Year in topic Year 1013 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. King Henry II of the Holy Roman Empire signs a peace treaty at Merseburg with Duke Bolesław I of Poland; as part of the treaty, Bolesław pays homage and recognizes Henry as his overlord in exchange for receiving the March of Lusatia and the March of Meissen as fiefs. To seal their peace, Bolesław's son Mieszko II marries Richeza of Lotharingia. Sulayman ibn al-Hakam reconquers the Caliphate of Córdoba in Al-Andalus and deposes Hisham II. Sulayman becomes the fifth Umayyad caliph of Córdoba. Winter – Henry II mobilises a German expeditionary army at Augsburg, to begin his second Italian military campaign. Summer – Danish Viking raiders led by Sweyn Forkbeard sail from Denmark to attack England. Again London defends itself and the Vikings move elsewhere, plundering Wessex and Northumbria. King Æthelred II sends his sons Alfred to Normandy. Æthelred retreats to the Isle of Wight and follows them into exile. December 25 – Sweyn Forkbeard takes control of the Danelaw and is proclaimed king of England in London.

Some of the English provinces refuse to pay homage to Sweyn, who has no dynastic right to claim the throne. The Four Great Books of Song, the Song Dynasty Chinese encyclopedia Prime Tortoise of the Record Bureau, is completed in 1,000 volumes of 9.4 million written Chinese characters. Kaifeng, capital of China, becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Córdoba in Al-Andalus. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi dies, he writes a 30-part medical encyclopedia in Arabic. Introducing his collection of over 200 surgical instruments. Æthelred II appoints Lyfing as archbishop of Canterbury. He restores Canterbury Cathedral, adding a massive westwork. Beauvais changes from a county to a bishopric. July 18 – Hermann of Reichenau, German music theorist August 15 – Teishi, Japanese empress Abu al-Walid al-Baji, Moorish scholar and poet Guaimar IV, Italian nobleman Isaac Alfasi, Algerian Talmudist and posek Richeza, queen of Hungary April 19 – Hisham II, caliph of Córdoba June 5 – Al-Baqillani, Arab theologian and logician Al-Mahdi al-Husayn, Zaidi imam of Yemen Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, Arab physician and surgeon Giselbert I, count of Roussillon Mufarrij ibn Daghfal ibn al-Jarrah, Jarrahid emir Reginar IV, French nobleman

Robert William Buss

Robert William Buss was a Victorian artist and illustrator best known for his painting Dickens' Dream. He was the father of a pioneer of girls' education. Born in Bull and Mouth Street, Aldersgate in London in 1804, Buss served an apprenticeship with his father, a master engraver and enameller, studied painting under George Clint, a miniaturist and portrait painter, mezzotint engraver. At the start of his career Buss specialised in painting theatrical portraits, with many of the leading actors of the day sitting to him, including William Charles Macready, John Pritt Harley, John Baldwin Buckstone. Buss painted historical and humorous subjects, he exhibited a total of 112 pictures between 1826 and 1859, twenty-five at the Royal Academy, twenty at the British Institution, forty-five at the Suffolk Street gallery of the Society of British Artists, seven at the New Watercolour Society, fifteen in other places. Buss was commissioned by Dickens' publishers and Hall, to provide two illustrations for The Pickwick Papers after the original illustrator, Robert Seymour, committed suicide.

Buss set aside his other work and prepared a dozen or so preliminary sketches for the novel in its second of twenty instalments. Five of these sketches are in the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York, his drawings were regarded as adequate, but the process of etching on a steel plate was unfamiliar to him so he hired an expert etcher. Buss realised that the "free touch of an original work was wanting", that the printed images lifted from his plates seemed lifeless and uninspired. But, he concluded, "Time was up", the unsatisfactory illustrations for part 3 had to be issued; the publishers summarily dismissed him. The commission went instead to Hablot Knight Browne, but Buss never held his dismissal against Dickens. Instead, Buss remained his lifelong admirer and went on to produce several painting celebrating the author's work, including the unfinished Dickens' Dream. In 1837 publishers Saunders and Otley hired Buss to illustrate a new edition of Frederick Marryat's Peter Simple and Henry Colburn hired him to illustrate Frances Trollope's The Widow Married in 1840.

These the artist managed to etch satisfactorily, afterwards he gained several commissions for illustrating fiction. For some years Buss worked for Charles Knight, designing wood-engravings for his editions of London, William Shakespeare, Old England. Buss married Frances Fleetwood on 21 March 1826, the couple settled in Camden Town, where they had ten children, six of whom survived infancy, their only daughter, Frances Mary Buss, became a distinguished pioneer of women's education, was assisted for many years by her father and her clergyman brothers Alfred and Septimus Buss. In 1845, worried by'money anxieties', Buss's wife started a school for young boys and girls at 14 Clarence Road, Kentish Town, London. In the same premises his daughter Frances began a morning school offering young ladies a liberal education. In 1850 the two schools moved into larger quarters in Holmes Terrace, Buss assisted by teaching drawing and science and elocution. In 1850 Buss's wife retired from the school. Buss researched earlier British printmakers, lectured on the topic in his daughter's schools and, from 1853, he delivered a series of four talks, accompanied by 300 examples reproduced on sixty scrolling cartoons, at literary and scientific institutions in London and the provinces.

These talks he published in 1874 as English Graphic Satire, a book for which he supplied in various mediums examples of his predecessors' work. Buss gave lectures on fresco painting and on the picturesque and the beautiful, though these were never published, from 1850 to 1852 he edited The Fine Art Almanack. On hearing of Dickens' death in June 1870, Buss was moved to attempt a large watercolour,'Dickens's Dream', which portrayed the dozing author seated in his Gad's Hill Place study surrounded by many of the characters he had created; the desk and background of the painting were based on The Empty Chair, an engraving made at Gads Hill Place in 1870, shortly after Dickens's death, by Samuel Luke Fildes. The painting was Buss's last attempt to illustrate Dickens's characters, he modestly reproduced the images of the artists who had succeeded him. However, before he could finish it Buss died at his home at 14 Camden Street, London on 26 February 1875 and was buried at Highgate Cemetery in Middlesex.

Today the painting is in the Charles Dickens Museum in London. Media related to Robert William Buss at Wikimedia Commons Buss' biography on The Art of Robert William Buss Buss on Buss and Dickens' Dream Buss on the Royal Academy Collections website Buss on the Smithsonian American Art Museum website

North American Old Catholic Church

The North American Old Catholic Church was a community of 22 independent Catholic churches based in the United States. Although unaffiliated with the Catholic Church, this Old Catholic Church branch of Catholicism described its faith tradition as being "rooted in the early days of Jesus and his teachings on peace, love and equality." The North American Old Catholic Church was formed in January 2007 in Louisville, Kentucky, as a community of independent Catholic churches, with Archbishop Michael Seneco being elected as the community's first presiding bishop. This United States-based organization traced its history to an 1870 movement in the Netherlands that dissented from the Roman Catholic Church over the 1869 First Vatican Council doctrine of papal infallibility, a dogma of the Catholic Church which states that the pope is preserved from the possibility of error in certain circumstances. In 2009, the group included twenty Old Catholic churches in the United States, with Washington, D. C. Texas, Maryland each having two parishes, Florida having three, the rest located in other states.

The North American Old Catholic Church was disbanded in 2013. It no longer exists as an ecclesiastical entity. Member clergy founded other groups or joined existing entities. Lots of dead links Official website