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1002

Year 1002 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. January 23 – Emperor Otto III dies, at the age of 22, of smallpox at Castle of Paterno after a 19-year reign, he leaves a surviving brother who can succeed by hereditary right to the throne. Otto is buried in Aachen Cathedral alongside the body of Charlemagne. February 15 – At an assembly at Pavia of Lombard nobles and secondi milites, Arduin of Ivrea is restored to his domains and crowned as King of Italy in the Basilica of San Michele Maggiore. Arduin is supported by archbishop of Milan. June 7 – Henry II, a cousin of Otto III, is elected and crowned as King of Germany by Archbishop Willigis at Mainz. Henry does not recognise the coronation of Arduin. Otto of Worms withdraws his nomination for the title of Holy Roman Emperor and receives the Duchy of Carinthia. July – Battle of Calatañazor: Christian armies led by Alfonso V of León, Sancho III of Pamplona and Sancho García of Castile, defeat the invading Saracens under Al-Mansur, the de facto ruler of Al-Andalus.

August 8 – Al-Mansur dies after a 24-year reign and is succeeded by his son Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar as ruler of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba. October 15 – Henry I, duke of Burgundy, dies and is succeeded by his stepson, Otto-William, he inherits the duchy, this is disputed by King Robert II of France. Fall – A revolt organized by Bohemian nobles of the rivalling Vršovci clan, forces Duke Boleslaus III to flee to Germany, he is succeeded by Vladivoj. November 13 – St. Brice's Day massacre: King Æthelred II orders all Danes in England killed. Æthelred marries Emma, daughter of Duke Richard I of Normandy. Brian Boru, king of Leinster and Munster, becomes High King of Ireland. After the submission of Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill, Brian Boru makes an expedition to the North. Winter – Æthelred II pays tribute to Sweyn Forkbeard, he buys him off with a massive payment of 24,000 lbs of silver to hold off Viking raids against England. Winter – Khalaf ibn Ahmad, Saffarid emir of Sistan, is deposed and surrenders to the Ghaznavid Dynasty after a 39-year reign.

June – Frederick, archbishop of Ravenna, is sent as an imperial legate to the Synod of Pöhlde, to mediate between the claims of Bishop Bernward of Hildesheim and Willigis, concerning the control of Gandersheim Abbey. May 10 – Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Muslim scholar June 21 – Leo IX, pope of the Catholic Church Adolf II of Lotharingia, German nobleman Alice of Normandy, countess of Burgundy Aristakes Lastivertsi, Armenian historian George I, king of Georgia Mei Yaochen, poet of the Song Dynasty Nikephoros III, Byzantine emperor January 8 – Wulfsige III, bishop of Sherborne January 23 – Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor April 23 – Æscwig, bishop of Dorchester April 30 – Eckard I, margrave of Meissen May 6 – Ealdwulf, archbishop of York August 8 – Al-Mansur, Umayyad vizier and de facto ruler October 15 – Henry I, duke of Burgundy November 13 Gunhilde, Danish princess and noblewoman Pallig, Danish chieftain of Devonshire Athanasius IV, Syrian patriarch of Antioch Domonkos I, archbishop of Esztergom Gisela, French princess Godfrey I, Frankish nobleman John the Iberian, Georgian monk Kisai Marvazi, Persian author and poet Rogneda of Polotsk, Grand Princess of Kiev Sa'id al-Dawla, Hamdanid emir of Aleppo Sancho Ramírez, king of Viguera

Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment

The Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment was an experimental demonstration, reported in 1944 by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, Maclyn McCarty, that DNA is the substance that causes bacterial transformation, in an era when it had been believed that it was proteins that served the function of carrying genetic information. It was the culmination of research in the 1930s and early 20th Century at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research to purify and characterize the "transforming principle" responsible for the transformation phenomenon first described in Griffith's experiment of 1928: killed Streptococcus pneumoniae of the virulent strain type III-S, when injected along with living but non-virulent type II-R pneumococci, resulted in a deadly infection of type III-S pneumococci. In their paper "Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal Types: Induction of Transformation by a Desoxyribonucleic Acid Fraction Isolated from Pneumococcus Type III", published in the February 1944 issue of the Journal of Experimental Medicine and his colleagues suggest that DNA, rather than protein as believed at the time, may be the hereditary material of bacteria, could be analogous to genes and/or viruses in higher organisms.

With the development of serological typing, medical researchers were able to sort bacteria into different strains, or types. When a person or test animal is inoculated with a particular type, an immune response ensues, generating antibodies that react with antigens on the bacteria. Blood serum containing the antibodies can be extracted and applied to cultured bacteria; the antibodies will react with other bacteria of the same type as the original inoculation. Fred Neufeld, a German bacteriologist, had discovered serological typing. Griffith's experiment, reported in 1928, identified that some "transforming principle" in pneumococcal bacteria could transform them from one type to another. Griffith, a British medical officer, had spent years applying serological typing to cases of pneumonia, a fatal disease in the early 20th century, he found that multiple types—some virulent and some non-virulent—were present over the course of a clinical case of pneumonia, thought that one type might change into another.

In testing that possibility, he found that transformation could occur when dead bacteria of a virulent type and live bacteria of a non-virulent type were both injected in mice: the mice would develop a fatal infection and die, virulent bacteria could be isolated from such infected mice. The findings of Griffith's experiment were soon confirmed, first by Fred Neufeld at the Koch Institute and by Martin Henry Dawson at the Rockefeller Institute. A series of Rockefeller Institute researchers continued to study transformation in the years that followed. With Richard H. P. Sia, Dawson developed a method of transforming bacteria in vitro. After Dawson's departure in 1930, James Alloway took up the attempt to extend Griffith's findings, resulting in the extraction of aqueous solutions of the transforming principle by 1933. Colin MacLeod worked to purify such solutions from 1934 to 1937, the work was continued in 1940 and completed by Maclyn McCarty. Pneumococcus is characterized by smooth colonies which have a polysaccharide capsule that induces antibody formation.

The purification procedure Avery undertook consisted of first killing the bacteria with heat and extracting the saline-soluble components. Next, the protein was precipitated out using chloroform and the polysaccharide capsules were hydrolyzed with an enzyme. An immunological precipitation caused by type-specific antibodies was used to verify the complete destruction of the capsules; the active portion was precipitated out by alcohol fractionation, resulting in fibrous strands that could be removed with a stirring rod. Chemical analysis showed that the proportions of carbon, hydrogen and phosphorus in this active portion were consistent with the chemical composition of DNA. To show that it was DNA rather than some small amount of RNA, protein, or some other cell component, responsible for transformation and his colleagues used a number of biochemical tests, they found that trypsin and ribonuclease did not affect it, but an enzyme preparation of "deoxyribonucleodepolymerase" destroyed the extract's transforming power.

Follow-up work in response to criticism and challenges included the purification and crystallization, by Moses Kunitz in 1948, of a DNA depolymerase, precise work by Rollin Hotchkiss showing that all the detected nitrogen in the purified DNA came from glycine, a breakdown product of the nucleotide base adenine, that undetected protein contamination was at most 0.02% by Hotchkiss's estimation. The experimental findings of the Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment were confirmed, extended to other hereditary characteristics besides polysaccharide capsules. However, there was considerable reluctance to accept the conclusion that DNA was the genetic material. According to Phoebus Levene's influential "tetranucleotide hypothesis", DNA consisted of repeating units o

Medal of Honor Memorial (Indianapolis)

The Medal of Honor Memorial is a monument located in Indianapolis, United States. It is dedicated in honor of all recipients of the Medal of Honor, the United States military's highest award for valor; the memorial was unveiled May 1999, during Memorial Day weekend. The Memorial is located on the north bank of the Indiana Central Canal, adjacent to Military Park, consists of 27 glass panels set in concrete bases. Indiana Limestone in shades of buff and pink are a part of the monument; the panels are arranged into 15 walls, each representing an armed conflict in which a Medal of Honor was awarded. The names of the recipients are etched into the glass. At the time of dedication, there were 3,436 Medal of Honor recipients etched into the monument; the Memorial contains an elaborate lighting system that illuminates certain panels to correspond with a 30-minute audio tour, played over a speaker system. The audio tour is made up of stories about the wars, accounts of living Medal recipients. Many of the stories were recorded by Medal of Honor recipients.

After reading an article in the New York Times about a June 1998 meeting in upstate New York of the Congressional Medal of Honor Society, John Hodowal, chairman of the Indianapolis-based Indianapolis Power & Light, his wife, were inspired to assist in the creation of a memorial to honor these individuals whose courageous acts earned them the Medal of Honor, the United States' highest military honor. The site, chosen was the same area where Indianapolis' first recorded Independence Day celebration was held. Additionally, the site was utilized as a military camp during the U. S. Civil War. Site preparation began in November 1998, construction of the memorial began in January 1999. 96 living Medal of Honor recipients attended the unveiling and dedication of the monument on May 28, 1999, the last Memorial Day of the millennium. The designers of the monument were architect landscape artists Eric Fulford and Ann Reed of ROAMworks. IPALCO Enterprises sponsored the monument; the Memorial received a 2001 Merit Award from the American Society of Landscape Architects.

United States Naval Academy Cemetery#Medal of Honor recipients Kentucky Medal of Honor Memorial Oregon Veterans Medal of Honor Memorial Texas Medal of Honor Memorial