Kipping FS. Organic Chemistry. London: W. & R. Chambers. ISBN 0080223540. International Chemical Safety Card 0553 NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards

Petre Mavrogheni

Petre Mavrogheni known as Petru Mavrogheni was a Romanian politician who served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 11 May until 13 July 1866 and as the Minister of Finance. Mavrogheni was born in Iași, Moldavia in 1819, he was a conservative politician who served as the Minister of Finance of Principality of Moldavia in 1861. He held the offices of Minister of Finance of Romania serving three terms from 16 February 1866 to 10 May 1866, from 15 July 1866 to 21 February 1867 and from 11 March 1871 to 7 January 1875 and office of the Minister of Foreign Affairs 11 May until 13 July 1866. Mavrogheni was the Ambassador of Romania to Italy in 1881-1882, Ottoman Empire in 1882-1885 and Austria-Hungary in 1885-1887. In 1855, Mavrogheni along with Mihail Kogălniceanu drafted a bill for a legislation which would abolish slavery of [[Roma minority in Romania roma in Moldavia. On 22 December 1855 the law was voted on and slavery was abolished

Yale Debate Association

The Yale Debate Association is Yale University's only competitive intercollegiate debate team. Founded in 1908, it is the most prolific winner of the American Parliamentary Debate Association's Club of the Year award; the YDA was the first American team to win and have the top speaker at the modern World Championships. The YDA is the fourth-ranked collegiate debate society in the world, the highest in North America. Founded in 1908, the Yale Debate Association hosted debates with Harvard and Princeton three times a year. Teams of three students each debated topics. Prominent officials— from judges, to university presidents, former United States president Grover Cleveland— determined the winners of each round; the debates were open to the public, free of charge, drew large crowds on campus. The New York Times reported that “It is as important to win this debate as to win the football match in the fall.” In 1922, Yale helped create an intercollegiate debate league with eight other institutions. The league grew to a national level when West Point hosted an open tournament in 1947.

The YDA's most recent style of debate began with the creation of the American Parliamentary Debate Association in 1982. The format of parliamentary debate differs from those used by earlier leagues; the team continues to compete in APDA today. The YDA has had two official faculty coaches; the first, John Chester Adams graduated from Yale in 1886 and coached the team from when he began teaching in 1914 to his retirement in 1941. The annual Adams Cup Debate Tournament between residential colleges at Yale is named in his honor; the second, professor of history and oratory Rollin G. Osterweis, coached the team after Adams’ retirement until his own in 1979. Former students of Osterweis include 2004 presidential candidates George Bush. "Rollie Osterweis, who coached the debaters, always said that Bill Buckley and John Kerry were the best speakers he'd worked with," Yale graduate Harvey Bundy told The New York Times in 2004. Among those who acted as assistant coaches under Osterweis was John O'Leary a student at the law school and the United States Ambassador to Chile.

As noted below, the team now hosts a tournament for local Connecticut schools in memory of Rollin Osterweis. The Yale Debate Association is run by a board of students who are elected by the team as a whole each year; this board is entrusted to handle nearly all responsibilities associated with running the team. The Executive Board consists of five members: the President, the Director of Development, the Director of Membership, the Tournament Coordinator, the Treasurer. YDA membership is competitive and tryouts are held in the beginning of Yale's fall semester for those wishing to join the team. Once admitted, members remain on the team for the remainder of their time at Yale; the team consists of 40-50 members. The Yale Debate Association competes in the American Parliamentary style of debate as a member of the American Parliamentary Debate Association, an intercollegiate debate association with dozens of member universities across the United States; the YDA competes weekly at tournaments throughout the country.

Members of the team have been active in the governance of the league, including election to the executive board of APDA. YDA members who have served as President of APDA include Andrew Rohrbach, Andrew Korn, Scott Luftglass. In addition to competition within APDA, the YDA competes internationally; the YDA competes at the North American Debating Championships, at the World Universities Debating Championships, at other Inter-Varsity debate tournaments. The YDA is ranked as the best collegiate debate organization in the world, ahead of the University of Sydney Union and the Oxford Union, according to the ranking methodology developed by iDebate, a major debating news website; the World Universities Debating Championships is conducted in the British Parliamentary style of debate. The YDA competes annually at WUDC and has had more top speakers at WUDC than any other American university, was the first team from the United States to reach the WUDC final round. Teams from across the United States and Canada attend the annual North American Championships.

The style of debate is similar to American parliamentary. The YDA has won the tournament three times, more than any other American team. In addition to these tournaments, the YDA competes at the Oxford and Cambridge Inter-varsity tournaments. Yale debaters won the Oxford Invitational most in 2009, as well as in 2006 The Yale Invitational is a nationwide National Forensic League tournament for high school students. Students come from across the country to compete in twelve events. Traditionally, quarter-finalists in Varsity Lincoln-Douglas, octo-finalists in Public Forum Debate, Congressional Debate Super Session participants earn a bid to the Tournament of Champions; the Yale Invitational has been hosted on Yale University's campus every fall since 1993. The organizational aspects of the tournament are run by student members of the YDA; the competition itself is directed by a core of experienced coaches who are familiar with tabulation and tournament direction. The Yale Inter-Varsity Debate Tournament is an annual international debate tournament for college students held in British Parliamentary style.

It was first held in 2006. The organizational aspects of the tournament are run by members of the YDA; the adjudication team is led b