Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland, Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia, which includes Scandinavia. Finlands population is 5.5 million, and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region,88. 7% of the population is Finnish people who speak Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages, the second major group are the Finland-Swedes. In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe, Finland is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, from the late 12th century, Finland was an integral part of Sweden, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status.
In the spirit of the notion of Adolf Ivar Arwidsson, we are not Swedes, we do not want to become Russians, let us therefore be Finns, nevertheless, in 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the nation in the world to give the right to vote to all adult citizens. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent, in 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Reds supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the Whites, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia and Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era, Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.
It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive Nordic-style welfare state, resulting in widespread prosperity, Finnish GDP growth has been negative in 2012–2014, with a preceding nadir of −8% in 2009. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, a large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, though freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution. The first known appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three rune-stones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti, the third was found in Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. It has the inscription finlandi and dates from the 13th century, the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, which is mentioned first known time AD98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, in addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian
Vikingarna is a Swedish dansband, formed in 1958, disbanded in 2004 after an extensive farewell tour and reformed in 2016. It is the best-selling dansband, and one of the best-selling artists, at the time of its 2004 dissolution it had sold more than 11 million records. The band did not have a singer at first, but after a series of auditions. The band became a hit, and in 1961, they were given a shot at recording their first EP, “Viking Boogie”. However, the lack of a real breakthrough became a struggle for many of the members, as Jens “Ji-Coo” Carlsson resigned, the band was renamed “The Vikings”. The newformed band soon found popularity once again and began touring the country, playing dance halls and they went through several member changes, rarely having a steady line-up for more than a year or two, eventually going through a total of twenty-four members by 1973. Notably however, two of the members arriving in the early 60s would remain for years, saxophonist Tony Eriksson. In 1963, they recorded a cover of country standard The Tennessee Waltz, selling 20000 copies locally, by the mid-60s the band had gradually changed their style to dansband, a new style of schlager music that was gaining popularity in Sweden and Scandinavia.
But as the band entered the seventies arrived, they had yet to make a record, when the contract arrived for them to sign, a secretary had mistakenly translated their name from the Vikings to Vikingarna. Afraid to compromise the opportunity, the decided to keep the new name. After the success with their first album the year prior, Vikingarna soon recorded and released their second album, however, it failed to break charts, and the band was released from their record deal with EMI Odeon, as the company saw them as just another dansband. It would however not be many weeks until the band was signed again, returning to recording, their big break-through came the following year, with Du gav bara löften, their second major hit single, and first number one. The same year, the band achieved their first gold record for their album Kramgoa Låtar 1 in Sweden, the year after, the band recorded an English-language album titled Export as an attempt to receive international recognition but without success.
Later that year, just as the band was finishing yet another tour following their latest album, Kramgoa Låtar 6 and this came as a shock to the band, who were having greater success than ever at the time. Borsch would state in interviews that he regretted leaving the band at this point, hired to replace him was Christer Sjögren, a skilled yet unknown vocalist, who would stay as the bands singer for the rest of their career. The band soon recorded and released their album, Kramgoa Låtar 7, including a Swedish cover of Dschingis Kahn. Continuing their heavy schedule of touring and recording into the 1980s, already established in Norway and some parts of Denmark, the band soon expanded their tours to include all of Scandinavia, quickly becoming the most popular and best selling dansband ever. For most of the 1980s and 1990s, Vikingarnas music and repertoire was often seen as a standard for the sound by music fans around Scandinavia
A roller coaster is an amusement ride developed for amusement parks and modern theme parks. LaMarcus Adna Thompson obtained a patent regarding roller coasters on January 20,1885, which were out of wood. In essence a specialized railroad system, a roller coaster consists of a track that rises in designed patterns, the track does not necessarily have to be a complete circuit, as shuttle roller coasters demonstrate. Most roller coasters have multiple cars in which passengers sit and are restrained, two or more cars hooked together are called a train. Some roller coasters, notably wild mouse coasters, run with single cars. Built in the 17th century, the slides were built to a height of between 21 and 24 m, consisted of a 50-degree drop, and were reinforced by wooden supports. Some historians say the first roller coaster was built under the orders of Russias Catherine the Great in the Gardens of Oranienbaum in St. Petersburg in the year 1784, other historians believe that the first modern roller coaster was built by the French.
The name Russian Mountains to designate a roller coaster is preserved in many Romance languages, the Russian term for roller coasters is американские горки, which means American mountains in Russian. In 1827, a company in Summit Hill, Pennsylvania constructed the Mauch Chunk gravity railroad. By the 1850s, the Gravity Road was providing rides to thrill-seekers for 50 cents a ride, Railway companies used similar tracks to provide amusement on days when ridership was low. Using this idea as a basis, LaMarcus Adna Thompson began work on a gravity Switchback Railway that opened at Coney Island in Brooklyn and this track design was soon replaced with an oval complete circuit. In 1885, Phillip Hinkle introduced the first full-circuit coaster with a hill, the Gravity Pleasure Road. Not to be outdone, in 1886 Thompson patented his design of roller coaster that included dark tunnels with painted scenery. Scenic Railways were to be found in amusement parks across the county, by 1919, the first underfriction roller coaster had been developed by John Miller.
Soon, roller coasters spread to amusement parks all around the world, perhaps the best known historical roller coaster, was opened at Coney Island in 1927. The Great Depression marked the end of the first golden age of roller coasters and this lasted until 1972, when the Racer was built at Kings Island in Mason, Ohio. Designed by John Allen, the instant success of the Racer began a golden age. In 1959, Disneyland introduced a breakthrough with Matterhorn Bobsleds
In music, a single or record single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record, an album or an EP record. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats, in most cases, a single is a song that is released separately from an album, although it usually appears on an album. Typically, these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular, in other cases a recording released as a single may not appear on an album. As digital downloading and audio streaming have become prevalent, it is often possible for every track on an album to be available separately. Nevertheless, the concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a heavily promoted or more popular song within an album collection. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks on them.
The biggest digital music distributor, iTunes, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as well as popular music player Spotify following in this trend. Any more than three tracks on a release or longer than thirty minutes in total running time is either an Extended Play or if over six tracks long. The basic specifications of the single were made in the late 19th century. Gramophone discs were manufactured with a range of speeds and in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch,78 rpm shellac disc had become the most commonly used format, the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers increasingly tailored their output to fit the new medium, the breakthrough came with Bob Dylans Like a Rolling Stone. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, less common, formats include singles on digital compact cassette, DVD, and LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc.
Some artist release singles on records, a more common in musical subcultures. The most common form of the single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its speed,45 rpm. The 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable, the first 45 rpm records were monaural, with recordings on both sides of the disc. As stereo recordings became popular in the 1960s, almost all 45 rpm records were produced in stereo by the early 1970s
The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. The phonograph disc record was the medium used for music reproduction until late in the 20th century. It had co-existed with the cylinder from the late 1880s. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as compact cassette were mass-marketed, by the late 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, and the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. The phonograph record has made a resurgence in the early 21st century –9.2 million records were sold in the U. S. in 2014. Likewise, in the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014, as of 2017,48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide,18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new, only two producers of lacquers remains, Apollo Masters in California, USA, and MDC in Japan. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to heat or broken.
The large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression, in the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008, along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph, unlike the phonautograph, it was capable of both recording and reproducing sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no evidence that Edisons phonograph was based on Scotts phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a paper tape, with the idea of creating a telephone repeater analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. The tinfoil was wrapped around a metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately, Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats.
A decade later, Edison developed a greatly improved phonograph that used a wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet. This proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device, the wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Berliners earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, but only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78,45, and 33 1/3 rpm phonograph records, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. Creedence Clearwater Revival had hits with both A-side and B-side releases, others took the opposite approach, producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side, the earliest 10-inch,78 rpm, shellac records were single sided. Double-sided recordings, with one song on side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records. There were no record charts until the 1930s, and radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s, in this time, A-sides and B-sides existed, but neither side was considered more important, the side did not convey anything about the content of the record. The term single came into use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s.
At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side, under this random system, many artists had so-called double-sided hits, where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the company wanted radio stations to play. It was not until 1968, for instance, that the production of albums on a unit basis finally surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s. The majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, by the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, and B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, with the advent of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful.
With the decline of cassette singles in the 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became virtually extinct, as the dominant medium. However, the term B-side is still used to refer to the tracks or coupling tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other media have declined. B-side songs may be released on the record as a single to provide extra value for money. There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record
Dansband or Danseband is a Swedish term for a band that plays dansbandsmusik. Dansbandsmusik is often danced to in pairs and foxtrot music are often included in this category. The music is inspired by swing, country, jazz. The main influence for rock-oriented bands is the music of the 1950s and 1960s. The terms dansband and dansbandsmusik were coined around 1970, when Swedish popular music developed a signature style, the genre developed primarily in Sweden, but has spread to neighbouring countries Norway and the Swedish speaking regions of Finland. When the music came to Norway it was first called Svensktoppar, a dansband often travels by bus, performing several times every week year-round, outdoors in the summertime and indoors in the wintertime. Performances may be held on a boat, several dansbands are named after their lead singer, followed by orkester. The tradition origins from the old dance orchestras, often named after their Kapellmeister, the possessive suffix s is often replaced by z in dansband names.
Some dansbands are named after earlier members, the main audience for dansband music is middle-aged adults. The music is performed live by the bands at venues where the main interest of the audience is dancing. However, many dansbands record albums and singles, Dansband lyrics are often brightly characterized, and are mostly about love and peace. Some of the texts are inspired by national romanticism, with lyrics about things such as old memories from the past, nature. The Norwegian dansband Ole Ivars has also, much with humor, the lyrics are often in Swedish in Sweden, and in Norwegian in Norway. In the 1990s, special dansband songwriters broke through, among them Lasse Holm, Gert Lengstrand, for many years, the same person wrote songs for most bands, but soon dansband musicians became more involved in songwriting. Before dansband music became popular, many jazz orchestras played a dance music. The golden era of music was the 1970s, with bands like Thorleifs, Flamingokvintetten, Ingmar Nordströms, Wizex.
There were at most around 800 full-time working dansbands in Sweden, the term dansband was coined in Sweden in 1976, to sound more modern and tougher than the earlier dansorkester, but many of the bands have begun to call themselves live bands. In 1977, the song Beatles, performed by Swedish dansband Forbes, won the Swedish Melodifestivalen 1977, for taxation reasons, it was possible to deduct fantasy outfits in the declaration of income
Love is a variety of different feelings and attitudes that ranges from interpersonal affection to pleasure. It can refer to an emotion of an attraction and personal attachment. Love can be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion and it may describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, ones self or animals. Ancient Greeks identified four forms of love, kinship or familiarity, sexual and/or romantic desire, modern authors have distinguished further varieties of romantic love. Non-Western traditions have distinguished variants or symbioses of these states, Love has additional religious or spiritual meaning—notably in Abrahamic religions. This diversity of uses and meanings combined with the complexity of the feelings involved makes love unusually difficult to consistently define, compared to other emotional states. Love in its various forms acts as a facilitator of interpersonal relationships and. Love may be understood as a function to human beings together against menaces.
The word love can have a variety of related but distinct meanings in different contexts, cultural differences in conceptualizing love thus doubly impede the establishment of a universal definition. Although the nature or essence of love is a subject of frequent debate, abstractly discussed love usually refers to an experience one person feels for another. Love often involves caring for, or identifying with, a person or thing, including oneself, in addition to cross-cultural differences in understanding love, ideas about love have changed greatly over time. Some historians date modern conceptions of love to courtly Europe during or after the Middle Ages. The complex and abstract nature of love often reduces discourse of love to a thought-terminating cliché, several common proverbs regard love, from Virgils Love conquers all to The Beatles All You Need Is Love. St. Thomas Aquinas, following Aristotle, defines love as to will the good of another, bertrand Russell describes love as a condition of absolute value, as opposed to relative value.
Philosopher Gottfried Leibniz said that love is to be delighted by the happiness of another, meher Baba stated that in love there is a feeling of unity and an active appreciation of the intrinsic worth of the object of love. Biologist Jeremy Griffith defines love as unconditional selflessness, a person can be said to love an object, principle, or goal to which they are deeply committed and greatly value. People can love material objects, animals, or activities if they invest themselves in bonding or otherwise identifying with those things, if sexual passion is involved, this feeling is called paraphilia. Interpersonal love refers to love human beings