Oxamide

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Oxamide
Oxamide
Oxamide
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Oxamide[1]
Systematic IUPAC name
Ethanediamide
Other names
Oxalamide
Oxamimidic acid
Diaminoglyoxal
Oxalic acid diamide
1-Carbamoyl-formimidic acid
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.006.767
EC Number 207-442-5
Properties
C2H4N2O2
Molar mass 88.0654 g/mol
Appearance White powder
Density 1.667 g/cm3
Soluble
Solubility ethanol
-39.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Hazards
Mild Irritant (6.1)
R-phrases (outdated) R36
S-phrases (outdated) S25
Flash point > 300 °C (572 °F; 573 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Oxamide is the organic compound with the formula (CONH2)2. This white crystalline solid is soluble in ethanol, slightly soluble in water and insoluble in diethyl ether. Oxamide is the diamide derived from oxalic acid.

Preparation[edit]

Oxamide is produced from hydrogen cyanide, which is oxidized to cyanogen, which is then hydrolyzed.[2]

According to Brown et al.[3] it can also be prepared from formamide by glow-discharge electrolysis.

Application[edit]

The main application is as a substitute for urea in fertilizers. Oxamide hydrolyzes (releases ammonia) very slowly, which is sometimes preferred vs the quick release by urea.

It is used as a stabilizer for nitrocellulose preparations, it also finds use in APCP rocket motors as a high performance burn rate suppressant. The use of oxamide in concentrations of 1-3 wt% has shown to slow the linear burn rate while having minimal impact on propellant specific impulse.

Reactions[edit]

Upon heating above 350 °C, it decomposes to cyanogen and water. Oxamide derivatives form self-assembled monolayers consisting of a hydrogen bonded network.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014. p. 841. doi:10.1039/9781849733069-FP001. ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. 
  2. ^ Wilhelm Riemenschneider, Minoru Tanifuji "Oxalic Acid" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi: 10.1002/14356007.a18_247.
  3. ^ Brown, E. H.; Wilhide, W. D.; Elmore, K. L. (1962). "A New Method for the Preparation of Oxamide". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 27 (10): 3698. doi:10.1021/jo01057a516. 
  4. ^ Nguyen T.L., Fowler F.W., Lauher J.W., "Commensurate and incommensurate hydrogen bonds. An exercise in crystal engineering." Journal of the American Chemical Society, 123(44), pp. 11057-64, 2001. doi:10.1021/ja016635v