Washington Square Park
Washington Square Park is a 9. 75-acre public park in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, New York City. One of the best known of New York Citys 1,900 public parks, it is a landmark as well as a meeting place and it is operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. The Park is a space, dominated by the Washington Square Arch at the northern gateway to the park. The Parks fountain area has long been one of the popular spots for residents and tourists. Most of the surrounding the park now belong to New York University. Some of the buildings have built by NYU while others have been converted from their former uses into academic. Located at the foot of Fifth Avenue, the park is bordered by Washington Square North, Washington Square East, Washington Square South, while the park contains many flower beds and trees, little of the park is used for plantings due to the paving. The two prominent features are the Washington Square Arch and a large fountain and it includes childrens play areas and gardens, paths to stroll on, a chess and scrabble playing area, park benches, picnic tables, commemorative statuary and two dog runs.
The New York City Police Department operates security cameras in the park, the New York University Department of Public Safety keeps a watch on the park, and the city parks department has security officers who sometimes patrol the park. The area has a low rate in the safest big city in the United States. The land was divided by a narrow marshy valley through which Minetta Creek ran. In the early 17th century, a Native American village known as Sapokanican or Tobacco Field was nearby, by the mid-17th century, the land on each side of the Minetta was used as farm land by the Dutch. The Dutch gave the land to slaves, thus freeing them, the slaves that received the land were told that, although they were no longer slaves, they had to give a portion of the profits they received from the land to the Dutch West India Company. Also, their children would be born as slave, rather than free, the tract was in the possession of African Americans from 1643 to 1664. Today, the area, called The Land of the Blacks, is Washington Square Park, the ex-slaves who owned The Land of the Blacks included Paulo DAngola.
More information can be found at the exhibit Slavery in New York at the New-York Historical Society of Manhattan. It remained farmland until April 1797, when the Common Council of New York purchased the fields to the east of the Minetta for a new potters field and it was used mainly for burying unknown or indigent people when they died. But when New York went through yellow fever epidemics in the early 19th century, most of those who died from yellow fever were buried here, safely away from town, as a hygienic measure
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the state of Illinois, and it is the county seat of Cook County. In 2012, Chicago was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates, the city has one of the worlds largest and most diversified economies with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. In 2016, Chicago hosted over 54 million domestic and international visitors, landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicagos culture includes the arts, film, especially improvisational comedy. Chicago has sports teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has many nicknames, the best-known being the Windy City, the name Chicago is derived from a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as Checagou was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir, henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called chicagoua, grew abundantly in the area. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s and he is commonly known as the Founder of Chicago. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn, the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, on August 12,1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people, on June 15,1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S.
The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4,1837, as the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicagos first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois, the canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first ever standardized exchange traded forward contracts and these issues helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage
National Recreation and Park Association
The National Recreation and Park Association is the leading non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of public parks and conservation. Their work draws national focus to the impact of successes generated at the local level. NRPA’s members of park and recreation professionals and citizen advocates are more than 50,000 strong and represent public spaces in urban communities, rural settings and everything in between. The mission of the National Recreation and Park Association is to advance parks, the history and heritage of the public park and recreation field is preserved by the Joseph Lee Memorial Library and Archives located in NRPA’s headquarters in Ashburn, Virginia. NRPA values the environment by offering educational programs, and striving for ecologically responsible management. NRPA not only values the community, but it takes a special interest in every individual it affects and it attempts to elevate the quality of life for all citizens of a community by endorsing individual and community wellness.
It partners up with other respected organizations to provide a community with access to healthcare, cultural understanding. National Recreation and Park Association Website NRPA Annual Conference Website Parks & Recreation Magazine
Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L. A. is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California. With a census-estimated 2015 population of 3,971,883, it is the second-most populous city in the United States, Los Angeles is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. The citys inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos, historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was founded on September 4,1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence, in 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4,1850, the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city.
The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California, nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles has an economy in culture, fashion, sports, education, medicine. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index, the city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. The Los Angeles combined statistical area has a gross metropolitan product of $831 billion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Greater Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. The city has hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984 and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics and thus become the second city after London to have hosted the Games three times. The Los Angeles area hosted the 1994 FIFA mens World Cup final match as well as the 1999 FIFA womens World Cup final match, the mens event was watched on television by over 700 million people worldwide.
The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva, a Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning poison oak place. Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2,1769, in 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary, two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small town for decades, but by 1820. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, during Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta Californias regional capital
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is the leading national public health institute of the United States. The CDC is a United States federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services, headquartered near Atlanta and its main goal is to protect public health and safety through the control and prevention of disease and disability in the US and internationally. The CDC focuses national attention on developing and applying disease control, the Communicable Disease Center was founded July 1,1946, as the successor to the World War II Malaria Control in War Areas program of the Office of National Defense Malaria Control Activities. Preceding its founding, organizations with global influence in malaria control were the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations, the Rockefeller Foundation greatly supported malaria control, sought to have the governments take over some of its efforts, and collaborated with the agency. The new agency was a branch of the U. S, Public Health Service and Atlanta was chosen as the location because malaria was endemic in the Southern United States.
The agency changed names before adopting the name Communicable Disease Center in 1946, Offices were located on the sixth floor of the Volunteer Building on Peachtree Street. Among its 369 employees, the jobs at CDC were originally entomology. In CDCs initial years, more than six and a million homes were sprayed. In 1946, there were only seven officers on duty. Under Joseph Walter Mountin, the CDC continued to advocate for health issues. In 1947, the CDC made a payment of $10 to Emory University for 15 acres of land on Clifton Road in DeKalb County. CDC employees collected the money to make the purchase, the benefactor behind the “gift” was Robert W. Woodruff, chairman of the board of The Coca-Cola Company. Woodruff had a long-time interest in control, which had been a problem in areas where he went hunting. The same year, the PHS transferred its San Francisco based plague laboratory into the CDC as the Epidemiology Division, the mission of CDC expanded beyond its original focus on malaria to include sexually transmitted diseases when the Venereal Disease Division of the U. S.
Public Health Service was transferred to the CDC in 1957, shortly thereafter, Tuberculosis Control was transferred to the CDC from PHS, and in 1963 the Immunization program was established. It became the National Communicable Disease Center effective July 1,1967, the organization was renamed the Center for Disease Control on June 24,1970, and Centers for Disease Control effective October 14,1980. An act of the United States Congress appended the words and Prevention to the name effective October 27,1992, Congress directed that the initialism CDC be retained because of its name recognition. Currently the CDC focus has broadened to include chronic diseases, injury control, workplace hazards, environmental health threats, and terrorism preparedness
Houston is the most populous city in the state of Texas and the fourth-most populous city in the United States. With a census-estimated 2014 population of 2.239 million within an area of 667 square miles, it is the largest city in the southern United States and the seat of Harris County. Located in Southeast Texas near the Gulf of Mexico, it is the city of Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land. Houston was founded on August 28,1836, near the banks of Buffalo Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5,1837. The city was named after former General Sam Houston, who was president of the Republic of Texas and had commanded, the burgeoning port and railroad industry, combined with oil discovery in 1901, has induced continual surges in the citys population. Houstons economy has an industrial base in energy, aeronautics. Leading in health care sectors and building equipment, Houston has more Fortune 500 headquarters within its city limits than any city except for New York City. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled, the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community.
Houston is the most diverse city in Texas and has described as the most diverse in the United States. It is home to cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has a visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District. In August 1836, two real estate entrepreneurs from New York, Augustus Chapman Allen and John Kirby Allen, purchased 6,642 acres of land along Buffalo Bayou with the intent of founding a city. The Allen brothers decided to name the city after Sam Houston, the general at the Battle of San Jacinto. The great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the slave trade. New Orleans was the center of trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved African Americans lived near the city before the Civil War, many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. Houston was granted incorporation on June 5,1837, with James S.
Holman becoming its first mayor, in the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County and the temporary capital of the Republic of Texas
Urban Land Institute
The Urban Land Institute, or ULI, is a nonprofit research and education organization with offices in Washington, D. C. Its stated mission is to leadership in the responsible use of land. ULI advocates progressive development, conducting research, and education in such as sustainability, smart growth, compact development, place making. The ULI was founded in 1936 and currently has 40,000 members, more than 20% of the members work in government, academia, or public-private partnerships. Most of the rest are involved in the estate and urban development industries. For more than 20 years, ULI has assembled a Real Estate School, ULI hosts regular events, including local district council meetings, its annual Fall Meeting, and Spring Council Forum. The organizations current president and CEO, Patrick Phillips, is the president of ERA AECOM. He replaced Richard Rosan, who served as the organizations president, ULI employs several research vice presidents, including president and chief executive officer of the ULI Foundation, Kathleen B.
ULIs Europe office is led by chief executive Lisette van Doorn, in addition, John Fitzgerald is the chief executive of ULIs Asia Pacific office located in Hong Kong. In 1939 the organization changed its name to the Urban Land Institute, in 1940, an internal bulletin stated the institutes mission as having been established to assist American cities in their problems of planning, replanning and reconstruction. ULI held its first conference in 1941, hosted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston, a year later, ULI established itself as an advocacy organization with the publication of Outline for a Legislative Program to Rebuild Our Cities. That same year, the institute relocated its headquarters to Washington, in 1944, members J. C. Nichols and Hugh Potter would organize ULIs first council, the Community Builders Council, focusing on suburban building issues facing post-World War II American cities. The institutes advisory services program was established in 1947, conducting its first panel for the city of Louisville, the 1950s would be marked with the establishment of the J. C.
Nichols Foundation as well as the institutes first shopping center costs study. ULI would continue to move towards becoming a more research-focused institution during the 1960s, two years later, in 1967, the Community Builders Council hosted ULIs first European study tour. The 1970s would be a decade of expansion and growth for the organization, the Urban Land Research Foundation is created to help meet the rising need for an expanding more accessible body of development information. ULI membership increased to over 6,000 by 1947 and its annual budget grew to more than $1.5 million in 1976, in 1979, ULI expanded its number of councils along and established the ULI Awards for Excellence program. ULI created its regional program in 1983, starting with only seven councils in various U. S. cities. Later the institute created district councils and held its first Real Estate School in 1986, UrbanPlan, the institutes second high school program is created with the help of a grant award from the National Geographic Society Education Foundation
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service