1003 Lilofee

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1003 Lilofee
Discovery [1]
Discovered by K. Reinmuth
Discovery site Heidelberg Obs.
Discovery date 13 September 1923
MPC designation (1003) Lilofee
Named after
Lilofee [2]
(mermaid in German folklore)
1923 OK · 1937 FB
1940 TA · 1951 QO
1951 RA2 · 1957 WD2
1962 QH · A915 HB
main-belt · (outer)
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 93.81 yr (34,263 days)
Aphelion 3.6414 AU
Perihelion 2.6373 AU
3.1394 AU
Eccentricity 0.1599
5.56 yr (2,032 days)
0° 10m 37.92s / day
Inclination 1.8402°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 27.29±1.83 km[5]
32.292±0.334 km[6]
33.1±3.3 km[7]
33.678±0.334 km[8]
34.04 km (calculated)[3]
36±4 km[9]
8.230±0.004 h[10]
8.24991±0.00005 h[11]
8.250±0.001 h[12][a]
8.2506±0.0003 h[10]
8.255±0.002 h[10]
10.20[5][6] · 10.50±0.22[13] · 10.70[3][7][9] · 10.8[1]

1003 Lilofee, provisional designation 1923 OK, is a carbonaceous Themistian asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 33 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 13 September 1923, by astronomer Karl Reinmuth at the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory in southwest Germany.[14] The asteroid was named after the Black Forrest mermaid "Lilofee" from German folklore.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Lilofee is a member of the Themis family (602),[3][4] a very large family of carbonaceous, low-inclination asteroids, named after 24 Themis.[15]:23 It orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.6–3.6 AU once every 5 years and 7 months (2,032 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.16 and an inclination of 2° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

The asteroid was first identified as A915 HB at Bergedorf Observatory in April 1915. The body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Heidelberg.[14]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Lilofee is an assumed carbonaceous C-type asteroid,[3] which corresponds to the overall spectral type of the Themis family.[15]:23


Since 2004, several rotational lightcurves of Lilofee were obtained from photometric observations by astronomers René Roy, Enric Forné and Robert Stephens. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 8.255 hours with a brightness variation of 0.57 magnitude (U=2+/3/3).[10][12][a]

In 2013, an international study modeled a lightcurve with a concurring period of 8.24991 hours and found a spin axis of (n.a., −99.0°) in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β).[11]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Lilofee measures between 27.29 and 36 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.07 and 0.198.[5][6][7][8][9]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link adopts an albedo of 0.08 and calculates a diameter of 34.04 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.7.[3]


This minor planet was named after the legendary mermaid/neck Lilofee, who lived in the small Mummelsee of the Black Forest in southwest Germany. Lilofee is also the title figure in the German folk-song The beautiful young Lilofee ("Die schöne junge Lilofee") by August Schnezler (1809–1853).[2]

The asteroid was named by the discoverer (RI 402). The name was proposed by ARI-astronomer Johannes Riem, after whom 1025 Riema was named. The official naming citation was also mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 96).[2]


  1. ^ a b Lightcurve plot of (1003) Lilofee by R. D. Stephens (2013) at CS3. Rotation period 8.250±0.001 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.54±0.02 mag. Summary figures at Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1003 Lilofee (1923 OK)" (2017-07-04 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c d Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1003) Lilofee. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 87. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "LCDB Data for (1003) Lilofee". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d Alí-Lagoa, V.; Licandro, J.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañ; ada-Assandri, M.; Delbo', M.; et al. (June 2016). "Differences between the Pallas collisional family and similarly sized B-type asteroids". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 591: 11. Bibcode:2016A&A...591A..14A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527660. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c d Alí-Lagoa, V.; de León, J.; Licandro, J.; Delbó, M.; Campins, H.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; et al. (June 2013). "Physical properties of B-type asteroids from WISE data". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 554: 16. arXiv:1303.5487Freely accessible. Bibcode:2013A&A...554A..71A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220680. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c d Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1003) Lilofee". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  11. ^ a b Hanus, J.; Broz, M.; Durech, J.; Warner, B. D.; Brinsfield, J.; Durkee, R.; et al. (November 2013). "An anisotropic distribution of spin vectors in asteroid families". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 559: 19. arXiv:1309.4296Freely accessible. Bibcode:2013A&A...559A.134H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321993. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  12. ^ a b Stephens, Robert D. (April 2014). "Asteroids Observed from CS3: 2013 October-December". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 41 (2): 92–95. Bibcode:2014MPBu...41...92S. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  13. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  14. ^ a b "1003 Lilofee (1923 OK)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  15. ^ a b Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). "Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families" (PDF). Asteroids IV: 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 

External links[edit]