SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

1003

Year 1003 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. February 9 – Boleslaus III is restored to authority with armed support from Duke Bolesław I of Poland; the following months, Boleslaus' brothers Jaromír and Oldřich flee to Germany and place themselves under the protection of King Henry II, while Boleslaus orders the massacre of his Bohemian leading nobles at Vyšehrad. German–Polish War: Bolesław I annexes Bohemia and parts of Moravia. German nobles under Henry of Schweinfurt revolt against Henry II. Count Oliba abdicates his secular possessions to his brothers – Wilfred II receives Berga and Bernard I Ripoll. Oliva takes up the Benedictine habit at the Monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll. King Robert II fails. After this fiasco Robert repudiates his second wife, Bertha of Burgundy, marries Constance of Arles who becomes queen consort of France. King Rudolph III of Burgundy invests Humbert I with the domains of the Duchy of Aosta, he becomes the first count of the House of Savoy.

King Stephen I of Hungary invades establishes the Diocese of Transylvania. Battle of Albesa: Muslim forces of the Caliphate of Cordoba defeat the northern Christian armies of León, Pamplona and Castile. King Sweyn I lands with a Danish Viking fleet in East Anglia. Northumbria surrenders to him. Emperor Sheng Zong of the Khitan-led Liao Dynasty leads an expedition into Mongolia and subdues the Zubu tribe who are forced to pay an annual tribute. Construction of the Brihadisvara Temple in Tamil Nadu, during the Chola Dynasty. May 12 – Pope Sylvester II dies after a 4-year pontificate, he is succeeded by John XVII as the 140th pope of the Catholic Church. November 6 – John XVII dies after a pontificate of about 7 months and is buried in the Lateran Basilica at Rome. Heribert, archbishop of Cologne, founds Deutz Abbey at Deutz. Amatus, bishop of Nusco Conrad II, duke of Carinthia Edward the Confessor, king of England Frederick, duke of Lower Lorraine Hedwig, French princess Herleva, Norman noblewoman Ibn Hayyus, Syrian poet and panegyrist Ibn Zaydún, Andalusian poet and writer Jing Zong, Chinese emperor of Western Xia Liudolf of Brunswick, margrave of Frisia Musharrif al-Dawla, Buyid emir of Iraq January 19 – Kilian of Cologne, Irish abbot January 25 – Lothair I, margrave of the Nordmark May 4 – Herman II, duke of Swabia May 12 – Sylvester II, pope of the Catholic Church July 11 – Al-Mansur al-Qasim al-Iyyani, Zaidi imam August 3 – At-Ta'i, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad November 6 – John XVII, pope of the Catholic Church December 24 – William II, German nobleman December 27 – Emma of Blois, duchess of Aquitaine Athanasius the Athonite, Byzantine monk Brian mac Maelruanaidh, king of Maigh Seóla Didda, queen consort and regent of Kashmir Erik the Red, Norse Viking explorer Flannchad ua Ruaidíne, abbot of Clonmacnoise Gregory of Narek, Armenian theologian Gurgen IV, king of Vaspurakan Ibrahim ibn Baks, Buyid scholar and physician Philotheos, patriarch of Alexandria Rozala, French queen and countess of Flanders Vladivoj, duke of Bohemia

The China Quarterly

The China Quarterly is a British double-blind peer-reviewed academic journal, established in 1960 and focuses on all aspects of contemporary China and Taiwan. It is the most important research journal about China in the world and is published by the Cambridge University Press, it covers a range of subjects including anthropology, literature, the arts, geography, international affairs, law and sociology. Each issue contains articles and research reports, a comprehensive book review section; the China Quarterly is owned by the School of University of London. Its current editor-in-chief is Tim Pringle; the China Quarterly began as an offshoot of Soviet Survey, a journal published by the Congress for Cultural Freedom. Walter Laqueur, the editor of Soviet Survey, asked sinologist Roderick MacFarquhar to edit the new journal in 1959, the first issue was released in 1960. Publication of the journal was transferred in 1968 from the CCF to the Contemporary China Institute at the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London.

The transfer followed the revelation. However, he admitted to knowingly publishing articles provided by the CIA and the British Foreign Office's covert propaganda unit, the Information Research Department, giving the authors pseudonyms to keep their identities secret. David Wilson succeeded MacFarquhar as editor in 1968. In August 2017 Cambridge University Press, the publisher, confirmed it had removed access to more than 300 articles from readers in China following pressure from Chinese government. Cambridge University Press stated they blocked this material in China to avoid having their entire publication blocked; the press published a list of the articles removed which included sensitive topics such as the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Pro-democracy movements in Hong Kong and the negative effects of the Cultural Revolution. Several academics criticised the decision of Cambridge University Press to self-censor, however CUP stated that it was "troubled by the recent increase in requests of this nature" and was committed to academic freedom.

The Guardian reported the censorship was part of a broader crack-down on dissent since Xi Jinping took power. This journal is indexed by the following services: Social Sciences Citation Index Current Contents/Social & Behavioral Sciences International Bibliography of Periodical Literature International Bibliography of Book Reviews of Scholarly Literature Official website

It Ain't Half Hot Mum

It Ain't Half Hot, Mum is a BBC television sitcom about a Royal Artillery concert party based in Deolali in India and the fictional village of Tin Min in Burma, during the last months of the Second World War. It was written by Jimmy Perry and David Croft, who had both served in similar roles in India during that war, it was first broadcast on BBC 1 in eight series between 1981, totalling 56 episodes in all. Each episode ran for 30 minutes; the title comes from the first episode, in which young Gunner Parkin writes home to his mother in England. Many songs of the era were performed by the cast in their re-enactment of wartime variety shows. In 1975, Don Estelle and Windsor Davies, in character as Gunner "Lofty" and Sergeant Major Williams, released "Whispering Grass", it Ain't Half Hot, Mum is set during the Second World War. The scripts make clear that the performers are members of a Royal Artillery concert party and are thus enlisted soldiers, rather than being members of ENSA; the British soldiers are stationed at the fictional Royal Artillery Depot in Deolali, where soldiers were kept before being sent to fight at the front lines.

The series used the experiences of its creators during the Second World War. The main characters are performers in the base's concert party, which involved performing comic acts and musical numbers for the other soldiers prior to their departure for the front lines; the soldiers in the concert party all love this particular job, as it keeps them out of combat duty, but some do daydream of becoming world-famous actors when they leave the army. The main characters include Gunner "Lofty" Sugden, a short, fat soldier who wears a pith helmet and possesses an incredible singing voice. Rounding out the enlisted crew are Bombardier "Solly" Solomons, a soldier from London, Jewish and a former theatrical agent. Beaumont is promoted to Bombardier after Solly is demobbed and sent back to Britain; the soldiers are under the orders of Battery Sergeant Major Williams, a belligerent Welshman who has spent all of his career as a professional soldier. In turn, Williams reports to the two officers in charge of the concert party: Captain Ashwood and Lieutenant-Colonel Reynolds.

Both Ashwood and Reynolds are characterised as coming from upper-class backgrounds. Ashwood, the younger officer, is rather stupid and excitable, while Reynolds is older and more worldly-wise and sensible. While bemoaning the rough conditions of Army life, both Ashwood and Reynolds realise that keeping their concert party administrative duties is infinitely preferable to combat duty at the front line. A small contingent of Indian workers are usually found alongside the Britons: Bearer Rangi Ram, who acts as their butler and porter, displaying an outwardly obsequious nature that hides a savvy intelligence. While both the enlisted men and the officers are reluctant to give up their cushy assignment behind the lines, Sergeant Major Williams hates being assigned to the concert party. Williams resents not only the lack of an active combat role, but having to be in charge of men who perform what he considers to be effeminate duties, instead of being able to command men he considers to be "real soldiers".

As a result, Williams is found shouting orders at the men in the manner of a drill sergeant, delighting in putting the enlisted men through endless drills, parades and PT sessions. His ultimate goal, the focus of many of his schemes, is to have the concert party disbanded, the men sent off to join other troops fighting at the front. However, the soldiers find a way to get out of these schemes, so are able to continue with their concert party duties. However, the concert party finds themselves transferred to the village of Tin Min, located near the front line; the Sergeant Major is depicted as being proud of the British Empire, disgusted by the idea of Home Rule that India and Burma will gain after the war, by Asian nationalists who dream of India and Burma being independent from British control. As such, the Sergeant Major is abusive to the A