1.
9 (number)
–
9 is the natural number following 8 and preceding 10. In the NATO phonetic alphabet, the digit 9 is called Niner, five-digit produce PLU codes that begin with 9 are organic. Common terminal digit in psychological pricing, Nine is a number that appears often in Indian Culture and mythology. Nine influencers are attested in Indian astrology, in the Vaisheshika branch of Hindu philosophy, there are nine universal substances or elements, Earth, Water, Air, Fire, Ether, Time, Space, Soul, and Mind. Navaratri is a festival dedicated to the nine forms of Durga. Navaratna, meaning 9 jewels may also refer to Navaratnas - accomplished courtiers, Navratan - a kind of dish, according to Yoga, the human body has nine doors - two eyes, two ears, the mouth, two nostrils, and the openings for defecation and procreation. In Indian aesthetics, there are nine kinds of Rasa, Nine is considered a good number in Chinese culture because it sounds the same as the word long-lasting. Nine is strongly associated with the Chinese dragon, a symbol of magic, there are nine forms of the dragon, it is described in terms of nine attributes, and it has nine children. It has 117 scales –81 yang and 36 yin, all three numbers are multiples of 9 as well as having the same digital root of 9. The dragon often symbolizes the Emperor, and the number nine can be found in many ornaments in the Forbidden City, the name of the area called Kowloon in Hong Kong literally means, nine dragons. The nine-dotted line delimits certain island claims by China in the South China Sea, the nine-rank system was a civil service nomination system used during certain Chinese dynasties. 9 Points of the Heart / Heart Master Channels in Traditional Chinese Medicine, the nine bows is a term used in Ancient Egypt to represent the traditional enemies of Egypt. The Ennead is a group of nine Egyptian deities, who, in versions of the Osiris myth. The Nine Worthies are nine historical, or semi-legendary figures who, in Norse mythology, the universe is divided into nine worlds which are all connected by the world tree Yggdrasil. The nine Muses in Greek mythology are Calliope, Clio, Erato, Euterpe, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore, Thalia and it takes nine days to fall from heaven to earth, and nine more to fall from earth to Tartarus—a place of torment in the underworld. Leto labored for nine days and nine nights for Apollo, according to the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo, according to Georges Ifrah, the origin of the 9 integers can be attributed to ancient Indian civilization, and was adopted by subsequent civilizations in conjunction with the 0. In the beginning, various Indians wrote 9 similar to the modern closing question mark without the bottom dot, the Kshatrapa, Andhra and Gupta started curving the bottom vertical line coming up with a 3-look-alike. The Nagari continued the bottom stroke to make a circle and enclose the 3-look-alike, as time went on, the enclosing circle became bigger and its line continued beyond the circle downwards, as the 3-look-alike became smaller
2.
10 (number)
–
10 is an even natural number following 9 and preceding 11. Ten is the base of the numeral system, by far the most common system of denoting numbers in both spoken and written language. The reason for the choice of ten is assumed to be that humans have ten fingers, a collection of ten items is called a decade. The ordinal adjective is decimal, the adjective is denary. Increasing a quantity by one order of magnitude is most widely understood to mean multiplying the quantity by ten, to reduce something by one tenth is to decimate. A theoretical highest number in topics that require a rating, by contrast having 0 or 1 as the lowest number, Ten is a composite number, its proper divisors being 1,2 and 5. Ten is the smallest noncototient, a number that cannot be expressed as the difference between any integer and the number of coprimes below it. Ten is the discrete semiprime and the second member of the discrete semiprime family. Ten has an aliquot sum σ of 8 and is accordingly the first discrete semiprime to be in deficit, all subsequent discrete semiprimes are in deficit. The aliquot sequence for 10 comprises five members with this number being the second member of the 7-aliquot tree. Ten is the smallest semiprime that is the sum of all the prime numbers from its lower factor through its higher factor Only three other small semiprimes share this attribute. It is the sum of only one number the discrete semiprime 14. Ten is the sum of the first three numbers, of the four first numbers, of the square of the two first odd numbers and also of the first four factorials. Ten is the eighth Perrin number, preceded in the sequence by 5,5,7, a polygon with ten sides is a decagon, and 10 is a decagonal number. Because 10 is the product of a power of 2 with nothing but distinct Fermat primes, Ten is also a triangular number, a centered triangular number, and a tetrahedral number. Ten is the number of n queens problem solutions for n =5, Ten is the smallest number whose status as a possible friendly number is unknown. As is the case for any base in its system, ten is the first two-digit number in decimal, any integer written in the decimal system can be multiplied by ten by adding a zero to the end. The Roman numeral for ten is X, it is thought that the V for five is derived from an open hand, incidentally, the Chinese word numeral for ten, is also a cross, 十
3.
12 (number)
–
12 is the natural number following 11 and preceding 13. The product of the first three factorials, twelve is a highly composite number, divisible by 2,3,4. It is central to systems of counting, including the Western calendar and units of time. The word twelve is the largest number with a name in English. Such uses gradually disappeared with the introduction of Arabic numerals during the 12th-century Renaissance and it derives from the Old English twelf and tuelf, first attested in the 10th-century Lindisfarne Gospels Book of John. It has cognates in every Germanic language, whose Proto-Germanic ancestor has been reconstructed as *twaliƀi, from *twa and suffix *-lif- or *-liƀ- of uncertain meaning. It is sometimes compared with the Lithuanian dvýlika, although -lika is used as the suffix for all numbers from 11 to 19, every other Indo-European language instead uses a form of two+ten, such as the Latin duōdecim. The usual ordinal form is twelfth but dozenth or duodecimal is also used in some contexts, similarly, a group of twelve things is usually a dozen but may also be referred to as a duodecad. The adjective referring to a group of twelve is duodecuple, as with eleven, the earliest forms of twelve are often considered to be connected with Proto-Germanic *liƀan or *liƀan, with the implicit meaning that two is left after having already counted to ten. The Lithuanian suffix is also considered to share a similar development, the suffix *-lif- has also been connected with reconstructions of the Proto-Germanic for ten. While, as mentioned above,12 has its own name in Germanic languages such as English and German, it is a number in many other languages, e. g. Italian dodici. In Germany, according to an old tradition, the numbers 0 through 12 were spelt out, the Duden now calls this tradition outdated and no longer valid, but many writers still follow it. Another system spells out all numbers written in one or two words, Twelve is a composite number, the smallest number with exactly six divisors, its divisors being 1,2,3,4,6 and 12. Twelve is also a composite number, the next one being twenty-four. Twelve is also a highly composite number, the next one being sixty. It is the first composite number of the form p2q, a square-prime,12 has an aliquot sum of 16. Accordingly,12 is the first abundant number and demonstrates an 8-member aliquot sequence,12 is the 3rd composite number in the 3-aliquot tree, the only number which has 12 as its aliquot sum is the square 121. Only 2 other square primes are abundant, Twelve is a sublime number, a number that has a perfect number of divisors, and the sum of its divisors is also a perfect number
4.
15 (number)
–
15 is the natural number following 14 and preceding 16. In English, it is the smallest natural number with seven letters in its spelled name, in spoken English, the numbers 15 and 50 are often confused because they sound similar. When carefully enunciated, they differ in which syllable is stressed,15 /fɪfˈtiːn/ vs 50 /ˈfɪfti/, however, in dates such as 1500 or when contrasting numbers in the teens, the stress generally shifts to the first syllable,15 /ˈfɪftiːn/. In a 24-hour clock, the hour is in conventional language called three or three oclock. A composite number, its divisors being 1,3 and 5. A repdigit in binary and quaternary, in hexadecimal, as well as all higher bases,15 is represented as F. the 4th discrete semiprime and the first member of the discrete semiprime family. It is thus the first odd discrete semiprime, the number proceeding 15,14 is itself a discrete semiprime and this is the first such pair of discrete semiprimes. The next example is the pair commencing 21, the smallest number that can be factorized using Shors quantum algorithm. With only two exceptions, all prime quadruplets enclose a multiple of 15, with 15 itself being enclosed by the quadruplet, the aliquot sum of 15 is 9, a square prime 15 has an aliquot sequence of 6 members. 15 is the composite number in the 3-aliquot tree. The abundant 12 is also a member of this tree, fifteen is the aliquot sum of the consecutive 4-power 16, and the discrete semiprime 33. 15 and 16 form a Ruth-Aaron pair under the definition in which repeated prime factors are counted as often as they occur. There are 15 solutions to Známs problem of length 7, if a positive definite quadratic form with integer matrix represents all positive integers up to 15, then it represents all positive integers via the 15 and 290 theorems. Group 15 of the table are sometimes known as the pnictogens. 15 Madadgar is designated as a number in Pakistan, for mobile phones, similar to the international GSM emergency number 112, if 112 is used in Pakistan. 112 can be used in an emergency if the phone is locked. The Hanbali Sunni madhab states that the age of fifteen of a solar or lunar calendar is when ones taklif begins and is the stage whereby one has his deeds recorded. In the Hebrew numbering system, the number 15 is not written according to the method, with the letters that represent 10 and 5
5.
17 (number)
–
17 is the natural number following 16 and preceding 18. In spoken English, the numbers 17 and 70 are sometimes confused because they sound similar, when carefully enunciated, they differ in which syllable is stressed,17 /sɛvənˈtiːn/ vs 70 /ˈsɛvənti/. However, in such as 1789 or when contrasting numbers in the teens, such as 16,17,18. The number 17 has wide significance in pure mathematics, as well as in applied sciences, law, music, religion, sports,17 is the sum of the first 4 prime numbers. In a 24-hour clock, the hour is in conventional language called five or five oclock. Seventeen is the 7th prime number, the next prime is nineteen, with which it forms a twin prime. 17 is the sixth Mersenne prime exponent, yielding 131071,17 is an Eisenstein prime with no imaginary part and real part of the form 3n −1. 17 is the third Fermat prime, as it is of the form 22n +1, specifically with n =2, since 17 is a Fermat prime, regular heptadecagons can be constructed with compass and unmarked ruler. This was proven by Carl Friedrich Gauss,17 is the only positive Genocchi number that is prime, the only negative one being −3. It is also the third Stern prime,17 is the average of the first two Perfect numbers. 17 is the term of the Euclid–Mullin sequence. Seventeen is the sum of the semiprime 39, and is the aliquot sum of the semiprime 55. There are exactly 17 two-dimensional space groups and these are sometimes called wallpaper groups, as they represent the seventeen possible symmetry types that can be used for wallpaper. Like 41, the number 17 is a prime that yields primes in the polynomial n2 + n + p, the maximum possible length of such a sequence is 17. Either 16 or 18 unit squares can be formed into rectangles with equal to the area. 17 is the tenth Perrin number, preceded in the sequence by 7,10,12, in base 9, the smallest prime with a composite sum of digits is 17. 17 is the least random number, according to the Hackers Jargon File and it is a repunit prime in hexadecimal. 17 is the possible number of givens for a sudoku puzzle with a unique solution
6.
19 (number)
–
19 is the natural number following 18 and preceding 20. In a 24-hour clock, the hour is in conventional language called seven or seven oclock. 19 is the 8th prime number, the sequence continues 23,29,31,37. 19 is the seventh Mersenne prime exponent,19 is the fifth happy number and the third happy prime. 19 is the sum of two odd discrete semiprimes,65 and 77 and is the base of the 19-aliquot tree. 19 is the number of fourth powers needed to sum up to any natural number. It is the value of g.19 is the lowest prime centered triangular number, a centered hexagonal number. The only non-trivial normal magic hexagon contains 19 hexagons,19 is the first number with more than one digit that can be written from base 2 to base 19 using only the digits 0 to 9, the other number is 20. 19 is The TCP/IP port used for chargen, astronomy, Every 19 years, the solar year and the lunar year align in whats known as the metonic cycle. Quran code, There have been claims that patterns of the number 19 are present a number of times in the Quran. The Number of Verse and Sura together in the Quran which announces Jesus son of Maryams birth, in the Bábí and Baháí faiths, a group of 19 is called a Váhid, a Unity. The numerical value of this word in the Abjad numeral system is 19, the Baháí calendar is structured such that a year contains 19 months of 19 days each, as well as a 19-year cycle and a 361-year supercycle. The Báb and his disciples formed a group of 19, There were 19 Apostles of Baháulláh. With a similar name and anti-Vietnam War theme, I Was Only Nineteen by the Australian group Redgum reached number one on the Australian charts in 1983, in 2005 a hip hop version of the song was produced by The Herd. 19 is the name of Adeles 2008 debut album, so named since she was 19 years old at the time, hey Nineteen is a song by American jazz rock band Steely Dan, written by members Walter Becker and Donald Fagen, and released on their 1980 album Gaucho. Nineteen has been used as an alternative to twelve for a division of the octave into equal parts and this idea goes back to Salinas in the sixteenth century, and is interesting in part because it gives a system of meantone tuning, being close to 1/3 comma meantone. Some organs use the 19th harmonic to approximate a minor third and they refer to the ka-tet of 19, Directive Nineteen, many names add up to 19,19 seems to permeate every aspect of Roland and his travelers lives. In addition, the ends up being a powerful key
7.
20 (number)
–
20 is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21. A group of twenty units may also be referred to as a score,20 is a tetrahedral number as 1,4,10,20. 20 is the basis for vigesimal number systems,20 is the third composite number comprising the product of a squared prime and a prime, and also the second member of the q family in this form. 20 has a sum of 22. Accordingly,20 is the abundant number and demonstrates an 8-member aliquot sequence. 20 is the smallest primitive abundant number,20 is the 4th composite number in the 7-aliquot tree. Two numbers have 20 as their sum, the discrete semiprime 34. Only 2 other square primes are abundant 12 and 18,20 can be written as the sum of three Fibonacci numbers uniquely, i. e.20 =13 +5 +2. The product of the number of divisors and the number of divisors of 20 is exactly 20. 20 is the number of required to optimally solve a Rubiks Cube in the worst case. 20 is the number with more than one digit that can be written from base 2 to base 20 using only the digits 0 to 9. The third magic number in physics, the IAU shower number for Coma Berenicids. The number of amino acids that are encoded by the standard genetic code. In some countries, the number 20 is used as an index in measuring visual acuity, 20/20 indicates normal vision at 20 feet, although it is commonly used to mean perfect vision. When someone is able to see only after an event how things turned out, the Baltimore Orioles and Cincinnati Reds, both for Hall of Famer Frank Robinson. The Kansas City Royals, for Frank White, the Los Angeles Dodgers, for Hall of Famer Don Sutton. The Philadelphia Phillies, for Hall of Famer Mike Schmidt, the Pittsburgh Pirates, for Hall of Famer Pie Traynor. The St. Louis Cardinals, for Hall of Famer Lou Brock, the San Francisco Giants, for Hall of Famer Monte Irvin, who played for the team when it was the New York Giants
8.
Integer
–
An integer is a number that can be written without a fractional component. For example,21,4,0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, 5 1⁄2, the set of integers consists of zero, the positive natural numbers, also called whole numbers or counting numbers, and their additive inverses. This is often denoted by a boldface Z or blackboard bold Z standing for the German word Zahlen, ℤ is a subset of the sets of rational and real numbers and, like the natural numbers, is countably infinite. The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers, in algebraic number theory, the integers are sometimes called rational integers to distinguish them from the more general algebraic integers. In fact, the integers are the integers that are also rational numbers. Like the natural numbers, Z is closed under the operations of addition and multiplication, that is, however, with the inclusion of the negative natural numbers, and, importantly,0, Z is also closed under subtraction. The integers form a ring which is the most basic one, in the following sense, for any unital ring. This universal property, namely to be an object in the category of rings. Z is not closed under division, since the quotient of two integers, need not be an integer, although the natural numbers are closed under exponentiation, the integers are not. The following lists some of the properties of addition and multiplication for any integers a, b and c. In the language of algebra, the first five properties listed above for addition say that Z under addition is an abelian group. As a group under addition, Z is a cyclic group, in fact, Z under addition is the only infinite cyclic group, in the sense that any infinite cyclic group is isomorphic to Z. The first four properties listed above for multiplication say that Z under multiplication is a commutative monoid. However, not every integer has an inverse, e. g. there is no integer x such that 2x =1, because the left hand side is even. This means that Z under multiplication is not a group, all the rules from the above property table, except for the last, taken together say that Z together with addition and multiplication is a commutative ring with unity. It is the prototype of all objects of algebraic structure. Only those equalities of expressions are true in Z for all values of variables, note that certain non-zero integers map to zero in certain rings. The lack of zero-divisors in the means that the commutative ring Z is an integral domain
9.
Negative number
–
In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero. If positive represents movement to the right, negative represents movement to the left, if positive represents above sea level, then negative represents below level. If positive represents a deposit, negative represents a withdrawal and they are often used to represent the magnitude of a loss or deficiency. A debt that is owed may be thought of as a negative asset, if a quantity may have either of two opposite senses, then one may choose to distinguish between those senses—perhaps arbitrarily—as positive and negative. In the medical context of fighting a tumor, an expansion could be thought of as a negative shrinkage, negative numbers are used to describe values on a scale that goes below zero, such as the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales for temperature. The laws of arithmetic for negative numbers ensure that the common idea of an opposite is reflected in arithmetic. For example, − −3 =3 because the opposite of an opposite is the original thing, negative numbers are usually written with a minus sign in front. For example, −3 represents a quantity with a magnitude of three, and is pronounced minus three or negative three. To help tell the difference between a subtraction operation and a number, occasionally the negative sign is placed slightly higher than the minus sign. Conversely, a number that is greater than zero is called positive, the positivity of a number may be emphasized by placing a plus sign before it, e. g. +3. In general, the negativity or positivity of a number is referred to as its sign, every real number other than zero is either positive or negative. The positive whole numbers are referred to as natural numbers, while the positive and negative numbers are referred to as integers. In bookkeeping, amounts owed are often represented by red numbers, or a number in parentheses, Liu Hui established rules for adding and subtracting negative numbers. By the 7th century, Indian mathematicians such as Brahmagupta were describing the use of negative numbers, islamic mathematicians further developed the rules of subtracting and multiplying negative numbers and solved problems with negative coefficients. Western mathematicians accepted the idea of numbers by the 17th century. Prior to the concept of numbers, mathematicians such as Diophantus considered negative solutions to problems false. Negative numbers can be thought of as resulting from the subtraction of a number from a smaller. For example, negative three is the result of subtracting three from zero,0 −3 = −3, in general, the subtraction of a larger number from a smaller yields a negative result, with the magnitude of the result being the difference between the two numbers
10.
30 (number)
–
30 is the natural number following 29 and preceding 31. Thirty is the sum of the first four squares, which makes it a square pyramidal number and it is a primorial and is the smallest Giuga number. 30 is the smallest sphenic number, and the smallest of the form 2 ×3 × r,30 has an aliquot sum of 42, the second sphenic number and all sphenic numbers of this form have an aliquot sum 12 greater than themselves. The aliquot sequence of 30 is 16 members long, it comprises Thirty has but one number for which it is the aliquot sum, adding up some subsets of its divisors gives 30, hence 30 is a semiperfect number. 30 is the largest number such that all smaller than itself. A polygon with thirty sides is called a triacontagon, the icosahedron and the dodecahedron are Platonic solids with 30 edges. The icosidodecahedron is an Archimedean solid with 30 vertices, and the Tutte–Coxeter graph is a graph with 30 vertices. The atomic number of zinc is 30 Messier object M30, a magnitude 8, the duration of Saros series 30 was 1496.5 years, and it contained 84 solar eclipses. Further, the Saros number of the lunar eclipse series began on June 19,1803 BC. The duration of Saros series 30 was 1316.2 years, Thirty is, Used to indicate the end of a newspaper story, a copy editors typographical notation. S. Judas Iscariot betrayed Jesus for 30 pieces of silver, one of the rallying-cries of the 1960s student/youth protest movement was the slogan, Dont trust anyone over thirty. In Franz Kafkas novel The Trial Joseph wakes up on the morning of his birthday to find himself under arrest for an unspecified crime. After making many attempts to find the nature of the crime or the name of his accuser. The number of uprights that formed the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge, western Christianitys most prolific 20th century essayist, F. W. Also in that essay Boreham writes It was said of Keats, in tennis, the number 30 represents the second point gained in a game. Under NCAA rules for basketball, the offensive team has 30 seconds to attempt a shot. As of 2012, three of the four major leagues in the United States and Canada have 30 teams each. The California Angels baseball team retired the number in honor of its most notable wearer, Nolan Ryan, the San Francisco Giants extended the same honor to Orlando Cepeda
11.
40 (number)
–
Despite being related to the word four, the modern spelling of 40 is forty. The archaic form fourty is now considered a misspelling, the modern spelling possibly reflects a pronunciation change due to the horse–hoarse merger. Forty is a number, an octagonal number, and as the sum of the first four pentagonal numbers. Adding up some subsets of its divisors gives 40, hence 40 is a semiperfect number, given 40, the Mertens function returns 0. 40 is the smallest number n with exactly 9 solutions to the equation φ = n, Forty is the number of n-queens problem solutions for n =7. Since 402 +1 =1601 is prime,40 is a Størmer number,40 is a repdigit in base 3 and a Harshad number in base 10. Negative forty is the temperature at which the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales correspond. It is referred to as either minus forty or forty below, the planet Venus forms a pentagram in the night sky every eight years with it returning to its original point every 40 years with a 40-day regression. The duration of Saros series 40 was 1280.1 years, lunar eclipse series which began on -1387 February 12 and ended on -71 April 12. The duration of Saros series 40 was 1316.2 years, the number 40 is used in Jewish, Christian, Islamic, and other Middle Eastern traditions to represent a large, approximate number, similar to umpteen. In the Hebrew Bible, forty is often used for periods, forty days or forty years. Rain fell for forty days and forty nights during the Flood, spies explored the land of Israel for forty days. The Hebrew people lived in the Sinai desert for forty years and this period of years represents the time it takes for a new generation to arise. Moses life is divided into three 40-year segments, separated by his growing to adulthood, fleeing from Egypt, and his return to lead his people out, several Jewish leaders and kings are said to have ruled for forty years, that is, a generation. Examples include Eli, Saul, David, and Solomon, goliath challenged the Israelites twice a day for forty days before David defeated him. He went up on the day of Tammuz to beg forgiveness for the peoples sin. He went up on the first day of Elul and came down on the day of Tishrei. A mikvah consists of 40 seah of water 40 lashes is one of the punishments meted out by the Sanhedrin, One of the prerequisites for a man to study Kabbalah is that he is forty years old
12.
60 (number)
–
60 is the natural number following 59 and preceding 61. Being three times 20, it is called three score in older literature. It is a number, with divisors 1,2,3,4,5,6,10,12,15,20,30. Because it is the sum of its divisors, it is a unitary perfect number. Being ten times a number, it is a semiperfect number. It is the smallest number divisible by the numbers 1 to 6 and it is the smallest number with exactly 12 divisors. It is the sum of a pair of twin primes and the sum of four consecutive primes and it is adjacent to two primes. It is the smallest number that is the sum of two odd primes in six ways, the smallest non-solvable group has order 60. There are four Archimedean solids with 60 vertices, the icosahedron, the rhombicosidodecahedron, the snub dodecahedron. The skeletons of these polyhedra form 60-node vertex-transitive graphs, there are also two Archimedean solids with 60 edges, the snub cube and the icosidodecahedron. The skeleton of the forms a 60-edge symmetric graph. There are 60 one-sided hexominoes, the polyominoes made from six squares, in geometry, it is the number of seconds in a minute, and the number of minutes in a degree. In normal space, the three angles of an equilateral triangle each measure 60 degrees, adding up to 180 degrees. Because it is divisible by the sum of its digits in base 10, a number system with base 60 is called sexagesimal. It is the smallest positive integer that is written only the smallest. The first fullerene to be discovered was buckminsterfullerene C60, an allotrope of carbon with 60 atoms in each molecule and this ball is known as a buckyball, and looks like a soccer ball. The atomic number of neodymium is 60, and cobalt-60 is an isotope of cobalt. The electrical utility frequency in western Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, the United States, and several other countries in the Americas is 60 Hz
13.
80 (number)
–
80 is the natural number following 79 and preceding 81. 80 is, the sum of Eulers totient function φ over the first sixteen integers, a semiperfect number, since adding up some subsets of its divisors gives 80. Palindromic in bases 3,6,9,15,19 and 39, a repdigit in bases 3,9,15,19 and 39. A Harshad number in bases 2,3,4,5,6,7,9,10,11,13,15 and 16 The Pareto principle states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes. Every solvable configuration of the Fifteen puzzle can be solved in no more than 80 single-tile moves, the atomic number of mercury According to Exodus 7,7, Moses was 80 years old when he initially spoke to Pharaoh on behalf of his people. Today,80 years of age is the age limit for cardinals to vote in papal elections. Jerry Rice wore the number 80 for the majority of his NFL career
14.
90 (number)
–
90 is the natural number preceded by 89 and followed by 91. In English speech, the numbers 90 and 19 are often confused, when carefully enunciated, they differ in which syllable is stressed,19 /naɪnˈtiːn/ vs 90 /ˈnaɪnti/. However, in such as 1999, and when contrasting numbers in the teens and when counting, such as 17,18,19. 90 is, a perfect number because it is the sum of its unitary divisors. A semiperfect number because it is equal to the sum of a subset of its divisors, a Perrin number, preceded in the sequence by 39,51,68. Palindromic and a repdigit in bases 14,17,29, a Harshad number since 90 is divisible by the sum of its base 10 digits. In normal space, the angles of a rectangle measure 90 degrees each. Also, in a triangle, the angle opposing the hypotenuse measures 90 degrees. Thus, an angle measuring 90 degrees is called a right angle, ninety is, the atomic number of thorium, an actinide. As an atomic weight,90 identifies an isotope of strontium, the latitude in degrees of the North and the South geographical poles. NFL, New York Jets Dennis Byrds #90 is retired +90 is the code for international direct dial phone calls to Turkey,90 is the code for the French département Belfort
15.
100 (number)
–
100 or one hundred is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. In medieval contexts, it may be described as the hundred or five score in order to differentiate the English. The standard SI prefix for a hundred is hecto-,100 is the basis of percentages, with 100% being a full amount. 100 is the sum of the first nine prime numbers, as well as the sum of pairs of prime numbers e. g.3 +97,11 +89,17 +83,29 +71,41 +59. 100 is the sum of the cubes of the first four integers and this is related by Nicomachuss theorem to the fact that 100 also equals the square of the sum of the first four integers,100 =102 =2. 26 +62 =100, thus 100 is a Leyland number and it is divisible by the number of primes below it,25 in this case. It can not be expressed as the difference between any integer and the total of coprimes below it, making it a noncototient and it can be expressed as a sum of some of its divisors, making it a semiperfect number. 100 is a Harshad number in base 10, and also in base 4, there are exactly 100 prime numbers whose digits are in strictly ascending order. 100 is the smallest number whose common logarithm is a prime number,100 senators are in the U. S One hundred is the atomic number of fermium, an actinide. On the Celsius scale,100 degrees is the temperature of pure water at sea level. The Kármán line lies at an altitude of 100 kilometres above the Earths sea level and is used to define the boundary between Earths atmosphere and outer space. There are 100 blasts of the Shofar heard in the service of Rosh Hashana, a religious Jew is expected to utter at least 100 blessings daily. In Hindu Religion - Mythology Book Mahabharata - Dhritarashtra had 100 sons known as kauravas, the United States Senate has 100 Senators. Most of the currencies are divided into 100 subunits, for example, one euro is one hundred cents. The 100 Euro banknotes feature a picture of a Rococo gateway on the obverse, the U. S. hundred-dollar bill has Benjamin Franklins portrait, the Benjamin is the largest U. S. bill in print. American savings bonds of $100 have Thomas Jeffersons portrait, while American $100 treasury bonds have Andrew Jacksons portrait, One hundred is also, The number of years in a century. The number of pounds in an American short hundredweight, in Greece, India, Israel and Nepal,100 is the police telephone number. In Belgium,100 is the ambulance and firefighter telephone number, in United Kingdom,100 is the operator telephone number
16.
Numeral system
–
A numeral system is a writing system for expressing numbers, that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner. It can be seen as the context that allows the symbols 11 to be interpreted as the symbol for three, the decimal symbol for eleven, or a symbol for other numbers in different bases. The number the numeral represents is called its value, ideally, a numeral system will, Represent a useful set of numbers Give every number represented a unique representation Reflect the algebraic and arithmetic structure of the numbers. For example, the decimal representation of whole numbers gives every nonzero whole number a unique representation as a finite sequence of digits. Etc. all of which have the same meaning except for some scientific, such systems are, however, not the topic of this article. The most commonly used system of numerals is the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, two Indian mathematicians are credited with developing it. Aryabhata of Kusumapura developed the notation in the 5th century. The numeral system and the concept, developed by the Hindus in India, slowly spread to other surrounding countries due to their commercial. The Arabs adopted and modified it, even today, the Arabs call the numerals which they use Rakam Al-Hind or the Hindu numeral system. The Arabs translated Hindu texts on numerology and spread them to the world due to their trade links with them. The Western world modified them and called them the Arabic numerals, hence the current western numeral system is the modified version of the Hindu numeral system developed in India. It also exhibits a great similarity to the Sanskrit–Devanagari notation, which is used in India. The simplest numeral system is the numeral system, in which every natural number is represented by a corresponding number of symbols. If the symbol / is chosen, for example, then the seven would be represented by ///////. Tally marks represent one such system still in common use, the unary system is only useful for small numbers, although it plays an important role in theoretical computer science. Elias gamma coding, which is used in data compression. The unary notation can be abbreviated by introducing different symbols for new values. The ancient Egyptian numeral system was of type, and the Roman numeral system was a modification of this idea
17.
Decimal
–
This article aims to be an accessible introduction. For the mathematical definition, see Decimal representation, the decimal numeral system has ten as its base, which, in decimal, is written 10, as is the base in every positional numeral system. It is the base most widely used by modern civilizations. Decimal fractions have terminating decimal representations and other fractions have repeating decimal representations, Decimal notation is the writing of numbers in a base-ten numeral system. Examples are Brahmi numerals, Greek numerals, Hebrew numerals, Roman numerals, Roman numerals have symbols for the decimal powers and secondary symbols for half these values. Brahmi numerals have symbols for the nine numbers 1–9, the nine decades 10–90, plus a symbol for 100, Chinese numerals have symbols for 1–9, and additional symbols for powers of ten, which in modern usage reach 1072. Positional decimal systems include a zero and use symbols for the ten values to represent any number, positional notation uses positions for each power of ten, units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. The position of each digit within a number denotes the multiplier multiplied with that position has a value ten times that of the position to its right. There were at least two independent sources of positional decimal systems in ancient civilization, the Chinese counting rod system. Ten is the number which is the count of fingers and thumbs on both hands, the English word digit as well as its translation in many languages is also the anatomical term for fingers and toes. In English, decimal means tenth, decimate means reduce by a tenth, however, the symbols used in different areas are not identical, for instance, Western Arabic numerals differ from the forms used by other Arab cultures. A decimal fraction is a fraction the denominator of which is a power of ten. g, Decimal fractions 8/10, 1489/100, 24/100000, and 58900/10000 are expressed in decimal notation as 0.8,14.89,0.00024,5.8900 respectively. In English-speaking, some Latin American and many Asian countries, a period or raised period is used as the separator, in many other countries, particularly in Europe. The integer part, or integral part of a number is the part to the left of the decimal separator. The part from the separator to the right is the fractional part. It is usual for a number that consists only of a fractional part to have a leading zero in its notation. Any rational number with a denominator whose only prime factors are 2 and/or 5 may be expressed as a decimal fraction and has a finite decimal expansion. 1/2 =0.5 1/20 =0.05 1/5 =0.2 1/50 =0.02 1/4 =0.25 1/40 =0.025 1/25 =0.04 1/8 =0.125 1/125 =0.008 1/10 =0
18.
Factorization
–
In mathematics, factorization or factoring is the decomposition of an object into a product of other objects, or factors, which when multiplied together give the original. For example, the number 15 factors into primes as 3 ×5, in all cases, a product of simpler objects is obtained. The aim of factoring is usually to reduce something to “basic building blocks”, such as numbers to prime numbers, factoring integers is covered by the fundamental theorem of arithmetic and factoring polynomials by the fundamental theorem of algebra. Viètes formulas relate the coefficients of a polynomial to its roots, the opposite of polynomial factorization is expansion, the multiplying together of polynomial factors to an “expanded” polynomial, written as just a sum of terms. Integer factorization for large integers appears to be a difficult problem, there is no known method to carry it out quickly. Its complexity is the basis of the security of some public key cryptography algorithms. A matrix can also be factorized into a product of matrices of special types, One major example of this uses an orthogonal or unitary matrix, and a triangular matrix. There are different types, QR decomposition, LQ, QL, RQ and this situation is generalized by factorization systems. By the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, every integer greater than 1 has a unique prime factorization. Given an algorithm for integer factorization, one can factor any integer down to its constituent primes by repeated application of this algorithm, for very large numbers, no efficient classical algorithm is known. Modern techniques for factoring polynomials are fast and efficient, but use sophisticated mathematical ideas and these techniques are used in the construction of computer routines for carrying out polynomial factorization in Computer algebra systems. This article is concerned with classical techniques. While the general notion of factoring just means writing an expression as a product of simpler expressions, when factoring polynomials this means that the factors are to be polynomials of smaller degree. Thus, while x 2 − y = is a factorization of the expression, another issue concerns the coefficients of the factors. It is not always possible to do this, and a polynomial that can not be factored in this way is said to be irreducible over this type of coefficient, thus, x2 -2 is irreducible over the integers and x2 +4 is irreducible over the reals. In the first example, the integers 1 and -2 can also be thought of as real numbers, and if they are, then x 2 −2 = shows that this polynomial factors over the reals. Similarly, since the integers 1 and 4 can be thought of as real and hence complex numbers, x2 +4 splits over the complex numbers, i. e. x 2 +4 =. The fundamental theorem of algebra can be stated as, Every polynomial of n with complex number coefficients splits completely into n linear factors
19.
Divisor
–
In mathematics, a divisor of an integer n, also called a factor of n, is an integer m that may be multiplied by some other integer to produce n. In this case one says also that n is a multiple of m, an integer n is divisible by another integer m if m is a divisor of n, this implies dividing n by m leaves no remainder. Under this definition, the statement m ∣0 holds for every m, as before, but with the additional constraint k ≠0. Under this definition, the statement m ∣0 does not hold for m ≠0, in the remainder of this article, which definition is applied is indicated where this is significant. Divisors can be negative as well as positive, although sometimes the term is restricted to positive divisors. For example, there are six divisors of 4, they are 1,2,4, −1, −2, and −4,1 and −1 divide every integer. Every integer is a divisor of itself, every integer is a divisor of 0. Integers divisible by 2 are called even, and numbers not divisible by 2 are called odd,1, −1, n and −n are known as the trivial divisors of n. A divisor of n that is not a divisor is known as a non-trivial divisor. A non-zero integer with at least one divisor is known as a composite number, while the units −1 and 1. There are divisibility rules which allow one to recognize certain divisors of a number from the numbers digits, the generalization can be said to be the concept of divisibility in any integral domain. 7 is a divisor of 42 because 7 ×6 =42 and it can also be said that 42 is divisible by 7,42 is a multiple of 7,7 divides 42, or 7 is a factor of 42. The non-trivial divisors of 6 are 2, −2,3, the positive divisors of 42 are 1,2,3,6,7,14,21,42. 5 ∣0, because 5 ×0 =0, if a ∣ b and b ∣ a, then a = b or a = − b. If a ∣ b and a ∣ c, then a ∣ holds, however, if a ∣ b and c ∣ b, then ∣ b does not always hold. If a ∣ b c, and gcd =1, then a ∣ c, if p is a prime number and p ∣ a b then p ∣ a or p ∣ b. A positive divisor of n which is different from n is called a proper divisor or a part of n. A number that does not evenly divide n but leaves a remainder is called an aliquant part of n, an integer n >1 whose only proper divisor is 1 is called a prime number
20.
Greek numerals
–
Greek numerals are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet. These alphabetic numerals are known as Ionic or Ionian numerals, Milesian numerals. In modern Greece, they are used for ordinal numbers. For ordinary cardinal numbers, however, Greece uses Arabic numerals, attic numerals, which were later adopted as the basis for Roman numerals, were the first alphabetic set. They were acrophonic, derived from the first letters of the names of the numbers represented and they ran =1, =5, =10, =100, =1000, and =10000. 50,500,5000, and 50000 were represented by the letter with minuscule powers of ten written in the top right corner, the same system was used outside of Attica, but the symbols varied with the local alphabets, in Boeotia, was 1000. The present system probably developed around Miletus in Ionia, 19th-century classicists placed its development in the 3rd century BC, the occasion of its first widespread use. The present system uses the 24 letters adopted by Euclid as well as three Phoenician and Ionic ones that were not carried over, digamma, koppa, and sampi. The position of characters within the numbering system imply that the first two were still in use while the third was not. Greek numerals are decimal, based on powers of 10, the units from 1 to 9 are assigned to the first nine letters of the old Ionic alphabet from alpha to theta. Each multiple of one hundred from 100 to 900 was then assigned its own separate letter as well and this alphabetic system operates on the additive principle in which the numeric values of the letters are added together to obtain the total. For example,241 was represented as, in ancient and medieval manuscripts, these numerals were eventually distinguished from letters using overbars, α, β, γ, etc. In medieval manuscripts of the Book of Revelation, the number of the Beast 666 is written as χξϛ, although the Greek alphabet began with only majuscule forms, surviving papyrus manuscripts from Egypt show that uncial and cursive minuscule forms began early. These new letter forms sometimes replaced the ones, especially in the case of the obscure numerals. The old Q-shaped koppa began to be broken up and simplified, the numeral for 6 changed several times. During antiquity, the letter form of digamma came to be avoided in favor of a special numerical one. By the Byzantine era, the letter was known as episemon and this eventually merged with the sigma-tau ligature stigma. In modern Greek, a number of changes have been made
21.
Roman numerals
–
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet, Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols, The use of Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire. The numbers 1 to 10 are usually expressed in Roman numerals as follows, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, Numbers are formed by combining symbols and adding the values, so II is two and XIII is thirteen. Symbols are placed left to right in order of value. Named after the year of its release,2014 as MMXIV, the year of the games of the XXII Olympic Winter Games The standard forms described above reflect typical modern usage rather than a universally accepted convention. Usage in ancient Rome varied greatly and remained inconsistent in medieval, Roman inscriptions, especially in official contexts, seem to show a preference for additive forms such as IIII and VIIII instead of subtractive forms such as IV and IX. Both methods appear in documents from the Roman era, even within the same document, double subtractives also occur, such as XIIX or even IIXX instead of XVIII. Sometimes V and L are not used, with such as IIIIII. Such variation and inconsistency continued through the period and into modern times. Clock faces that use Roman numerals normally show IIII for four o’clock but IX for nine o’clock, however, this is far from universal, for example, the clock on the Palace of Westminster in London uses IV. Similarly, at the beginning of the 20th century, different representations of 900 appeared in several inscribed dates. For instance,1910 is shown on Admiralty Arch, London, as MDCCCCX rather than MCMX, although Roman numerals came to be written with letters of the Roman alphabet, they were originally independent symbols. The Etruscans, for example, used
22.
Unicode
–
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the worlds writing systems. As of June 2016, the most recent version is Unicode 9.0, the standard is maintained by the Unicode Consortium. Unicodes success at unifying character sets has led to its widespread, the standard has been implemented in many recent technologies, including modern operating systems, XML, Java, and the. NET Framework. Unicode can be implemented by different character encodings, the most commonly used encodings are UTF-8, UTF-16 and the now-obsolete UCS-2. UTF-8 uses one byte for any ASCII character, all of which have the same values in both UTF-8 and ASCII encoding, and up to four bytes for other characters. UCS-2 uses a 16-bit code unit for each character but cannot encode every character in the current Unicode standard, UTF-16 extends UCS-2, using one 16-bit unit for the characters that were representable in UCS-2 and two 16-bit units to handle each of the additional characters. Many traditional character encodings share a common problem in that they allow bilingual computer processing, Unicode, in intent, encodes the underlying characters—graphemes and grapheme-like units—rather than the variant glyphs for such characters. In the case of Chinese characters, this leads to controversies over distinguishing the underlying character from its variant glyphs. In text processing, Unicode takes the role of providing a unique code point—a number, in other words, Unicode represents a character in an abstract way and leaves the visual rendering to other software, such as a web browser or word processor. This simple aim becomes complicated, however, because of concessions made by Unicodes designers in the hope of encouraging a more rapid adoption of Unicode, the first 256 code points were made identical to the content of ISO-8859-1 so as to make it trivial to convert existing western text. For other examples, see duplicate characters in Unicode and he explained that he name Unicode is intended to suggest a unique, unified, universal encoding. In this document, entitled Unicode 88, Becker outlined a 16-bit character model, Unicode could be roughly described as wide-body ASCII that has been stretched to 16 bits to encompass the characters of all the worlds living languages. In a properly engineered design,16 bits per character are more than sufficient for this purpose, Unicode aims in the first instance at the characters published in modern text, whose number is undoubtedly far below 214 =16,384. By the end of 1990, most of the work on mapping existing character encoding standards had been completed, the Unicode Consortium was incorporated in California on January 3,1991, and in October 1991, the first volume of the Unicode standard was published. The second volume, covering Han ideographs, was published in June 1992, in 1996, a surrogate character mechanism was implemented in Unicode 2.0, so that Unicode was no longer restricted to 16 bits. The Microsoft TrueType specification version 1.0 from 1992 used the name Apple Unicode instead of Unicode for the Platform ID in the naming table, Unicode defines a codespace of 1,114,112 code points in the range 0hex to 10FFFFhex. Normally a Unicode code point is referred to by writing U+ followed by its hexadecimal number, for code points in the Basic Multilingual Plane, four digits are used, for code points outside the BMP, five or six digits are used, as required. Code points in Planes 1 through 16 are accessed as surrogate pairs in UTF-16, within each plane, characters are allocated within named blocks of related characters
23.
Greek language
–
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean. It has the longest documented history of any living language, spanning 34 centuries of written records and its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history, other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic and many other writing systems. Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world, during antiquity, Greek was a widely spoken lingua franca in the Mediterranean world and many places beyond. It would eventually become the official parlance of the Byzantine Empire, the language is spoken by at least 13.2 million people today in Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Albania, Turkey, and the Greek diaspora. Greek roots are used to coin new words for other languages, Greek. Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC, the earliest written evidence is a Linear B clay tablet found in Messenia that dates to between 1450 and 1350 BC, making Greek the worlds oldest recorded living language. Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now extinct Anatolian languages, the Greek language is conventionally divided into the following periods, Proto-Greek, the unrecorded but assumed last ancestor of all known varieties of Greek. The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age, Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Mycenaean civilisation. It is recorded in the Linear B script on tablets dating from the 15th century BC onwards, Ancient Greek, in its various dialects, the language of the Archaic and Classical periods of the ancient Greek civilisation. It was widely known throughout the Roman Empire, after the Roman conquest of Greece, an unofficial bilingualism of Greek and Latin was established in the city of Rome and Koine Greek became a first or second language in the Roman Empire. The origin of Christianity can also be traced through Koine Greek, Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, the continuation of Koine Greek in Byzantine Greece, up to the demise of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century. Much of the written Greek that was used as the language of the Byzantine Empire was an eclectic middle-ground variety based on the tradition of written Koine. Modern Greek, Stemming from Medieval Greek, Modern Greek usages can be traced in the Byzantine period and it is the language used by the modern Greeks, and, apart from Standard Modern Greek, there are several dialects of it. In the modern era, the Greek language entered a state of diglossia, the historical unity and continuing identity between the various stages of the Greek language is often emphasised. Greek speakers today still tend to regard literary works of ancient Greek as part of their own rather than a foreign language and it is also often stated that the historical changes have been relatively slight compared with some other languages. According to one estimation, Homeric Greek is probably closer to demotic than 12-century Middle English is to modern spoken English, Greek is spoken by about 13 million people, mainly in Greece, Albania and Cyprus, but also worldwide by the large Greek diaspora. Greek is the language of Greece, where it is spoken by almost the entire population
24.
Latin
–
Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, Latin was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language, Latin and Ancient Greek roots are used in theology, biology, and medicine. By the late Roman Republic, Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin, Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence. Late Latin is the language from the 3rd century. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved, Latin was used as the language of international communication, scholarship, and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the language of the Holy See and the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Today, many students, scholars and members of the Catholic clergy speak Latin fluently and it is taught in primary, secondary and postsecondary educational institutions around the world. The language has been passed down through various forms, some inscriptions have been published in an internationally agreed, monumental, multivolume series, the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Authors and publishers vary, but the format is about the same, volumes detailing inscriptions with a critical apparatus stating the provenance, the reading and interpretation of these inscriptions is the subject matter of the field of epigraphy. The works of several hundred ancient authors who wrote in Latin have survived in whole or in part and they are in part the subject matter of the field of classics. The Cat in the Hat, and a book of fairy tales, additional resources include phrasebooks and resources for rendering everyday phrases and concepts into Latin, such as Meissners Latin Phrasebook. The Latin influence in English has been significant at all stages of its insular development. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, English writers cobbled together huge numbers of new words from Latin and Greek words, dubbed inkhorn terms, as if they had spilled from a pot of ink. Many of these words were used once by the author and then forgotten, many of the most common polysyllabic English words are of Latin origin through the medium of Old French. Romance words make respectively 59%, 20% and 14% of English, German and those figures can rise dramatically when only non-compound and non-derived words are included. Accordingly, Romance words make roughly 35% of the vocabulary of Dutch, Roman engineering had the same effect on scientific terminology as a whole
25.
Binary number
–
The base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Because of its implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates. Each digit is referred to as a bit, the modern binary number system was devised by Gottfried Leibniz in 1679 and appears in his article Explication de lArithmétique Binaire. Systems related to binary numbers have appeared earlier in multiple cultures including ancient Egypt, China, Leibniz was specifically inspired by the Chinese I Ching. The scribes of ancient Egypt used two different systems for their fractions, Egyptian fractions and Horus-Eye fractions, the method used for ancient Egyptian multiplication is also closely related to binary numbers. This method can be seen in use, for instance, in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, the I Ching dates from the 9th century BC in China. The binary notation in the I Ching is used to interpret its quaternary divination technique and it is based on taoistic duality of yin and yang. Eight trigrams and a set of 64 hexagrams, analogous to the three-bit and six-bit binary numerals, were in use at least as early as the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. The Song Dynasty scholar Shao Yong rearranged the hexagrams in a format that resembles modern binary numbers, the Indian scholar Pingala developed a binary system for describing prosody. He used binary numbers in the form of short and long syllables, Pingalas Hindu classic titled Chandaḥśāstra describes the formation of a matrix in order to give a unique value to each meter. The binary representations in Pingalas system increases towards the right, the residents of the island of Mangareva in French Polynesia were using a hybrid binary-decimal system before 1450. Slit drums with binary tones are used to encode messages across Africa, sets of binary combinations similar to the I Ching have also been used in traditional African divination systems such as Ifá as well as in medieval Western geomancy. The base-2 system utilized in geomancy had long been applied in sub-Saharan Africa. Leibnizs system uses 0 and 1, like the modern binary numeral system, Leibniz was first introduced to the I Ching through his contact with the French Jesuit Joachim Bouvet, who visited China in 1685 as a missionary. Leibniz saw the I Ching hexagrams as an affirmation of the universality of his own beliefs as a Christian. Binary numerals were central to Leibnizs theology and he believed that binary numbers were symbolic of the Christian idea of creatio ex nihilo or creation out of nothing. Is not easy to impart to the pagans, is the ex nihilo through Gods almighty power. In 1854, British mathematician George Boole published a paper detailing an algebraic system of logic that would become known as Boolean algebra
26.
Ternary numeral system
–
The ternary numeral system has three as its base. Analogous to a bit, a digit is a trit. One trit is equivalent to bits of information. Representations of integer numbers in ternary do not get uncomfortably lengthy as quickly as in binary, for example, decimal 365 corresponds to binary 101101101 and to ternary 111112. However, they are far less compact than the corresponding representations in bases such as decimal – see below for a compact way to codify ternary using nonary. The value of a number with n bits that are all 1 is 2n −1. Then N = M, N = /, and N = bd −1, for a three-digit ternary number, N =33 −1 =26 =2 ×32 +2 ×31 +2 ×30 =18 +6 +2. Nonary or septemvigesimal can be used for representation of ternary. A base-three system is used in Islam to keep track of counting Tasbih to 99 or to 100 on a hand for counting prayers. In certain analog logic, the state of the circuit is often expressed ternary and this is most commonly seen in Transistor–transistor logic using 7406 open collector logic. The output is said to either be low, high, or open, in this configuration the output of the circuit is actually not connected to any voltage reference at all. Where the signal is usually grounded to a reference, or at a certain voltage level. Thus, the voltage level is sometimes unpredictable. A rare ternary point is used to denote fractional parts of an inning in baseball, since each inning consists of three outs, each out is considered one third of an inning and is denoted as.1. For example, if a player pitched all of the 4th, 5th and 6th innings, plus 2 outs of the 7th inning, his Innings pitched column for that game would be listed as 3.2, meaning 3⅔. In this usage, only the part of the number is written in ternary form. Ternary numbers can be used to convey self-similar structures like the Sierpinski triangle or the Cantor set conveniently, additionally, it turns out that the ternary representation is useful for defining the Cantor set and related point sets, because of the way the Cantor set is constructed. The Cantor set consists of the points from 0 to 1 that have an expression that does not contain any instance of the digit 1
27.
Quaternary numeral system
–
Quaternary is the base-4 numeral system. It uses the digits 0,1,2 and 3 to represent any real number. Four is the largest number within the range and one of two numbers that is both a square and a highly composite number, making quaternary a convenient choice for a base at this scale. Despite being twice as large, its economy is equal to that of binary. However, it no better in the localization of prime numbers. See decimal and binary for a discussion of these properties, as with the octal and hexadecimal numeral systems, quaternary has a special relation to the binary numeral system. Each radix 4,8 and 16 is a power of 2, so the conversion to and from binary is implemented by matching each digit with 2,3 or 4 binary digits, for example, in base 4,302104 =11001001002. Although octal and hexadecimal are widely used in computing and computer programming in the discussion and analysis of binary arithmetic and logic, by analogy with byte and nybble, a quaternary digit is sometimes called a crumb. There is a surviving list of Ventureño language number words up to 32 written down by a Spanish priest ca, the Kharosthi numerals have a partial base 4 counting system from 1 to decimal 10. Quaternary numbers are used in the representation of 2D Hilbert curves, here a real number between 0 and 1 is converted into the quaternary system. Every single digit now indicates in which of the respective 4 sub-quadrants the number will be projected, parallels can be drawn between quaternary numerals and the way genetic code is represented by DNA. The four DNA nucleotides in order, abbreviated A, C, G and T, can be taken to represent the quaternary digits in numerical order 0,1,2. With this encoding, the complementary digit pairs 0↔3, and 1↔2 match the complementation of the pairs, A↔T and C↔G. For example, the nucleotide sequence GATTACA can be represented by the quaternary number 2033010, quaternary line codes have been used for transmission, from the invention of the telegraph to the 2B1Q code used in modern ISDN circuits
28.
Quinary
–
Quinary is a numeral system with five as the base. A possible origination of a system is that there are five fingers on either hand. The base five is stated from 0–4, in the quinary place system, five numerals, from 0 to 4, are used to represent any real number. According to this method, five is written as 10, twenty-five is written as 100, today, the main usage of base 5 is as a biquinary system, which is decimal using five as a sub-base. Another example of a system, is sexagesimal, base 60. Each quinary digit has log25 bits of information, many languages use quinary number systems, including Gumatj, Nunggubuyu, Kuurn Kopan Noot, Luiseño and Saraveca. Gumatj is a true 5–25 language, in which 25 is the group of 5. The Gumatj numerals are shown below, In the video game Riven and subsequent games of the Myst franchise, a decimal system with 2 and 5 as a sub-bases is called biquinary, and is found in Wolof and Khmer. Roman numerals are a biquinary system, the numbers 1,5,10, and 50 are written as I, V, X, and L respectively. Eight is VIII and seventy is LXX, most versions of the abacus use a biquinary system to simulate a decimal system for ease of calculation. Urnfield culture numerals and some tally mark systems are also biquinary, units of currencies are commonly partially or wholly biquinary. A vigesimal system with 4 and 5 as a sub-bases is found in Nahuatl, pentimal system Quibinary Yan Tan Tethera References, Quinary Base Conversion, includes fractional part, from Math Is Fun Media related to Quinary numeral system at Wikimedia Commons
29.
Senary
–
The senary numeral system has six as its base. It has been adopted independently by a number of cultures. Like decimal, it is a semiprime, though being the product of the two consecutive numbers that are both prime it has a high degree of mathematical properties for its size. As six is a highly composite number, many of the arguments made in favor of the duodecimal system also apply to this base-6. Senary may be considered interesting in the study of numbers, since all primes other than 2 and 3. That is, for every number p greater than 3, one has the modular arithmetic relations that either p ≡1 or 5. This property maximizes the probability that the result of an integer multiplication will end in zero, E. g. if three fingers are extended on the left hand and four on the right, 34senary is represented. This is equivalent to 3 ×6 +4 which is 22decimal, flipping the sixes hand around to its backside may help to further disambiguate which hand represents the sixes and which represents the units. While most developed cultures count by fingers up to 5 in very similar ways, beyond 5 non-Western cultures deviate from Western methods, such as with Chinese number gestures. More abstract finger counting systems, such as chisanbop or finger binary, allow counting to 99,1,023, or even higher depending on the method. The English monk and historian Bede, in the first chapter of De temporum ratione, titled Tractatus de computo, vel loquela per gestum digitorum, the Ndom language of Papua New Guinea is reported to have senary numerals. Mer means 6, mer an thef means 6 ×2 =12, nif means 36, another example from Papua New Guinea are the Morehead-Maro languages. In these languages, counting is connected to ritualized yam-counting and these languages count from a base six, employing words for the powers of six, running up to 66 for some of the languages. One example is Kómnzo with the numerals, nimbo, féta, tarumba, ntamno, wärämäkä. Some Niger-Congo languages have been reported to use a number system, usually in addition to another. For some purposes, base 6 might be too small a base for convenience. The choice of 36 as a radix is convenient in that the digits can be represented using the Arabic numerals 0–9 and the Latin letters A–Z, this choice is the basis of the base36 encoding scheme. Base36 encoding scheme Binary Ternary Duodecimal Sexagesimal Shacks Base Six Dialectic Digital base 6 clock Analog Clock Designer capable of rendering a base 6 clock Senary base conversion
30.
Octal
–
The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. Octal numerals can be made from binary numerals by grouping binary digits into groups of three. For example, the representation for decimal 74 is 1001010. Two zeroes can be added at the left,1001010, corresponding the octal digits 112, in the decimal system each decimal place is a power of ten. For example,7410 =7 ×101 +4 ×100 In the octal system each place is a power of eight. The Yuki language in California and the Pamean languages in Mexico have octal systems because the speakers count using the spaces between their fingers rather than the fingers themselves and it has been suggested that the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European word for nine might be related to the PIE word for new. Based on this, some have speculated that proto-Indo-Europeans used a number system. In 1716 King Charles XII of Sweden asked Emanuel Swedenborg to elaborate a number based on 64 instead of 10. Swedenborg however argued that for people with less intelligence than the king such a big base would be too difficult, in 1718 Swedenborg wrote a manuscript, En ny rekenkonst som om vexlas wid Thalet 8 i stelle then wanliga wid Thalet 10. The numbers 1-7 are there denoted by the l, s, n, m, t, f, u. Thus 8 = lo,16 = so,24 = no,64 = loo,512 = looo etc, numbers with consecutive consonants are pronounced with vowel sounds between in accordance with a special rule. Writing under the pseudonym Hirossa Ap-Iccim in The Gentlemans Magazine, July 1745, Hugh Jones proposed a system for British coins, weights. In 1801, James Anderson criticized the French for basing the Metric system on decimal arithmetic and he suggested base 8 for which he coined the term octal. In the mid 19th century, Alfred B. Taylor concluded that Our octonary radix is, therefore, so, for example, the number 65 would be spoken in octonary as under-un. Taylor also republished some of Swedenborgs work on octonary as an appendix to the above-cited publications, in the 2009 film Avatar, the language of the extraterrestrial Navi race employs an octal numeral system, probably due to the fact that they have four fingers on each hand. In the TV series Stargate SG-1, the Ancients, a race of beings responsible for the invention of the Stargates, in the tabletop game series Warhammer 40,000, the Tau race use an octal number system. Octal became widely used in computing systems such as the PDP-8, ICL1900. Octal was an abbreviation of binary for these machines because their word size is divisible by three
31.
Duodecimal
–
The duodecimal system is a positional notation numeral system using twelve as its base. In this system, the number ten may be written by a rotated 2 and this notation was introduced by Sir Isaac Pitman. These digit forms are available as Unicode characters on computerized systems since June 2015 as ↊ and ↋, other notations use A, T, or X for ten and B or E for eleven. The number twelve is written as 10 in duodecimal, whereas the digit string 12 means 1 dozen and 2 units. Similarly, in duodecimal 100 means 1 gross,1000 means 1 great gross, the number twelve, a superior highly composite number, is the smallest number with four non-trivial factors, and the smallest to include as factors all four numbers within the subitizing range. As a result, duodecimal has been described as the number system. Of its factors,2 and 3 are prime, which means the reciprocals of all 3-smooth numbers have a representation in duodecimal. In particular, the five most elementary fractions all have a terminating representation in duodecimal. This all makes it a convenient number system for computing fractions than most other number systems in common use, such as the decimal, vigesimal, binary. Although the trigesimal and sexagesimal systems do even better in respect, this is at the cost of unwieldy multiplication tables. In this section, numerals are based on decimal places, for example,10 means ten,12 means twelve. Languages using duodecimal number systems are uncommon, germanic languages have special words for 11 and 12, such as eleven and twelve in English. However, they are considered to come from Proto-Germanic *ainlif and *twalif, historically, units of time in many civilizations are duodecimal. There are twelve signs of the zodiac, twelve months in a year, traditional Chinese calendars, clocks, and compasses are based on the twelve Earthly Branches. There are 12 inches in a foot,12 troy ounces in a troy pound,12 old British pence in a shilling,24 hours in a day. The Romans used a system based on 12, including the uncia which became both the English words ounce and inch. The importance of 12 has been attributed to the number of cycles in a year. It is possible to count to 12 with the acting as a pointer
32.
Hexadecimal
–
In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 0–9 to represent values zero to nine, Hexadecimal numerals are widely used by computer system designers and programmers. As each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits, it allows a more human-friendly representation of binary-coded values, one hexadecimal digit represents a nibble, which is half of an octet or byte. For example, a byte can have values ranging from 00000000 to 11111111 in binary form. In a non-programming context, a subscript is typically used to give the radix, several notations are used to support hexadecimal representation of constants in programming languages, usually involving a prefix or suffix. The prefix 0x is used in C and related languages, where this value might be denoted as 0x2AF3, in contexts where the base is not clear, hexadecimal numbers can be ambiguous and confused with numbers expressed in other bases. There are several conventions for expressing values unambiguously, a numerical subscript can give the base explicitly,15910 is decimal 159,15916 is hexadecimal 159, which is equal to 34510. Some authors prefer a text subscript, such as 159decimal and 159hex, or 159d and 159h. example. com/name%20with%20spaces where %20 is the space character, thus ’, represents the right single quotation mark, Unicode code point number 2019 in hex,8217. In the Unicode standard, a value is represented with U+ followed by the hex value. Color references in HTML, CSS and X Window can be expressed with six hexadecimal digits prefixed with #, white, CSS allows 3-hexdigit abbreviations with one hexdigit per component, #FA3 abbreviates #FFAA33. *nix shells, AT&T assembly language and likewise the C programming language, to output an integer as hexadecimal with the printf function family, the format conversion code %X or %x is used. In Intel-derived assembly languages and Modula-2, hexadecimal is denoted with a suffixed H or h, some assembly languages use the notation HABCD. Ada and VHDL enclose hexadecimal numerals in based numeric quotes, 16#5A3#, for bit vector constants VHDL uses the notation x5A3. Verilog represents hexadecimal constants in the form 8hFF, where 8 is the number of bits in the value, the Smalltalk language uses the prefix 16r, 16r5A3 PostScript and the Bourne shell and its derivatives denote hex with prefix 16#, 16#5A3. For PostScript, binary data can be expressed as unprefixed consecutive hexadecimal pairs, in early systems when a Macintosh crashed, one or two lines of hexadecimal code would be displayed under the Sad Mac to tell the user what went wrong. Common Lisp uses the prefixes #x and #16r, setting the variables *read-base* and *print-base* to 16 can also used to switch the reader and printer of a Common Lisp system to Hexadecimal number representation for reading and printing numbers. Thus Hexadecimal numbers can be represented without the #x or #16r prefix code, MSX BASIC, QuickBASIC, FreeBASIC and Visual Basic prefix hexadecimal numbers with &H, &H5A3 BBC BASIC and Locomotive BASIC use & for hex. TI-89 and 92 series uses a 0h prefix, 0h5A3 ALGOL68 uses the prefix 16r to denote hexadecimal numbers, binary, quaternary and octal numbers can be specified similarly
33.
Vigesimal
–
The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty. In a vigesimal system, twenty individual numerals are used. One modern method of finding the extra needed symbols is to write ten as the letter A20, to write nineteen as J20, and this is similar to the common computer-science practice of writing hexadecimal numerals over 9 with the letters A–F. Another method skips over the letter I, in order to avoid confusion between I20 as eighteen and one, so that the number eighteen is written as J20, the number twenty is written as 1020. According to this notation,2020 means forty in decimal = + D020 means two hundred and sixty in decimal = +10020 means four hundred in decimal = + +, in the rest of this article below, numbers are expressed in decimal notation, unless specified otherwise. For example,10 means ten,20 means twenty, in decimal, dividing by three twice only gives one digit periods because 9 is the number below ten. 21, however, the adjacent to 20 that is divisible by 3, is not divisible by 9. Ninths in vigesimal have six-digit periods, the prime factorization of twenty is 22 ×5, so it is not a perfect power. However, its part,5, is congruent to 1. Thus, according to Artins conjecture on primitive roots, vigesimal has infinitely many cyclic primes, but the fraction of primes that are cyclic is not necessarily ~37. 395%. An UnrealScript program that computes the lengths of recurring periods of various fractions in a set of bases found that, of the first 15,456 primes. In many European languages,20 is used as a base, vigesimal systems are common in Africa, for example in Yoruba. Ogún,20, is the basic numeric block, ogójì,40, =20 multiplied by 2. Ogota,60, =20 multiplied by 3, ogorin,80, =20 multiplied by 4. Ogorun,100, =20 multiplied by 5, twenty was a base in the Maya and Aztec number systems. The Maya used the names for the powers of twenty, kal, bak, pic, calab, kinchil. See also Maya numerals and Maya calendar, Mayan languages, Yucatec, the Aztec called them, cempoalli, centzontli, cenxiquipilli, cempoalxiquipilli, centzonxiquipilli and cempoaltzonxiquipilli. Note that the ce prefix at the beginning means one and is replaced with the number to get the names of other multiples of the power
34.
Chinese numerals
–
Chinese numerals are words and characters used to denote numbers in Chinese. Today speakers of Chinese use three written numeral systems, the system of Arabic numerals used worldwide, and two indigenous systems, the more familiar indigenous system is based on Chinese characters that correspond to numerals in the spoken language. These are shared with languages of the Chinese cultural sphere such as Japanese, Korean. The other indigenous system is the Suzhou numerals, or huama, a positional system and these were once used by Chinese mathematicians, and later in Chinese markets, such as those in Hong Kong before the 1990s, but have been gradually supplanted by Arabic numerals. The Chinese character numeral system consists of the Chinese characters used by the Chinese written language to write spoken numerals, similar to spelling-out numbers in English, it is not an independent system per se. Since it reflects spoken language, it not use the positional system as in Arabic numerals. There are characters representing the numbers zero through nine, and other characters representing larger numbers such as tens, hundreds, thousands, there are two sets of characters for Chinese numerals, one for everyday writing and one for use in commercial or financial contexts known as dàxiě. A forger could easily change the everyday characters 三十 to 五千 just by adding a few strokes and that would not be possible when writing using the financial characters 參拾 and 伍仟. They are also referred to as bankers numerals, anti-fraud numerals, for the same reason, rod numerals were never used in commercial records. T denotes Traditional Chinese characters, S denotes Simplified Chinese characters, in the PLA, some numbers will have altered names when used for clearer radio communications. They are,0, renamed 洞 lit, hole 1, renamed 幺 lit. small 2, renamed 两 lit. Double 7, renamed 拐 lit. cane, kidnap, turn 9, hook For numbers larger than 10,000, similarly to the long and short scales in the West, there have been four systems in ancient and modern usage. The original one, with names for all powers of ten up to the 14th, is ascribed to the Yellow Emperor in the 6th century book by Zhen Luan. To avoid problems arising from the ambiguity, the PRC government never uses this character in official documents, the ROC government in Taiwan uses 兆 to mean 1012 in official documents. Numerals beyond 載 zài come from Buddhist texts in Sanskrit, but are found in ancient texts. Some of the words are still being used today. The following are characters used to denote small order of magnitude in Chinese historically, with the introduction of SI units, some of them have been incorporated as SI prefixes, while the rest have fallen into disuse. In the Peoples Republic of China, the translations for the SI prefixes in 1981 were different from those used today, the Republic of China defined 百萬 as the translation for mega
35.
Hebrew numerals
–
The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. The system was adapted from that of the Greek numerals in the late 2nd century BC, the current numeral system is also known as the Hebrew alphabetic numerals to contrast with earlier systems of writing numerals used in classical antiquity. The Greek system was adopted in Hellenistic Judaism and had been in use in Greece since about the 5th century BC, in this system, there is no notation for zero, and the numeric values for individual letters are added together. Each unit is assigned a letter, each tens a separate letter. The later hundreds are represented by the sum of two or three letters representing the first four hundreds, to represent numbers from 1,000 to 999,999, the same letters are reused to serve as thousands, tens of thousands, and hundreds of thousands. In Israel today, the system of Arabic numerals is used in almost all cases. The Hebrew numerals are used only in cases, such as when using the Hebrew calendar, or numbering a list. Numbers in Hebrew from zero to one million, Hebrew alphabet are used to a limited extent to represent numbers, widely used on calendars. In other situations Arabic numerals are used, cardinal and ordinal numbers must agree in gender with the noun they are describing. If there is no such noun, the form is used. For ordinal numbers greater than ten the cardinal is used and numbers above the value 20 have no gender, note, For ordinal numbers greater than 10, cardinal numbers are used instead. Note, For numbers greater than 20, gender does not apply, cardinal and ordinal numbers must agree in gender with the noun they are describing. If there is no such noun, the form is used. Ordinal numbers must also agree in number and definite status like other adjectives, the cardinal number precedes the noun, except for the number one which succeeds it. The number two is special - shnayim and shtayim become shney and shtey when followed by the noun they count, for ordinal numbers greater than ten the cardinal is used. The Hebrew numeric system operates on the principle in which the numeric values of the letters are added together to form the total. For example,177 is represented as קעז which corresponds to 100 +70 +7 =177, mathematically, this type of system requires 27 letters. In practice the last letter, tav is used in combination with itself and/or other letters from kof onwards, to numbers from 500
36.
Khmer numerals
–
Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language. They have been in use since at least the early 7th century, with the earliest known use being on a stele dated to AD604 found in Prasat Bayang, Cambodia, having been derived from the Hindu numerals, modern Khmer numerals also represent a decimal positional notation system. It is the script with the first extant material evidence of zero as a figure, dating its use back to the seventh century. However, Old Khmer, or Angkorian Khmer, also possessed separate symbols for the numbers 10,20 and this inconsistency with its decimal system suggests that spoken Angkorian Khmer used a vigesimal system. For example,6 is formed from 5 plus 1, with the exception of the number 0, which stems from Sanskrit, the etymology of the Khmer numbers from 1 to 5 is of proto-Mon–Khmer origin. For details of the various alternative romanization systems, see Romanization of Khmer, some authors may alternatively mark as the pronunciation for the word two, and either or for the word three. In neighbouring Thailand the number three is thought to bring good luck, however, in Cambodia, taking a picture with three people in it is considered bad luck, as it is believed that the person situated in the middle will die an early death. As mentioned above, the numbers from 6 to 9 may be constructed by adding any number between 1 and 4 to the base number 5, so that 7 is literally constructed as 5 plus 2. Beyond that, Khmer uses a base, so that 14 is constructed as 10 plus 4, rather than 2 times 5 plus 4. In constructions from 6 to 9 that use 5 as a base, /pram/ may alternatively be pronounced, giving and this is especially true in dialects which elide /r/, but not necessarily restricted to them, as the pattern also follows Khmers minor syllable pattern. The numbers from thirty to ninety in Khmer bear many resemblances to both the modern Thai and Cantonese numbers, informally, a speaker may choose to omit the final and the number is still understood. For example, it is possible to say instead of the full, Language Comparisons, Words in parenthesis indicate literary pronunciations, while words preceded with an asterisk mark are non-productive. The standard Khmer numbers starting from one hundred are as follows, Although មួយកោដិ is most commonly used to mean ten million, in some areas this is also colloquially used to refer to one billion. In order to avoid confusion, sometimes ដប់លាន is used to mean ten million, along with មួយរយលាន for one hundred million, different Cambodian dialects may also employ different base number constructions to form greater numbers above one thousand. As a result of prolonged literary influence from both the Sanskrit and Pali languages, Khmer may occasionally use borrowed words for counting. One reason for the decline of numbers is that a Khmer nationalism movement. The Khmer Rouge also attempted to cleanse the language by removing all words which were considered politically incorrect, Khmer ordinal numbers are formed by placing the word ទី in front of a cardinal number. This is similar to the use of ที่ thi in Thai and it is generally assumed that the Angkorian and pre-Angkorian numbers also represented a dual base system, with both base 5 and base 20 in use