SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

1007

Year in topic Year 1007 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. King Æthelred II pays the Danish Vikings a sum of 36,000 pounds of silver to stop further invasions. Ælfheah of Canterbury travels to Rome to receive his pallium – symbol of his status as an archbishop – from Pope John XVIII. November 1 – King Henry II of Germany founds the Archdiocese of Bamberg during a synod held in Frankfurt; the Keraites, a Turco-Mongolian tribe, are converted to Nestorianism. Emeric, Hungarian prince and co-heir Gervais de Château-du-Loir, French nobleman Giselbert, count of Luxembourg Hugh Magnus, king of France Ibn Sidah, Andalusian linguist and lexicographer Isaac I Komnenos, Byzantine emperor Maitripada, Indian Buddhist philosopher Ouyang Xiu, Chinese historian and poet Peter Damian, cardinal-bishop of Ostia Welf III, duke of Carinthia February 27 – Ælfwaru, English noblewoman March 20 – Abu Rakwa, Andalusian Umayyad prince July 21 – Gisela of Burgundy, duchess of Bavaria October 31 – Heriger, abbot of Lobbes Attilanus, bishop of Zamora Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadani, Persian poet Guo, empress of the Song Dynasty Manjutakin, Fatimid general and governor Maslama al-Majriti, Andalusian chemist Pelayo Rodríguez, count of León Sebestyén, archbishop of Esztergom Urraca Fernández, Galician queen

Bad Schandau station

Bad Schandau station is a minor junction station in Bad Schandau in the German state of Saxony. The station is located on the south bank on the Elbe on the Děčín–Dresden-Neustadt railway and it is the terminus of the Bautzen–Bad Schandau railway; the town is located on the north side of the river and is connected to the station by a ferry and a road bridge. Bad Schandau is a frontier station for international traffic between the Czech Republic. Bad Schandau station is now the only long-distance stop in the touristic area and national park of Saxon Switzerland, it is marketed as the municipality of Bad Schandau. About 1,600 passengers and visitors pass through and 94 trains stop at the station each day. Bad Schandau received its rail connection with the opening of the Königstein–Krippen section of the Děčín–Dresden-Neustadt railway on 9 June 1850; the last section from Krippen to the border was opened less than a year on 6 April 1851, completing the through railway from Dresden to Prague. At the time the current Krippen station was the station of Schandau.

With the construction of Bautzen–Bad Schandau railway and the strong growth in traffic, a new station was opened in 1877 at the current location under the name of Schandau. Since July 1920, it has had its current name of Bad Schandau, with the Bad reflecting Schandau’s status as a spa town; the station was rebuilt and enlarged in 1920. In this context, it received additional tracks; the station was used for local freight and passenger traffic, but it had significant tourist traffic for visitors to the region. In 1945 the second track and parts of the station tracks were dismantled as war reparations to the Soviet Union; the signing of the “interim agreement on mutual railway operations at the Prostřední Žleb-Bad Schandau border crossing” on 31 August 1947 was of crucial importance for Bad Schandau station. This agreement between the Czechoslovak State Railways and Deutsche Reichsbahn provided that the handover of all cross-border trains would take place in Bad Schandau and so the station became a border station handling frontier and customs formalities for cross-border freight and passenger traffic.

Extensive changes were made during the electrification of the line from 1970 to 1976. In addition to changes to the railway tracks, a modern centralised signal box was built; the old signal boxes were demolished in the subsequent years. In addition, the railway to Krippen was realigned, a modern road bridge was built over the Elbe and two new overpasses were built over the railway yard as part of this project. On 22 October 1980, a fire damaged the attic of the station building. In July 1981, the goods shed burned down. Before the political changes in 1989 more and more people tried to leave East Germany via Czechoslovakia and the Stasi ordered "suspicious" passengers on trains towards Czechoslovakia off the train at the border control at Bad Schandau and sent them back, if necessary. After the fall of the wall, Bad Schandau station retained its significance for freight traffic. In the mid-1990s, there were significant declines in freight, which were exacerbated after the merger of Deutsche Reichsbahn and Deutsche Bundesbahn as Deutsche Bahn AG.

This development led to a significant reduction of shunting and the use of existing sidings, so these were partially dismantled. Between 2008 and 2011 there was a fundamental reorganisation of the station and the station building, owned by the town of Bad Schandau since 2010. Since there has been a tourist information centre, a bicycle rental service and an organic market as well as access to the platforms for the disabled. In addition and bicycle parking and interchange opportunities to buses and the ferry were created; the Allianz pro Schiene gave the station the award of "Station of the Year in 2012". When the station was constructed a simple sandstone building for refuelling locomotives was built. In the 1920s, a turntable was built and the depot was enlarged; the Bad Schandau locomotive depot was founded in 1925. On 31 December 1963, the depot was disbanded as an independent agency and made subordinate to the Pirna locomotive depot; the work site was closed in 1994. The whole site was demolished in the 2000s.

The station is served by several train services operated by Deutsche Bahn. The station is served by EuroCity services from Hamburg and Berlin to Prague and Budapest as well as by certain InterCity and Nighttrains. Johannes Raddatz. Eisenbahn in der Sächsischen Schweiz — Band 3. Der Bahnhof Bad Schandau – wichtigster Grenz-Bahnhof der ehemaligen DDR in Richtung Südost-Europa und das Bahnbetriebswerk Bad Schandau. Die Bahnhöfe Krippen, Bad Schandau Ost und Schöna. Die Elektrifizierung der Strecke Schöna–Dresden und im grenzüberschreitenden Verkehr. Die Strecke Staatsgrenze–Bodenbach und die Bahnhöfe Bodenbach und Tetschen. Berlin: Verlag B. Neddermeyer. ISBN 978-3-941712-17-1. Media related to Bad Schandau railway station at Wikimedia Commons "Location, railway tracks and permissible speeds". OpenRailwayMap. Retrieved 26 July 2015. "Detailed description of the history and the equipment of the station". Sebnitztalbahn.de. Retrieved 26 July 2015. Städtebahn Sachsen website Bad Schandau station at www.verkerhsmittelvergleich.de

Autoflowering cannabis

Autoflowering cannabis varieties automatically switch from vegetative growth to the flowering stage with age, as opposed to the ratio of light to dark hours required with photoperiod dependent/short-day strains. Many autoflowers will be ready to harvest in less than 10 weeks from seed. Dwarf varieties can have short stature. Conversely "super autos" can reach over 6 feet tall; the origins of autoflowering cannabis are still debatable. The strain Lowryder by breeder The Joint Doctor was the original large scale marketed autoflower. Lowryder contains Cannabis ruderalis genetics from a Mexican strain, referred to as Mexican Rudy and is believed to be created from a cross between a Mexican sativa and a Russian ruderalis. Another theory is that the early genetics came from the first oilseed hemp variety called Finola, developed from Russian stock in Finland during 1995; these early hybrids with large amounts of C. ruderalis genes were lacking some of the finer qualities of high grade cannabis strains available.

Further hybrids from these ruderalis dominant strains were created using some of the more popular and standard photo-period sensitive strains. Since the first mass market autoflower, many improvements have been made by breeders; the genetics behind these new autoflowering strains that breeders are producing are not shared or if so only in vague terms. This secrecy is done to keep others from producing knock offs of the strains, more to obscure revealing that new strains are, more than not, descended from the original Lowryder, criticized as a substandard strain of low potency; as of January 2012, online vendors offer nearly 200 autoflowering strains with Autoflowering Blueberry, Cream Caramel Auto, Afghan Kush Ryder being the most sold varieties in the market. Most of these strains can be identified by the presence of "ryder" or "automatic" in their names; the newly produced strains of autoflowering cannabis have proven that they can produce quality medicine comparable with classical short-day strains.

Breeders have reported THC content in the low 20% in some newer varieties while many varieties have high CBD content. The advantages that autoflower breeders report with their plants include: Short life span with many going from seed to harvest in under 13 weeks Can be kept short in stature for "stealth" growing The Cannabis ruderalis heritage causes flowering after 2–3 weeks from germination No need for a separate vegetative and flowering environment Simple seed production, one plant can produce several hundred seeds at 1 foot tall Due to short life span can be grown in cold climates where summers are short and cold Can be grown outside in city environment where there is artificial lighting, that would affect regular strains Can produce multiple harvests outdoors in one season There continues to be some short-day cannabis growers that insist that autoflowers are a fad and produce subpar flowers; the number one reason for these feelings are the understandable disappointment many had with the results of the first Lowryder.

Argued is that when growing indoors, growers have the ability to initiate flowering with photoperiod/short-day plants at will by changing the lighting. Hormones such as BAP and paclobutrazol can be used to arrest vertical growth in photoperiod plants. However, there are concerns about the carcinogenicity of some of these growth regulators; when growing outdoors, initiation of flowering in short-day plants is more difficult to control than with autoflowers. Another concern is the overall yield of autoflowering plants which with some dwarf strains can be a half ounce per plant; the last concern with autoflowering cannabis is the chance of buying genetics that do not automatically flower regardless of photoperiod. Most of the autoflowering seeds available in the market are feminised. Only a few brands do regular autoflowering seeds. Creating true autoflowering seed from two quality, true breeding autoflowering parent plants is easy for most. Breeding new autoflowering strains becomes more difficult when attempting to make a hybrid with a non-autoflowering strain.

Some photoperiod/short-day cannabis strains are heterogeneous - containing the recessive day-neutral or autoflowering genetics along with the dominant short-day genetics. However a proper list of such strains is not yet available so most breeders treat all short- day plants as homozygous dominant. A true autoflower is homozygous recessive for the day neutral genetics. Therefore, most crosses between classical photoperiod/short-day strains and autoflowers produce few or no autoflower progeny in the F1 generation. Regardless of whether the F1 generation produces autoflowering plants, the higher performing and similar plants need to be recrossed; this F2 generation will contain 25% of homozygous recessive plants which are autoflowering. Still the few autoflowers may require further stabilization. Further complexities with stabilizing autoflowers has led to non autoflowering and low quality strains making it into the market. Cannabis cultivation Cannabis, Sir Ross. Cannabis Botany and Marijuana Horticulture Naturally Medicinal.

Maison Hydroponique Publishing. ISBN 978-1548501594