SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

1010

Year 1010 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. The Nile River in Egypt freezes over. March 8 – Persian poet Ferdowsi finishes writing the Shahnameh, which will be regarded as the national epic of the greater Iranian culture; the Lý dynasty is established in Vietnam, moves the capital to Thăng Long. Second conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War: The Goryeo king is unseated in a revolt, resulting in an invasion by the Liao dynasty, the burning of the Korean capital Gaegyeong. Song Zhun of Song Dynasty China completes the work of the earlier geographer Lu Duosun, an enormous atlas of China, written and illustrated in 1,556 chapters, showing maps of each region, city and village. In the Chola dynasty, the first votes are celebrated by adding a ballot in an urn. Th Great Issam Hariri Birth Viking explorer Þorfinnr "Karlsefni" Þórðarson attempts to found a settlement in North America; the Russian city of Yaroslavl is founded as an outpost of the principality of Rostov Veliky. Hisham II the Nephast is restored as Umayyad caliph of the Caliphate of Córdoba, succeeding Muhammad II al-Mahdi.

Allied to Muslim rebels, Ramon Borrell, Count of Barcelona sacks Córdoba. June 2 - The Battle of Aqbat al-Bakr takes place in the context of the Fitna of al-Andalus resulting in a defeat for the Caliphate of Córdoba; the construction of Brihadisvara Temple at Tamil Nadu is completed during the Chola dynasty. Rajaraja I and His Teacher, detail of a wall painting in the Brihadisvara Temple is made during the Chola dynasty, Early Medieval period. Lady Murasaki writes The Tale of Genji in Japanese]. Beowulf is written anonymously. Eilmer of Malmesbury attempts flight in a glider of his own construction. May 30 – Zhao Zhen, Emperor Renzong of the Song Dynasty Adalbero, bishop of Würzburg Adalbero III of Luxembourg, German nobleman Akkadevi, princess of the Chalukya Dynasty Anno II, archbishop of Cologne Arialdo, Italian nobleman and deacon Benno, bishop of Meissen Eberhard, archbishop of Trier Eleanor of Normandy, countess of Flanders Gebhard, archbishop of Salzburg Gomes Echigues, Portuguese knight and governor Honorius II, antipope of the Catholic Church John V of Gaeta, Italian nobleman Michael IV, Byzantine emperor Odo, French nobleman Otloh of Sankt Emmeram, German monk Siegfried I, German nobleman Tunka Manin, ruler of the Ghana Empire February 14 – Fujiwara no Korechika, Japanese nobleman Ælfric of Eynsham, English abbot and writer Abu'l-Nasr Muhammad, Farighunid ruler Aimoin, French monk and chronicler Aisha, Andalusian poet and writer Cathal mac Conchobar mac Taidg, king of Connacht Ermengol I, count of Urgell John Kourkouas, Byzantine catepan Maelsuthan Ua Cerbhail, Irish advisor and chronicler Vijayanandi, Indian mathematician

Matfield Green, Kansas

Matfield Green is a city in Chase County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 47. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans; the historic Native American tribes of Kansas are many, including the Kansa, or "Wind People," from whom the name of the state is derived. Included are the related Osage and Wichita. From the west and north ranged the Comanche and Apache, as well as the Kiowa and Arapaho. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U.

S. state. In 1859, Chase County was established within the Kansas Territory, which included the land for modern day Matfield Green. Matfield Green was named in England. In 1870, Bazaar Township, Chase County, Kansas which includes Matfield Green had a population of 376, growing to 1,096 by 1880. In its heyday, at the beginning of the 19th century, Matfield Green grew to about 350 residents and possessed a bank, grocery store and blacksmith, flour mill and lumberyard, a hotel for visitors, it had its own schools. A post office existed in Matfield Green from January 11, 1867 to September 30, 1995. Like many small towns in Kansas, Matfield Green struggles to maintain its existence, it is helped by a small colony of artists and writers who work to preserve the community, along with the nearby historic Pioneer Bluffs ranch headquarters. Matfield Green is located at 38°09′35″N 96°33′43″W. in the scenic Flint Hills of the Great Plains. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.14 square miles, all of it land.

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Matfield Green has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Matfield Green has two ranches on the National Register of Historic Places: Crocker Ranch. 1908-1940 Pioneer Bluffs Ranch 1 mile north on K-177 Highway. Pioneer Bluffs is an early twentieth century ranch. Matfield Green is part of the Emporia Micropolitan Statistical Area; as of the census of 2010, there were 47 people, 24 households, 11 families residing in the city. The population density was 335.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 36 housing units at an average density of 257.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 100.0% White. There were 24 households of which 16.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.7% were married couples living together, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 54.2% were non-families. 37.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 1.96 and the average family size was 2.73. The median age in the city was 58.8 years. 17% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.1% male and 48.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 60 people, 31 households, 18 families residing in the city; the population density was 314.9 people per square mile. There were 34 housing units at an average density of 178.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 100.00% White. There were 31 households out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 41.9% were non-families. 38.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.94 and the average family size was 2.56. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.0% under the age of 18, 1.7% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 31.7% from 45 to 64, 23.3% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 49 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 128.6 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $27,500, the median income for a family was $29,375. Males had a median income of $23,750 versus $14,375 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,642. There were 19.0% of families and 19.4% of the population living below the poverty line, including 35.7% of under eighteens and none of those over 64. The Matfield Green government consists of five council members; the council meets the 1st Monday of each month at 7PM. City Hall, 302 Orient Street; the community is served by Chase County USD 284 public school district. It has two schools. Chase County Junior/Senior High School, 600 Main St in Cottonwood Falls. Chase County Elementary School, 401 Maple St in Cottonwood Falls. Matfield Green schools were closed through school unification; the Matfield Green High School mascot was Matfield Green Panthers.

K-177 highway and BNSF Railway both pass through Matfield Green. The Kansas Turnpike toll road is close to Matfield Green, but a driver must exit the toll plaza in Cassoday and enter K-177 going north. Internet Satellite Internet is provided by StarBand, WildBlue. TV Satellite TV is prov

Indian Army during World War I

The Indian Army during World War I contributed a large number of divisions and independent brigades to the European and the Middle East theatres of war in World War I. Over one million Indian troops served overseas, of whom 62,000 died and another 67,000 were wounded. In total at least 74,187 Indian soldiers died during the war. In World War I the Indian Army fought against the German Empire in German East Africa and on the Western Front. At the First Battle of Ypres, Khudadad Khan became the first Indian to be awarded a Victoria Cross. Indian divisions were sent to Egypt and nearly 700,000 served in Mesopotamia against the Ottoman Empire. While some divisions were sent overseas others had to remain in India guarding the North West Frontier and on internal security and training duties. Field-Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army from 1942 asserted that the British "couldn't have come through both wars if they hadn't had the Indian Army." Herbert Kitchener was appointed Commander-in-Chief, India in 1902 and after five years, his term of office was extended by a further two—during which he reformed the Indian Army.

The reforms now directed that there would be only one Indian Army, the three armies of the Presidencies being merged into a unified force. At the same time, the regiments of the Princely states were made available to be called out to become Imperial Service Troops; the British Army continued to supply units for service in India, in addition to those of the Indian Army. The term Army of India was instituted to refer to the overall command structure which included both the British and Indian Army units; the new formation for the Army of India was set at nine divisions, each division with one cavalry and three infantry brigades and these nine divisions together with three independent infantry brigades would serve in India. The Indian Army was responsible for supplying a division in Burma and a brigade in Aden. To assist command and control of the new divisions, two field armies were formed—the Northern Army and the Southern Army; the Northern Army had five divisions and three brigades and was responsible for the North West Frontier to Bengal while the Southern Army, which had four divisions in India and two formations outside the subcontinent, was responsible for Baluchistan to southern India.

The regiments and battalions of the new organisation would be numbered in a single sequence and the old titles of the Bombay and the Bengal Armies would be discontinued. The new regiments and battalions, instead of remaining at their home base, could now all be called upon to serve anywhere in the country, a tour of duty on the North West Frontier would be an established posting. One change, not accepted was the formation of all-British or all-Indian brigades and the system of having one British regiment or battalion in each brigade remained. In 1914, the Indian Army was one of the two largest volunteer armies in the world. By November 1918, the Indian Army contained 548,311 men, being considered the Imperial Strategic Reserve, it was called upon to deal with incursions and raids on the North West Frontier and to provide garrison forces for the British Empire in Egypt and China. This field force was divided into two armies: the Northern Army, which stretched from the North-West Frontier to Bengal with five divisions and three brigades under command, the Southern Army which ranged from Baluchistan to southern India and it in turn had four divisions under command and two formations outside the subcontinent.

The two armies contained 39 cavalry regiments, 138 infantry battalions, a joint cavalry-infantry unit, the Corps of Guides, three sapper regiments and 12 mountain artillery batteries. The nine divisions formed by these reforms each consisted of one cavalry and three infantry brigades; the cavalry brigade had one British and two Indian regiments while the infantry brigades consisted of one British and three Indian battalions. Indian Army battalions were smaller than the British battalions, consisting of 30 officers and 723 other ranks as compared to the British 29 officers and 977 other ranks. Indian battalions were segregated, with companies of different tribes, castes or religions. Additional troops attached to the headquarters of each division included a cavalry regiment, a pioneer battalion and artillery provided by the British Royal Field Artillery; each division had about 13,000 men on strength, somewhat weaker than a British division in part due to the smaller infantry battalions and smaller artillery forces.

The Indian Army was weakened when 500 British officers on home leave, enough to officer 38 Indian battalions, were posted to the new British divisions being formed for Kitchener's Army. In addition to the regular Indian Army, the armies of the Princely States and regiments of the Auxiliary Force could be called upon to assist in an emergency; the Princely States formed the Imperial Service Brigades and in 1914, had 22,613 men in 20 cavalry regiments and 14 infantry battalions. By the end of the war 26,000 men had served overseas on Imperial Service; the Auxiliary force could field another 40,000 men in 11 regiments of horse and 42 volunteer infantry battalions. Available were the Frontier Militia and the Military Police which could field 34,000 men between them; the field force headquarters was located in Delhi and the senior officer was assisted by a Chief of the General Staff, India. All the senior command and staff positions in the Indian Army alternated between senior officers of the British and Indian Armies.

In 1914