100 metres

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Athletics
100 metres
London 2012 Olympic 100m final start.jpg
Start of the men's 100 metres final at the 2012 Olympic Games.
Men's records
World Jamaica Usain Bolt 9.58 (2009)
Olympic Jamaica Usain Bolt 9.63 (2012)
Women's records
World United States Florence Griffith-Joyner 10.49 (1988)
Olympic United States Florence Griffith-Joyner 10.62 (1988)

The 100 metres, or 100-metre dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions. The shortest common outdoor running distance, it is one of the most popular and prestigious events in the sport of athletics, it has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1928 for women.

Women's 100M Final - 28th Summer Universiade 2015

The reigning 100 m Olympic champion is often named "the fastest man in the world". The World Championships 100 metres has been contested since 1983. American Justin Gatlin and Tori Bowie are the reigning world champions; Usain Bolt and Elaine Thompson are the Olympic champions in the men's and women's 100 metres, respectively.

On an outdoor 400 metres running track, the 100 m is run on the home straight, with the start usually being set on an extension to make it a straight-line race. Runners begin in the starting blocks and the race begins when an official fires the starter's pistol. Sprinters typically reach top speed after somewhere between 50–60 m. Their speed then slows towards the finish line.

The 10-second barrier has historically been a barometer of fast men's performances, while the best female sprinters take eleven seconds or less to complete the race, the current men's world record is 9.58 seconds, set by Jamaica's Usain Bolt in 2009, while the women's world record of 10.49 seconds set by American Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988 remains unbroken.

The 100 m (109.361 yards) emerged from the metrication of the 100 yards (91.44 m), a now defunct distance originally contested in English-speaking countries. The event is largely held outdoors as few indoor facilities have a 100 m straight.

US athletes have won the men's Olympic 100 metres title more times than any other country, 16 out of the 28 times that it has been run. US women have also dominated the event winning 9 out of 21 times.

Race dynamics[edit]

Start[edit]

Male sprinters await the starter's instructions

At the start, some athletes play psychological games such as trying to be last to the starting blocks.[1][2][3]

At high level meets, the time between the gun and first kick against the starting block is measured electronically, via sensors built in the gun and the blocks. A reaction time less than 0.1 s is considered a false start. The 0.2-second interval accounts for the sum of the time it takes for the sound of the starter's pistol to reach the runners' ears, and the time they take to react to it.

For many years a sprinter was disqualified if responsible for two false starts individually. However, this rule allowed some major races to be restarted so many times that the sprinters started to lose focus, the next iteration of the rule, introduced in February 2003, meant that one false start was allowed among the field, but anyone responsible for a subsequent false start was disqualified.

This rule led to some sprinters deliberately false-starting to gain a psychological advantage: an individual with a slower reaction time might false-start, forcing the faster starters to wait and be sure of hearing the gun for the subsequent start, thereby losing some of their advantage. To avoid such abuse and to improve spectator enjoyment, the IAAF implemented a further change in the 2010 season – a false starting athlete now receives immediate disqualification,[4] this proposal was met with objections when first raised in 2005, on the grounds that it would not leave any room for innocent mistakes. Justin Gatlin commented, "Just a flinch or a leg cramp could cost you a year's worth of work."[5] The rule had a dramatic impact at the 2011 World Championships, when current world record holder Usain Bolt was disqualified.[6][7]

Mid-race[edit]

Runners normally reach their top speed just past the halfway point of the race and they progressively decelerate in the later stages of the race. Maintaining that top speed for as long as possible is a primary focus of training for the 100 m.[8] Pacing and running tactics do not play a significant role in the 100 m, as success in the event depends more on pure athletic qualities and technique.

Finish[edit]

The winner, by IAAF Competition Rules, is determined by the first athlete with his or her torso (not including limbs, head, or neck) over the nearer edge of the finish line.[9] When the placing of the athletes is not obvious, a photo finish is used to distinguish which runner was first to cross the line.

Climatic conditions[edit]

Climatic conditions, in particular air resistance, can affect performances in the 100 m. A strong head wind is very detrimental to performance, while a tail wind can improve performances significantly, for this reason, a maximum tail wind of 2.0 m/s is allowed for a 100 m performance to be considered eligible for records, or "wind legal".

Furthermore, sprint athletes perform better at high altitudes because of the thinner air, which provides less air resistance; in theory, the thinner air would also make breathing slightly more difficult (due to the partial pressure of oxygen being lower), but this difference is negligible for sprint distances where all the oxygen needed for the short dash is already in the muscles and bloodstream when the race starts. While there are no limitations on altitude, performances made at altitudes greater than 1000 m above sea level are marked with an "A".[10]

10-second barrier[edit]

Sex and ethnicity[edit]

Only male sprinters have beaten the 100 m 10-second barrier, nearly all of them being of West African descent. Namibian (formerly South-West Africa) Frankie Fredericks became the first man of non-West African heritage to achieve the feat in 1991 and in 2003 Australia's Patrick Johnson (an Indigenous Australian with Irish heritage) became the first sub-10-second runner without an African background.[11][12][13][14]

In 2010, French sprinter Christophe Lemaitre became the first Caucasian to break the 10-second barrier, in 2017, Azerbaijani-born naturalized Turkish Ramil Guliyev followed.[15] In the Prefontaine Classic 2015 Diamond League meet at Eugene, Su Bingtian ran a time of 9.99 seconds, becoming the first Asian athlete to officially break the 10-second barrier. On 9 September 2017, Yoshihide Kiryū became the first man from Japan to break the 10-second barrier in the 100 meters, running a 9.98 (+1.8) at an intercollegiate meet in Fukui. In the 2015 Birmingham Grand Prix Diamond League meet, British athlete Adam Gemili, who is of mixed Iranian and Moroccan descent, ran a time of 9.97 seconds on home soil, becoming the first athlete with either North African or Middle Eastern heritage to break the ten-second barrier.

Colin Jackson, an athlete with mixed ethnic background and former world record holder in the 110 metre hurdles,[16] noted that both his parents were talented athletes and suggested that biological inheritance was the greatest influence, rather than any perceived racial factor. Furthermore, successful black role models in track events may reinforce the racial disparity.[17]

Record performances[edit]

Major 100 m races, such as at the Olympic Games, attract much attention, particularly when the world record is thought to be within reach.

The men's world record has been improved upon twelve times since electronic timing became mandatory in 1977,[18] the current men's world record of 9.58 s is held by Usain Bolt of Jamaica, set at the 2009 World Athletics Championships final in Berlin, Germany on 16 August 2009, breaking his own previous world record by 0.11 s.[19] The current women's world record of 10.49 s was set by Florence Griffith-Joyner of the US, at the 1988 United States Olympic Trials in Indianapolis, Indiana, on 16 July 1988[20] breaking Evelyn Ashford's four-year-old world record by .27 seconds. The extraordinary nature of this result and those of several other sprinters in this race raised the possibility of a technical malfunction with the wind gauge which read at 0.0 m/s- a reading which was at complete odds to the windy conditions on the day with high wind speeds being recorded in all other sprints before and after this race as well as the parallel long jump runway at the time of the Griffith-Joyner performance. All scientific studies commissioned by the IAAF and independent organizations since have confirmed there was certainly an illegal tailwind of between 5 m/s - 7 m/s at the time. This should have annulled the legality of this result, although the IAAF has chosen not to take this course of action, the legitimate next best wind legal performance would therefore be Griffith-Joyner's 10.61s performance in the final the next day.[21]

Some records have been marred by prohibited drug use – in particular, the scandal at the 1988 Summer Olympics when the winner, Canadian Ben Johnson was stripped of his medal and world record.

Jim Hines, Ronnie Ray Smith and Charles Greene were the first to break the 10-second barrier in the 100 m, all on 20 June 1968, the Night of Speed. Hines also recorded the first legal electronically timed sub-10 second 100 m in winning the 100 metres at the 1968 Olympics. Bob Hayes ran a wind-assisted 9.91 seconds at the 1964 Olympics.

Continental records[edit]

Updated 5 July 2015.[22]

Area Men Women
Time (s) Wind Athlete Nation Time (s) Wind Athlete Nation
Africa (records) 9.85 +1.7 Olusoji Fasuba  Nigeria 10.78 +1.6 Murielle Ahoure  Ivory Coast
Asia (records) 9.91 +1.8 Femi Ogunode  Qatar 10.79 0.0 Li Xuemei  People's Republic of China
9.91 +0.6 Femi Ogunode  Qatar
Europe (records) 9.86 +0.6 Francis Obikwelu  Portugal 10.73 +2.0 Christine Arron  France
9.86 +1.3 Jimmy Vicaut  France
9.86 +1.8 Jimmy Vicaut  France
North, Central America
and Caribbean
(records)
9.58 WR +0.9 Usain Bolt  Jamaica 10.49 WR 0.0 Florence Griffith-Joyner  United States
Oceania (records) 9.93 +1.8 Patrick Johnson  Australia 11.11 +1.9 Melissa Breen  Australia
South America (records) 10.00[A] +1.6 Robson da Silva  Brazil 11.01 +1.4 Ana Cláudia Lemos  Brazil

Notes[edit]

All-time top 25 men[edit]

Usain Bolt breaking the world and Olympic records at the 2008 Beijing Olympics
  • Correct as of June 2017.[24]
Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Place Ref
1 9.58 +0.9 Usain Bolt  Jamaica 16 August 2009 Berlin
2 9.69 +2.0 Tyson Gay  United States 20 September 2009 Shanghai
−0.1 Yohan Blake  Jamaica 23 August 2012 Lausanne
4 9.72 +0.2 Asafa Powell  Jamaica 2 September 2008 Lausanne
5 9.74 +0.9 Justin Gatlin  United States 15 May 2015 Doha
6 9.78 +0.9 Nesta Carter  Jamaica 29 August 2010 Rieti
7 9.79 +0.1 Maurice Greene  United States 16 June 1999 Athens
8 9.80 +1.3 Steve Mullings  Jamaica 4 June 2011 Eugene
9 9.82 +1.7 Richard Thompson  Trinidad and Tobago 21 June 2014 Port of Spain
+1.3 Christian Coleman  United States 7 June 2017 Eugene [25]
11 9.84 +0.7 Donovan Bailey  Canada 27 July 1996 Atlanta
+0.2 Bruny Surin  Canada 22 August 1999 Seville
+1.3 Trayvon Bromell  United States 25 June 2015 Eugene
+1.6 3 July 2016 [26]
14 9.85 +1.2 Leroy Burrell  United States 6 July 1994 Lausanne
+1.7 Olusoji Fasuba  Nigeria 12 May 2006 Doha
+1.3 Mike Rodgers  United States 4 June 2011 Eugene
17 9.86 +1.2 Carl Lewis  United States 25 August 1991 Tokyo
−0.7 Frankie Fredericks  Namibia 3 July 1996 Lausanne
+1.8 Ato Boldon  Trinidad and Tobago 19 April 1998 Walnut
+0.6 Francis Obikwelu  Portugal 22 August 2004 Athens
+1.4 Keston Bledman  Trinidad and Tobago 23 June 2012 Port of Spain
+1.3 Jimmy Vicaut  France 4 July 2015 Saint-Denis
23 9.87 +0.3 Linford Christie  United Kingdom 15 August 1993 Stuttgart
−0.2 Obadele Thompson [A]  Barbados 11 September 1998 Johannesburg
25 9.88 +1.8 Shawn Crawford  United States 19 June 2004 Eugene
+1.0 Walter Dix  United States 8 August 2010 Nottwil
+0.9 Ryan Bailey  United States 29 August 2010 Rieti
+1.0 Michael Frater  Jamaica 30 June 2011 Lausanne
9.88 A +0.2 Sydney Siame  Zambia 8 April 2017 Lusaka [27]

More facts about these male runners[edit]

  • Usain Bolt also holds the record for the fastest 100 metres with a running start at 8.70 (41 km/h). This was achieved during a 150 metres race in Manchester 2009, completed in 14.35 (also a World Record). He also ran times of 9.63 (2012), 9.69, 9.72 (2008), 9.76 (2008, 2011, 2012), 9.77 (2008, 2013), 9.79 (2009, 2012, 2015), 9.80 (2013), 9.81 (2009, 2016), 9.82 (2010, 2012), 9.83 (2008), 9.84 (2010), 9.85 (2008, 2011, 2013), 9.86 (2009, 2010, 2012, 2016), 9.87 (2012, 2015) and 9.88 (2011, 2016)
  • Justin Gatlin ran 9.77 in Doha on 12 May 2006, which was at the time ratified as a world record. However, the record was rescinded in 2007 after he failed a doping test in April 2006, he also ran times of 9.74 (2015), 9.75 (2015), 9.77 (2014), 9.78 (2015), 9.79 (2012), 9.80 (2014, 2015, 2016), 9.82 (2014), 9.83 (2014, 2015), 9.85 (2004, 2013), 9.86 (2014), 9.88 (2005)
  • Tim Montgomery's time of 9.78 at Paris on 14 September 2002 was rescinded following his indictment in the BALCO scandal on drug use and drug trafficking charges. The time had stood as the world record until Asafa Powell first ran 9.77.
  • Ben Johnson ran 9.79 at Seoul on 24 September 1988, but he was disqualified after he tested positive for stanozolol after the race. He subsequently admitted to drug use between 1981 and 1988, and his time of 9.83 at Rome on 30 August 1987 was rescinded. Carl Lewis's 9.92 in the Seoul race was therefore recognised as the world record, and his two prior runs of 9.93 were seen as having equalled the previous world record.
  • Ato Boldon ran four 9.86 races (two in 1998, two in 1999).
  • Dwain Chambers time of 9.87 (+2.0) on 14 September 2002 in Paris was later annulled due to doping offence.
  • Steve Mullings is serving a lifetime ban for doping.
  • Jimmy Vicaut also ran 9.86 and 9.88 in June 2016.

Assisted marks[edit]

Any performance with a following wind of more than 2.0 metres per second is not counted for record purposes. Below is a list of the fastest wind-assisted times (9.80 or better). Only times that are superior to legal bests are shown.

  • Justin Gatlin ran 9.45 (+20 m/s) in 2011 on the Japanese TV show Kasupe! assisted by wind machines blowing at speeds over 25 meters per second.[28]
  • Tyson Gay (USA) ran 9.68 (+4.1 m/s) on 29 June 2008 during the U.S. Olympic Trials at Hayward Field in Eugene, Oregon[29]
  • Andre De Grasse (CAN) ran 9.69 (+4.8 m/s) on 18 June 2017 during Diamond League in Stockholm[30] and 9.75 (+2.7 m/s) on 12 June 2015 at the NCAA Championships in Eugene, Oregon.
  • Obadele Thompson (BAR) ran 9.69 (+5.7 m/s) in El Paso, Texas in April 1996, which stood as the fastest ever 100 metres time for 12 years.
  • Richard Thompson (TTO) ran a wind-assisted 9.74 (exact wind unknown) in Clermont on 31 May 2014.
  • Darvis Patton (USA) ran 9.75 (+4.3 m/s) in Austin, Texas on 30 March 2013.
  • Churandy Martina (AHO) ran 9.76 at altitude (+6.1 m/s) in El Paso on 13 May 2006.
  • Trayvon Bromell (USA) ran 9.76 (+3.7 m/s) in Eugene, Oregon on 26 June 2015.
  • Carl Lewis (USA) ran 9.78 (+5.2 m/s) at the 1988 U.S. Olympic Trials in Indianapolis.
  • Andre Cason (USA) twice ran 9.79 (+4.5 m/s) and (+5.3 m/s) in Eugene, Oregon on 16 June 1993.

All-time top 25 women[edit]

Christine Arron (left) wins the 100 m at the Weltklasse meeting.
  • Correct as of June 2017.[31]
Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 10.49 0.0 Florence Griffith-Joyner  United States 16 July 1988 Indianapolis
2 10.64 +1.2 Carmelita Jeter  United States 20 September 2009 Shanghai
3 10.65 [A] +1.1 Marion Jones  United States 12 September 1998 Johannesburg
4 10.70 +0.6 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce  Jamaica 29 June 2012 Kingston
+0.3 Elaine Thompson  Jamaica 1 July 2016 Kingston [32]
6 10.73 +2.0 Christine Arron  France 19 August 1998 Budapest
7 10.74 +1.3 Merlene Ottey  Jamaica 7 September 1996 Milan
+1.0 English Gardner  United States 3 July 2016 Eugene [26]
9 10.75 +0.4 Kerron Stewart  Jamaica 10 July 2009 Rome
10 10.76 +1.7 Evelyn Ashford  United States 22 August 1984 Zürich
+1.1 Veronica Campbell-Brown  Jamaica 31 May 2011 Ostrava
12 10.77 +0.9 Irina Privalova  Russia 6 July 1994 Lausanne
+0.7 Ivet Lalova  Bulgaria 19 June 2004 Plovdiv
14 10.78 [A] +1.0 Dawn Sowell  United States 3 June 1989 Provo
10.78 +1.8 Torri Edwards  United States 26 June 2008 Eugene
+1.6 Murielle Ahoure  Ivory Coast 11 June 2016 Montverde [33]
+1.0 Tianna Bartoletta  United States 3 July 2016 Eugene [26]
+1.0 Tori Bowie  United States 3 July 2016 Eugene [26]
19 10.79 0.0 Li Xuemei  People's Republic of China 18 October 1997 Shanghai
−0.1 Inger Miller  United States 22 August 1999 Seville
+1.1 Blessing Okagbare  Nigeria 27 July 2013 London
22 10.81 +1.7 Marlies Göhr  East Germany 8 June 1983 Berlin
−0.3 Dafne Schippers  Netherlands 24 August 2015 Beijing [34]
24 10.82 −1.0 Gail Devers  United States 1 August 1992 Barcelona
+1.5 7 July 1993 Lausanne
-0.3 16 August 1993 Stuttgart
+0.4 Gwen Torrence  United States 3 September 1994 Paris
−0.3 Zhanna Block  Ukraine 6 August 2001 Edmonton
−0.7 Sherone Simpson  Jamaica 24 June 2006 Kingston
+0.9 Michelle-Lee Ahye  Trinidad and Tobago 24 June 2017 Port of Spain [35]

More facts about these female runners[edit]

  • Florence Griffith-Joyner's world record has been the subject of a controversy due to strong suspicion of a defective anemometer measuring a tailwind lower than actually present;[36] since 1997 the International Athletics Annual of the Association of Track and Field Statisticians has listed this performance as "probably strongly wind assisted, but recognised as a world record".[37] It can be reasonable to assume a wind reading of about +4.7 m/s for Griffith-Joyner's quarter-final. Her 10.61 the following day and 10.62 at the 1988 Olympics would still make her the world record holder.[38]

Below is a list of all other legal times equal or superior to 10.77:

  • As well as the 10.61 (1988) and 10.62 (1988) mentioned in the more facts section, Florence Griffith-Joyner also ran 10.70 (1988).
  • Carmelita Jeter also ran 10.67 (2009), 10.70 (2011).
  • Marion Jones also ran 10.70 (1999), 10.71 (1998), 10.71 (1998), 10.71 (1998), 10.72 (1998), 10.72 (1998), 10.75 (1998), 10.76 (1997, 1999), 10.77 (1998).
  • Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce also ran 10.71 (2013), 10.72 (2013), 10.73 (2009), 10.74 (2015), 10.75 (2012), 10.76 (2015), 10.77 (2013).
  • Elaine Thompson also ran 10.71 (2016, 2017), 10.72 (2016).
  • Kerron Stewart also ran 10.75 (August 2009).

Assisted marks[edit]

Any performance with a following wind of more than 2.0 metres per second is not counted for record purposes. Below is a list of the fastest wind-assisted times (10.82 or better). Only times that are superior to legal bests are shown.

  • Tori Bowie of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.72 (+3.2) in Eugene, Oregon on 26 June 2015 and 10.74 (+3.1) on July 3 2016.
  • Tawanna Meadows of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.72 (+4.5) in Lubbock, Texas on 6 May 2017.
  • Blessing Okagbare of Nigeria ran a wind-assisted 10.75 (+2.2) in Eugene, Oregon on 1 June 2013.
  • Marshevet Hooker of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.76 (+3.4) in Eugene, Oregon on 27 June 2008.
  • Gail Devers of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.77 (+2.3) in San Jose, California on 28 May 1994.
  • Ekateríni Thánou of Greece ran a wind-assisted 10.77 (+2.3) in Rethimnó, Greece on 29 May 1999.
  • Gwen Torrence of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.78 (+5.0) in Indianapolis, Indiana on 16 July 1988.
  • Muna Lee of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.78 (+3.3) in Eugene, Oregon on 26 June 2009.
  • Marlies Göhr of East Germany ran a wind-assisted 10.79 (+3.3) in Cottbus, East Germany on 16 July 1980.
  • Kelli White of the USA ran a wind assisted 10.79 (+2.3) in Carson, California on June 1, 2001. This performance was later annulled due to doping offence.
  • Pam Marshall of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.80 (+2.9) in Eugene, Oregon on 20 June 1986.
  • Jenna Prandini of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.81 (+3.6) in Eugene, Oregon on 2 July 2016.
  • Silke Gladisch of East Germany ran a wind-assisted 10.82 (+2.2) in Rome, Italy on 30 August 1987.

Best Year Performances[edit]

Top 10 Junior (under-20) men[edit]

Updated 24 June 2017[39]

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Age Ref
1 9.97 +1.8 Trayvon Bromell  United States 13 June 2014 Eugene
2 10.00 +1.6 Trentavis Friday  United States 5 July 2014 Eugene
3 10.01 +0.0 Darrel Brown  Trinidad and Tobago 24 August 2003 Saint-Denis
+1.6 Jeff Demps  United States 28 June 2008 Eugene
+0.9 [40] Yoshihide Kiryu  Japan 29 April 2013 Hiroshima
6 10.03 +0.7 Marcus Rowland  United States 31 July 2009 Port of Spain
7 10.04 +1.7 D'Angelo Cherry  United States 10 June 2009 Fayetteville
+0.2 Christophe Lemaitre  France 24 July 2009 Novi Sad
+1.9 Abdullah Abkar Mohammed  Saudi Arabia 15 April 2016 Norwalk [41]
10 10.05 +0.1 Adam Gemili  Great Britain 11 July 2012 Barcelona
+0.5 Abdul Hakim Sani Brown  Japan 24 June 2017 Osaka 18 years, 110 days [42]
-0.6 4 August 2017 London 18 years, 151 days [43]

Notes[edit]

  • British sprinter Mark Lewis-Francis recorded a time of 9.97 seconds on 5 August 2001 (aged 18 years, 334 days) but the wind gauge malfunctioned, invalidating the run.
  • Nigerian sprinter Davidson Ezinwa ran 10.05 (4 January 1990), but without wind gauge.
  • Trayvon Bromell recorded a time of 9.77 s with a strong tailwind of +4.2 m/s on May 2014 during the Big 12 Outdoor Track Championships[44]

Top 10 Junior (under-20) women[edit]

Updated 30 June 2017

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Age Ref
1 10.88 +2.0 Marlies Göhr  East Germany 1 July 1977 Dresden
2 10.89 +1.8 Katrin Krabbe  East Germany 20 July 1988 Berlin
3 10.98 +2.0 Candace Hill  United States 20 June 2015 Shoreline [45]
4 10.99 +0.9 Ángela Tenorio  Ecuador 22 July 2015 Toronto [46]
5 11.03 +1.7 Silke Gladisch-Möller  East Germany 8 June 1983 Berlin
+0.6 English Gardner  United States 14 May 2011 Tucson
7 11.04 +1.4 Angela Williams  United States 5 June 1999 Boise
8 11.06 +0.9 Khalifa St. Fort  Trinidad and Tobago 24 June 2017 Port of Spain 19 years, 131 days [47]
9 11.07 +0.7 Bianca Knight  United States 27 June 2008 Eugene
10 11.08 +2.0 Brenda Morehead  United States 21 June 1976 Eugene

Top 15 Youth (under-18) boys[edit]

Updated 31 March 2017

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location Ref
1 10.15 +2.0 Anthony Schwartz  United States 31 March 2017 Gainesville [48]
2 10.18 +1.1 Khairul Hafiz Jantan  Malaysia 27 July 2016 Kuching [49]
3 10.19 +0.5 Yoshihide Kiryu  Japan 3 November 2012 Fukuroi
4 10.20 +1.5 Tlotliso Leotlela  South Africa 7 September 2015 Apia [50]
5 10.23 +0.8 Tamunosiki Atorudibo  Nigeria 23 March 2002 Enugu
+1.2 Rynell Parson  United States 21 June 2007 Indianapolis
7 10.24 +0.0 Darrel Brown  Trinidad and Tobago 14 April 2001 Bridgetown
8 10.25 +1.5 J-Mee Samuels  United States 11 July 2004 Knoxville
+1.6 Jeff Demps  United States 1 August 2007 Knoxville
+0.9 Jhevaughn Matherson  Jamaica 5 March 2016 Kingston [51]
11 10.26 +1.2 Deworski Odom  United States 21 July 1994 Lisboa
−0.1 Sunday Emmanuel  Nigeria 18 March 1995 Bauchi
13 10.27 +0.2 Henry Thomas  United States 19 May 1984 Norwalk
+1.6 Curtis Johnson  United States 30 June 1990 Fresno
+1.0 Ivory Williams  United States 8 June 2002 Sacramento
−0.2 Jazeel Murphy  Jamaica 23 April 2011 Montego Bay
+1.9 Raheem Chambers  Jamaica 20 April 2014 Fort-de-France

Top 10 Youth (under-18) girls[edit]

Updated 20 June 2015

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 10.98 +2.0 Candace Hill  United States 20 June 2015 Shoreline [45]
2 11.10 +0.9 Kaylin Whitney  United States 5 July 2014 Eugene [52]
3 11.13 +2.0 Chandra Cheeseborough  United States 21 June 1976 Eugene
4 11.14 +1.7 Marion Jones  United States 6 June 1992 Norwalk
−0.5 Angela Williams  United States 21 June 1997 Edwardsville
6 11.16 +1.2 Gabrielle Mayo  United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis
7 11.17 A +0.6 Wendy Vereen  United States 3 July 1983 Colorado Springs
8 11.20 A +1.2 Raelene Boyle  Australia 15 October 1968 Mexico City
9 11.24 -1.0 Ewa Swoboda  Poland 4 June 2015 Sankt Pölten
10 11.24 +1.2 Jeneba Tarmoh  United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis
+0.8 Jodie Williams  Great Britain 31 May 2010 Bedford

Paralympic men[edit]

Jason Smyth (in lane five) breaking the men's T13 world record at the 2012 Paralympic Games in London.

Updated to September 2017[53]

Class Record Wind (m/s) Athlete Nationality Date Place Ref
T11 10.92 +1.8 David Brown  United States 18 April 2014 Walnut
T12 10.66 −0.4 Elchin Muradov  Azerbaijan 19 June 2010 Imola
T13 10.46 +0.6 Jason Smyth  Ireland 1 September 2012 London
T32 23.25 0.0 Martin McDonagh  Ireland 13 August 1999 Nottingham
T33 16.81 +0.8 Ahmad Almutairi  Kuwait 20 October 2014 Incheon
T34 15.33 +1.2 Walid Ktila  Tunisia 27 February 2014 Sharjah
T35 12.22 +0.7 Ihor Tsvietov  Ukraine 9 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [54]
T36 11.90 -0.5 Evgenii Shvetcov  Russia 22 July 2013 Lyon
T37 11.42 +0.2 Charl du Toit  South Africa 10 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [55]
T38 10.74 –0.3 Hu Jianwen  China 13 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [56]
T42 12.11 +1.2 Heinrich Popow  Germany 12 July 2013 Leverkusen
T43 10.57 +1.9 Alan Fonteles Cardoso Oliveira  Brazil 28 July 2013 London
T44 10.61 +1.4 Richard Browne  United States 29 October 2015 Doha [57]
T45 10.94 +0.2 Yohansson Nascimento  Brazil 6 September 2012 London
T47 10.53 +0.1 Petrucio Ferreira dos Santos  Brazil 15 July 2017 London [58]
T51 21.11 +1.2 Toni Piispanen  Finland 17 May 2012 Pratteln
T52 16.73 +0.4 Paul Nitz  United States 20 May 2012 Nottwil
T53 14.17 +1.0 Brent Lakatos  Canada 17 May 2014 Nottwil
T54 13.63 +1.0 Leo-Pekka Tähti  Finland 1 September 2012 London

Paralympic women[edit]

Updated to April 2017[59]

Classification Record Wind (m/s) Athlete Nationality Date Place Ref
T11 11.91 +0.7 Libby Clegg  Great Britain 9 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [60]
T12 11.40 +0.2 Omara Durand  Cuba 9 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [61]
T13 11.79 +0.5 Leilia Adzhametova  Ukraine 11 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [62]
T32 37.67 0.0 Lindsay Wright  United Kingdom 25 July 1997 Nottingham
T33 21.59 −0.4 Kristen Messer  United States 31 August 2012 London
T34 17.31 +1.0 Hannah Cockroft  United Kingdom 17 May 2014 Nottwil
T35 13.63 +2.0 Isis Holt  Australia 29 October 2015 Doha [63]
T36 13.82 +0.3 Wang Fang  People's Republic of China 16 September 2008 Beijing
T37 13.13 +1.6 Georgina Hermitage  Great Britain 9 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [64]
T38 12.60 +1.6 Sophie Hahn  Great Britain 22 October 2015 Doha [65]
T42 14.61 -0.2 Martina Caironi  Italy 30 October 2015 Doha [66]
T43 12.80 +1.0 Marlou van Rhijn  Netherlands 29 October 2015 Doha [67]
T44 12.93 –0.4 Sophie Kamlish  Great Britain 17 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [68]
T45 14.00 0.0 G Cole  Canada 2 June 1980 Arnhem
T46 11.95 −0.2 Yunidis Castillo  Cuba 4 September 2012 London
T51 32.08 0.0 V Hill  United States 27 August 1989 Stoke Mandeville
T52 18.67 +1.7 Michelle Stilwell  Canada 14 July 2012 Windsor
T53 16.19 +1.0 Huang Lisha  China 8 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [69]
T54 15.82 +0.5 Wenjun Liu  People's Republic of China 8 September 2012 London

Olympic medallists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
 Thomas Burke (USA)  Fritz Hofmann (GER)  Francis Lane (USA)
 Alajos Szokolyi (HUN)
1900 Paris
details
 Frank Jarvis (USA)  Walter Tewksbury (USA)  Stan Rowley (AUS)
1904 St. Louis
details
 Archie Hahn (USA)  Nathaniel Cartmell (USA)  William Hogenson (USA)
1908 London
details
 Reggie Walker (RSA)  James Rector (USA)  Robert Kerr (CAN)
1912 Stockholm
details
 Ralph Craig (USA)  Alvah Meyer (USA)  Donald Lippincott (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
 Charley Paddock (USA)  Morris Kirksey (USA)  Harry Edward (GBR)
1924 Paris
details
 Harold Abrahams (GBR)  Jackson Scholz (USA)  Arthur Porritt, Baron Porritt (NZL)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Percy Williams (CAN)  Jack London (GBR)  Georg Lammers (GER)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Eddie Tolan (USA)  Ralph Metcalfe (USA)  Arthur Jonath (GER)
1936 Berlin
details
 Jesse Owens (USA)  Ralph Metcalfe (USA)  Tinus Osendarp (NED)
1948 London
details
 Harrison Dillard (USA)  Barney Ewell (USA)  Lloyd LaBeach (PAN)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Lindy Remigino (USA)  Herb McKenley (JAM)  McDonald Bailey (GBR)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Bobby Morrow (USA)  Thane Baker (USA)  Hector Hogan (AUS)
1960 Rome
details
 Armin Hary (EUA)  Dave Sime (USA)  Peter Radford (GBR)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Bob Hayes (USA)  Enrique Figuerola (CUB)  Harry Jerome (CAN)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Jim Hines (USA)  Lennox Miller (JAM)  Charles Greene (USA)
1972 Munich
details
 Valeriy Borzov (URS)  Robert Taylor (USA)  Lennox Miller (JAM)
1976 Montreal
details
 Hasely Crawford (TRI)  Don Quarrie (JAM)  Valeriy Borzov (URS)
1980 Moscow
details
 Allan Wells (GBR)  Silvio Leonard (CUB)  Petar Petrov (BUL)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Carl Lewis (USA)  Sam Graddy (USA)  Ben Johnson (CAN)
1988 Seoul[70][71]
details
 Carl Lewis (USA)  Linford Christie (GBR)  Calvin Smith (USA)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Linford Christie (GBR)  Frankie Fredericks (NAM)  Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Donovan Bailey (CAN)  Frankie Fredericks (NAM)  Ato Boldon (TRI)
2000 Sydney
details
 Maurice Greene (USA)  Ato Boldon (TRI)  Obadele Thompson (BAR)
2004 Athens
details
 Justin Gatlin (USA)  Francis Obikwelu (POR)  Maurice Greene (USA)
2008 Beijing
details
 Usain Bolt (JAM)  Richard Thompson (TRI)  Walter Dix (USA)
2012 London
details
 Usain Bolt (JAM)  Yohan Blake (JAM)  Justin Gatlin (USA)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
 Usain Bolt (JAM)  Justin Gatlin (USA)  Andre De Grasse (CAN)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Betty Robinson (USA)  Fanny Rosenfeld (CAN)  Ethel Smith (CAN)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Stanisława Walasiewicz (POL)  Hilda Strike (CAN)  Wilhelmina von Bremen (USA)
1936 Berlin
details
 Helen Stephens (USA)  Stanisława Walasiewicz (POL)  Käthe Krauß (GER)
1948 London
details
 Fanny Blankers-Koen (NED)  Dorothy Manley (GBR)  Shirley Strickland (AUS)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Marjorie Jackson (AUS)  Daphne Hasenjager (RSA)  Shirley Strickland de la Hunty (AUS)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Betty Cuthbert (AUS)  Christa Stubnick (EUA)  Marlene Matthews (AUS)
1960 Rome
details
 Wilma Rudolph (USA)  Dorothy Hyman (GBR)  Giuseppina Leone (ITA)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Wyomia Tyus (USA)  Edith McGuire (USA)  Ewa Kłobukowska (POL)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Wyomia Tyus (USA)  Barbara Ferrell (USA)  Irena Szewińska (POL)
1972 Munich
details
 Renate Stecher (GDR)  Raelene Boyle (AUS)  Silvia Chivás (CUB)
1976 Montreal
details
 Annegret Richter (FRG)  Renate Stecher (GDR)  Inge Helten (FRG)
1980 Moscow
details
 Lyudmila Kondratyeva (URS)  Marlies Göhr (GDR)  Ingrid Auerswald (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Evelyn Ashford (USA)  Alice Brown (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1988 Seoul
details
 Florence Griffith-Joyner (USA)  Evelyn Ashford (USA)  Heike Drechsler (GDR)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Gail Devers (USA)  Juliet Cuthbert (JAM)  Irina Privalova (EUN)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Gail Devers (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)  Gwen Torrence (USA)
2000 Sydney
details
Vacant[72]  Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)
 Tayna Lawrence (JAM)
2004 Athens
details
 Yulia Nestsiarenka (BLR)  Lauryn Williams (USA)  Veronica Campbell (JAM)
2008 Beijing
details
 Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)  Sherone Simpson (JAM) none awarded
 Kerron Stewart (JAM)
2012 London
details
 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)  Carmelita Jeter (USA)  Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
 Elaine Thompson (JAM)  Tori Bowie (USA)  Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)

World Championship medallists[edit]

Men[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Carl Lewis (USA)  Calvin Smith (USA)  Emmit King (USA)
1987 Rome
details
 Carl Lewis (USA)  Raymond Stewart (JAM)  Linford Christie (GBR)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Carl Lewis (USA)  Leroy Burrell (USA)  Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Linford Christie (GBR)  Andre Cason (USA)  Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Donovan Bailey (CAN)  Bruny Surin (CAN)  Ato Boldon (TRI)
1997 Athens
details
 Maurice Greene (USA)  Donovan Bailey (CAN)  Tim Montgomery (USA)
1999 Seville
details
 Maurice Greene (USA)  Bruny Surin (CAN)  Dwain Chambers (GBR)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Maurice Greene (USA)  Bernard Williams (USA)  Ato Boldon (TRI)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Kim Collins (SKN)  Darrel Brown (TRI)  Darren Campbell (GBR)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Justin Gatlin (USA)  Michael Frater (JAM)  Kim Collins (SKN)
2007 Osaka
details
 Tyson Gay (USA)  Derrick Atkins (BAH)  Asafa Powell (JAM)
2009 Berlin
details
 Usain Bolt (JAM)  Tyson Gay (USA)  Asafa Powell (JAM)
2011 Daegu
details
 Yohan Blake (JAM)  Walter Dix (USA)  Kim Collins (SKN)
2013 Moscow
details
 Usain Bolt (JAM)  Justin Gatlin (USA)  Nesta Carter (JAM)
2015 Beijing
details
 Usain Bolt (JAM)  Justin Gatlin (USA)  Trayvon Bromell (USA)
 Andre De Grasse (CAN)
2017 London
details
 Justin Gatlin (USA)  Christian Coleman (USA)  Usain Bolt (JAM)

Women[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Marlies Oelsner-Göhr (GDR)  Marita Koch (GDR)  Diane Williams (USA)
1987 Rome
details
 Silke Gladisch-Möller (GDR)  Heike Daute-Drechsler (GDR)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Katrin Krabbe (GER)  Gwen Torrence (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Gail Devers (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)  Gwen Torrence (USA)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Gwen Torrence (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)  Irina Privalova (RUS)
1997 Athens
details
 Marion Jones (USA)  Zhanna Pintusevich (UKR)  Savatheda Fynes (BAH)
1999 Seville
details
 Marion Jones (USA)  Inger Miller (USA)  Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Zhanna Pintusevich-Block (UKR)  Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)  Chandra Sturrup (BAH)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Torri Edwards (USA)  Chandra Sturrup (BAH)  Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Lauryn Williams (USA)  Veronica Campbell (JAM)  Christine Arron (FRA)
2007 Osaka
details
 Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)  Lauryn Williams (USA)  Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2009 Berlin
details
 Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)  Kerron Stewart (JAM)  Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2011 Daegu
details
 Carmelita Jeter (USA)  Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)  Kelly-Ann Baptiste (TRI)
2013 Moscow
details
 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)  Murielle Ahouré (CIV)  Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2015 Beijing
details
 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)  Dafne Schippers (NED)  Tori Bowie (USA)
2017 London
details
 Tori Bowie (USA)  Marie-Josée Ta Lou (CIV)  Dafne Schippers (NED)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BTEC First Sport By Bob Harris, R. Mills, S. Parker-Bennet
  2. ^ The Day – 23 January 1983
  3. ^ http://www.athleticsweekly.com/messageboard/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=3893
  4. ^ "IAAF keeps one false-start rule". BBC. 3 August 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
  5. ^ "Gatlin queries false start change". BBC News. 6 May 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
  6. ^ Christopher Clarey (28 August 2011). "Who Can Beat Bolt in the 100? Himself". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  7. ^ "The disqualification of Usain Bolt". IAAF. 28 August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  8. ^ "Usain Bolt 100m 10 meter Splits and Speed Endurance". Speedendurance.com. 22 August 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  9. ^ Sandre-Tom <!-i- BOT GENERATED AUTHOR -->. "IAAF Competition Rules 2009, Rule 164" (PDF). IAAF. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009. 
  10. ^ 100 metres IAAF
  11. ^ Will Swanton and David Sygall, (2007-07-15). Holy Grails. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2009-06-18. Archived 2009-06-20.
  12. ^ The above source fails to mention that Namibian Frankie Fredericks was the first runner of non-West African descent to break the barrier.
  13. ^ Athlete Profiles – Patrick Johnson. Athletics Australia. Retrieved 2009-06-19. Archived 2009-06-20.
  14. ^ Jad, Adrian (July 2011). "Christophe Lemaitre 100m 9.92s +2.0 (Video) – Officially the Fastest White Man in History". adriansprints.com. Retrieved 2011-07-31. 
  15. ^ https://www.iaaf.org/athletes/turkey/ramil-guliyev-226874
  16. ^ Who Do You Think You Are – Colin Jackson. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2009-06-18.
  17. ^ Barling, Kurt (2000-09-04). Runaway success in the sports arena is never simply a question of race. The Independent. Retrieved on 2009-06-18.
  18. ^ "Progression of 100 meters world record". ESPN. Associated Press. Retrieved 28 June 2011. 
  19. ^ "100 Metres Results" (PDF). IAAF. 16 August 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 August 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  20. ^ 100 Metres All Time. IAAF (9 March 2009). Retrieved 6 May 2009. Archived 8 May 2009.
  21. ^ Linthorne,N.(PHD)(1995)The 100m World Record by Florence Griffith Joyner at the 1988 U.S Olympic Trials. Report for the International Amateur Athletic Federation Department of Physics, University of Western Australia
  22. ^ 100 metres records. IAAF (6 September 2011). Retrieved 9 June 2011. Archived 6 September 2011.
  23. ^ 60 Metres Records. IAAF (4 April 2009). Retrieved 4 April 2009.
  24. ^ "Top List – 100m". IAAF. Retrieved 24 August 2015. 
  25. ^ "100m Semifinal Results". ncaa.com. 7 June 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
  26. ^ a b c d Roy Jordan (4 July 2016). "Six world leads on third day of US Olympic Trials". IAAF. Retrieved 4 July 2016. 
  27. ^ Christopher Maduewesi (9 April 2017). "Zambia's Sydney Siame clocks 100m WL of 9.87s". makingofchamps.com. Retrieved 11 April 2017. 
  28. ^ "Justin Gatlin Ran 9.45 With Crazy Wind-Aid on Japanese TV". flotrack.org. 29 February 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2017. 
  29. ^ Zinser, Lynn (30 June 2008),"Shattering Limits on the Track, and in the Pool" New York Times
  30. ^ Ewing, Lori (The Canadian Press) (18 June 2017), [1] National Post
  31. ^ "All-time women's best 100m". IAAF. 13 May 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017. 
  32. ^ Sherdon Cowan (1 July 2016). "#NatlTrials: Elaine Thompson storms to 10.70s win in 100m". jamaicaobserver.com. Retrieved 3 July 2016. 
  33. ^ Cathal Dennehy (11 June 2016). "Ahoure powers to African 100m record of 10.78 in Florida". IAAF. Retrieved 11 June 2016. 
  34. ^ "100m Results" (PDF). IAAF. 24 August 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2015. 
  35. ^ "100m Results". NAAATT. 24 June 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017. 
  36. ^ Pritchard, W. G. (July 2006). "Mathematical Models of Running". Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  37. ^ Linthorne, Nick (March 2003). "Wind Assistance". Brunel University. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2008. 
  38. ^ http://www.iaaf.org/statistics/toplists/inout=o/age=n/season=0/sex=W/all=y/legal=A/disc=100/detail.html
  39. ^ "Top List – 100m". IAAF. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  40. ^ Kiryu's 10.01 (+0.9 m/s) in 2013 is invalidated due to the type of wind-measuring .Jon Mulkeen (29 April 2013). "Kiryu equals World junior 100m record". IAAF. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  41. ^ "Mt. SAC Relays 2016 – Friday Track Results" (PDF). mtsacrelays.com. 15 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016. 
  42. ^ "Sprinter Sani Brown outlcasses field in 100-meter final for first national title". japantimes.co.jp. 24 June 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017. 
  43. ^ "100m Heats Results" (PDF). IAAF. 4 August 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2017. 
  44. ^ Bromell Blazing! World Leading 9.77w (4.2) To Win Big 12 Championship
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  54. ^ "Men's T35 100m Round 1 Heat 2 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 
  55. ^ "Men's 100m T37 Round 1 Heat 2 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 10 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 
  56. ^ "Men's 100m T38 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 13 September 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2016. 
  57. ^ "Men's 100m T43/44 Results" (PDF). IPC. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015. 
  58. ^ "Men's 100m T47 Results" (PDF). paralympic.org. 15 July 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  59. ^ "IPC Athletics World Records". International Paralympic Committee. 8 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017. 
  60. ^ "Women's 100m T11 Semifinal 2 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 
  61. ^ "Women's 100m T12 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 
  62. ^ "Women's 100m T13 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 11 September 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2016. 
  63. ^ "Women's 100m T35 Results" (PDF). IPC. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015. 
  64. ^ "Women's 100m T37 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 
  65. ^ "Women's 100m T38 Results" (PDF). IPC. 22 October 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015. 
  66. ^ "Women's 100m T42 Results" (PDF). IPC. 30 October 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2015. 
  67. ^ "Women's 100m T43/44 Results" (PDF). IPC. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015. 
  68. ^ "Women's 100m T43/44 Round 1 Heat 3 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 17 September 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2016. 
  69. ^ "Women's T53 100m – Round 1 Heat 1 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 8 September 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  70. ^ Canadian Ben Johnson won the 1988 men's 100 metres final, but was stripped of the title after testing positive for steroids in a subsequent doping test.
  71. ^ "1988: Johnson stripped of Olympic gold". BBC News. September 27, 1988. 
  72. ^ On October 5, 2007 Marion Jones of the United States admitted to having taken performance-enhancing drugs prior to the 2000 Summer Olympics. On October 9 she relinquished her medals to the United States Olympic Committee, who returned them to the International Olympic Committee. The IOC have removed the medals from Jones and her relay teammates, leaving the positions vacant.

External links[edit]