1013 Tombecka

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1013 Tombecka
Discovery [1]
Discovered by B. Jekhovsky
Discovery site Algiers Obs.
Discovery date 17 January 1924
MPC designation (1013) Tombecka
Named after
D. Tombeck[2]
(Faculty of Sciences of Paris)[2]
1924 PQ · 1953 TP3
1962 VK · A905 UG
A907 GW
main-belt · (middle)
Mitidika[3] · Eunomia[4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 111.69 yr (40,795 days)
Aphelion 3.2444 AU
Perihelion 2.1230 AU
2.6837 AU
Eccentricity 0.2089
4.40 yr (1,606 days)
0° 13m 27.12s / day
Inclination 11.901°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 31.93±1.5 km[5]
34.057±0.434 km[6]
34.28±0.62 km[7]
34.613±0.290 km[8]
34.62±10.20 km[9]
36.62±0.58 km[11]
Mass (0.17±1.43)×1018 kg[10]
Mean density
7.50 g/cm3[10] (no porosity)
6.0 h[12]
6.050±0.001 h[a]
6.05017 h[b]
6.0508±0.0001 h[13]
6.053±0.002 h[14]
Tholen = XSC [1][4]
M[6] · Xk [10]
B–V = 0.755 [1]
U–B = 0.370 [1]
10.12[1][4][5][6][7][11] · 10.30[9] · 10.52±1.05[15]

1013 Tombecka, provisional designation 1924 PQ, is a metallic Mitidika asteroid from the central regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 34 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 17 January 1924, by Russian-French astronomer Benjamin Jekhowsky at the Algiers Observatory in North Africa.[16] The asteroid was named after the secretary of the Faculty of Sciences of Paris, D. Tombecka.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Tombecka is a member of the Mitidika family, a small asteroid family of carbonaceous asteroids in the central main belt named after 2262 Mitidika.[17][3] It has also been described generically as a stony Eunomian asteroid (502).[4]

The asteroid orbits the Sun in the central main-belt at a distance of 2.1–3.2 AU once every 4 years and 5 months (1,606 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.21 and an inclination of 12° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] It was first identified as A905 UG at Heidelberg Observatory in October 1905. The body's observation arc begins at Heidelberg in 1931, approximately 7 years after its official discovery observation at Algiers.[16]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Spectral type[edit]

Tombecka has been characterized as a metallic M-type asteroid by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE).[6] It has also been described as an Xk subtype, that transitions from the X-type to the K-type asteroids.[10] In the Tholen classification, a determination of Tombecka's spectral type was inconclusive: numerical analysis of the asteroid's colors was closest to an X-type (which includes the M-type in this taxonomy), as well as in the vicinity of the C- and S-type asteroids.[1]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's WISE telescope, Tombecka measures between 31.93 and 36.62 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.120 and 0.1552.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link adopts the results obtained by IRAS, that is, an albedo of 0.1552 and a diameter of 31.93 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.12.[4]

Mass and density[edit]

Tombecka has an determined mass of (0.17±1.43)×1018 kilograms and a high (metallic) density of 7.50 g/cm3 with no porosity at all. The results correspond to an overall mean-diameter of 35.18 kilometers.[10]

Rotation period and poles[edit]

In 1986, several rotational lightcurves of Tombecka were obtained from photometric observations. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period between 6.0 and 6.0508 hours with a brightness variation of 0.35 to 0.50 magnitude (U=3/3/3/3).[12][13][14][a]

In 2006, an international study modeled a lightcurve with a concurring period of 6.05017 hours and determined a spin axis of (4.0°, 62.0°) in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β) (Q=2).[b]


This minor planet was named after D. Tombeck, secretary of the Faculty of Sciences of Paris. The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 97).[2]


  1. ^ a b Aznar (2016). Observation date: 26 November 2015. Rotation period 6.050±0.001 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.44 mag. Quality code of 3. Summary figures for (1013) Tombecka at Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL)
  2. ^ a b Durech (2006): rotation period 6.05017 hours including determination of spin axis (Q=2). Summary figures for (1013) Tombecka at Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL)


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1013 Tombecka (1924 PQ)" (2017-07-04 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1013) Tombecka. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 87. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d e "LCDB Data for (1013) Tombecka". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  8. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Carry, B. (December 2012). "Density of asteroids" (PDF). Planetary and Space Science. 73 (1): 98–118. arXiv:1203.4336. Bibcode:2012P&SS...73...98C. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2012.03.009. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  11. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  12. ^ a b Weidenschilling, S. J.; Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.; Greenberg, R.; Levy, D. H. (August 1990). "Photometric geodesy of main-belt asteroids. III - Additional lightcurves". Icarus: 402–447. Bibcode:1990Icar...86..402W. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(90)90227-Z. ISSN 0019-1035. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  13. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1013) Tombecka". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  14. ^ a b Fauerbach, Michael; Marks, Scott A.; Lucas, Michael P. (June 2008). "Lightcurve Analysis of Ten Main-belt Asteroids". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 35 (2): 44–46. Bibcode:2008MPBu...35...44F. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  15. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  16. ^ a b "1013 Tombecka (1924 PQ)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  17. ^ Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). "Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families" (PDF). Asteroids IV: 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. Retrieved 2 September 2017.

External links[edit]