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100 euro note

The one hundred euro note is one of the higher value euro banknotes and has been used since the introduction of the euro in 2002. The note is used daily by some 343 million Europeans and in the 23 countries which have it as their sole currency. In January 2020, there were 3,037,000,000 hundred euro banknotes in circulation in the eurozone, it is the third most circulated denomination, accounting for 13.0% of the total banknotes. It is the third largest note measuring 147 millimetres × 82 millimetres and has a green colour scheme; the hundred euro notes depict arches/doorways in the Baroque and Rococo style. The hundred euro note contains several complex security features such as watermarks, invisible ink and microprinting that document its authenticity; the new banknotes of the Europa series 100 euro banknote was released on 28 May 2019. The euro was founded on 1 January 1999, when it became the currency of over 300 million people in Europe. For the first three years of its existence it was an invisible currency, only used in accountancy.

Euro cash was not introduced until 1 January 2002, when it replaced the national banknotes and coins of the countries in eurozone 12, such as the French franc and the Spanish peseta. Slovenia joined the Eurozone in 2007, Cyprus and Malta in 2008, Slovakia in 2009, Estonia in 2011 Latvia in 2014, Lithuania joined in 2015; the changeover period during which the former currencies' notes and coins were exchanged for those of the euro lasted about two months, going from 1 January 2002 until 28 February 2002. The official date on which the national currencies ceased to be legal tender varied from member state to member state; the earliest date was in Germany, where the mark ceased to be legal tender on 31 December 2001, though the exchange period lasted for two months more. After the old currencies ceased to be legal tender, they continued to be accepted by national central banks for periods ranging from ten years to forever. Notes printed before November 2003 bear the signature of the first president of the European Central Bank, Wim Duisenberg, replaced on 1 November 2003 by Jean-Claude Trichet, whose signature appears on issues from November 2003 to March 2012.

Notes issued after March 2012 bear the signature of the third president of the European Central Bank, incumbent Mario Draghi. Until now there has been only one series of euro notes, however a new series, similar to the current one, is planned to be released; the European Central Bank will, in due time, announce when banknotes from the first series lose legal tender status. As of June 2012, current issues do not reflect the expansion of the European Union, as Cyprus is not depicted on current notes as the map does not extend far enough east and Malta is missing as it does not meet the current series' minimum size for depiction. Since the European Central Bank plans to redesign the notes every seven or eight years after each issue, a second series of banknotes is in preparation. New production and anti-counterfeiting techniques will be employed on the new notes, but the design will be of the same theme and colours identical of the current series. However, they would still be recognisable as a new series.

The one hundred euro note measures at 147 millimetres × 82 millimetres and has a green colour scheme. All bank notes depict arches/doorways in a different historical European style. Although Robert Kalina's original designs were intended to show real monuments, for political reasons the bridge and art are hypothetical examples of the architectural era. Like all euro notes, it contains the denomination, the EU flag, the signature of the president of the ECB and the initials of said bank in different EU languages, a depiction of EU territories overseas, the stars from the EU flag and twelve security features as listed below; the hundred euro note is protected by: Colour changing ink used on the numeral located on the back of the note, that appears to change colour from purple to brown, when the note is tilted. A see through number printed in the top corner of the note, on both sides, appear combine to form the value numeral when held against the light. A glossy stripe, situated at the back of the note, showing the value numeral and the euro symbol.

A hologram, used on the note which appears to see the hologram image change between the value and a window or doorway, but in the background, it appears to be rainbow-coloured concentric circles of micro-letters moving from the centre to the edges of the patch. A EURion constellation, it is added to help software detect the presence of a banknote in a digital image. Watermarks, which appear. Raised printing in the main image, the lettering and the value numerals on the front of the banknotes will be raised. Ultraviolet ink. Microprinting, on various areas of the banknotes there is microprinting, for example, inside the "ΕΥΡΩ" on the front; the micro-text is sharp, but not blurred. A security thread, embedded in the banknote paper; the thread will appear as a dark stripe. The

José de Urrutia y de las Casas

José Ramón de Urrutia y de las Casas was a Spanish captain general and military engineer. He participated in the Great Siege of Gibraltar, the Russo-Turkish War, for which Catherine the Great awarded him the Cross of Saint George in 1789, the War of the Pyrenees. In 1797, as engineer general, he proposed the unification of the four different sections of the Spanish army's military engineers under one command, his proposal led to the formation of the Regimiento Real de Zapadores-Minadores, which in turn led to the formation of Spain's Royal Corps of Engineers. His portrait was painted by Goya in 1798, is considered "one of the most penetrating psychological studies painted by Goya in his maturity"

Consumer Protection Act 1987

The Consumer Protection Act 1987 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that made important changes to the consumer law of the United Kingdom. Part 1 implemented European Community Directive 85/374/EEC, the product liability directive, by introducing a regime of strict liability for damage arising from defective products. Part 2 created government powers to regulate the safety of consumer products through Statutory Instruments. Part 3 defined a criminal offence of giving a misleading price indication; the Act was notable in that it was the first occasion that the UK government implemented an EC directive through an Act of Parliament rather than an order under the European Communities Act 1972. Section 2 imposes civil liability in tort for damage caused wholly or by a defect in a product. Liability falls on: Producers. Liability is strict, there is no need to demonstrate fault or negligence on behalf of the producer. Liability cannot be "written out" by an exclusion clause Damage includes: Death.

A product is any goods or electricity and includes products aggregated into other products, whether as component parts, raw materials or otherwise though a supplier of the aggregate product is not liable on the basis of that fact. Buildings and land are not included though construction materials such as girders are. Information and software are not included though printed instructions and embedded software are relevant to the overall safety of a product; the original Act did not apply to unprocessed game or agricultural produce but this exception was repealed on 4 December 2000 to comply with EU Directive 1999/34/EC, enacted because of fears over BSE. Section 3 defines a defect as being present when "the safety of the product is not such as persons are entitled to expect". Safety is further defined as to apply to products that are component parts or raw materials in other products, to risks to property as well as risks of death and personal injury; the standard of safety that "persons are entitled to expect" is to be assessed in relation to all the circumstances, including: The manner in which, purposes for which, the product has been marketed.

Schedule 1 amends the Limitation Act 1980. Claims under the Act are barred three years after the date when damage occurred or when it came to the knowledge of the claimant. However, no claim can be brought more than 10 years after the date the product was put into circulation. Section 4 states that, in civil proceedings, it is a defence to show that:... the state of scientific and technical knowledge at the relevant time was not such that a producer of products of the same description as the product in question might be expected to have discovered the defect if it had existed in his products while they were under his control This defence was allowed to member states as an option under the Directive. As of 2004, all EU member states other than Finland and Luxembourg had taken advantage of it to some extent. However, the concept had been criticised and rejected by the Law Commission in 1977 influenced by the thalidomide tragedy, by the Pearson Commission in 1978; the UK implementation differs from the version of the defence in Art.7 of the Directive:... the state of scientific and technical knowledge when put the product into circulation was not such as to enable the existence of the defect to be discovered.

The directive seems to suggest that discovery of the defect must be impossible while the UK implementation seems to broaden the defence to situations where, while it would have been possible to discover the defect, it would have been unreasonable to expect the producer to do so. This difference led the Commission of the European Union to bring legal action against the UK in 1989; as there was at that time no UK case law on the defence, the European Court of Justice found that there was no evidence that the UK was interpreting the defence more broadly than the wording of the directive. This is to ensure that the UK legislation is interpreted to be consistent with the directive in the future, as was the case in A & Others v. National Blood Authority where the judge referred to the directive rather than the UK legislation; the defect is attributable to compliance with a requirement imposed by law.