Year 1019 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. Sviatopolk I dies and is succeeded by his brother Yaroslav I, he becomes with the support of the Novgorodians and the help of Varangian mercenaries the Grand Prince of Kiev. Yaroslav consolidates the Kievan state through both cultural and administrative improvements, military campaigns; the Azdâji conquest puts an end to the Kingdom of Nekor in Morocco. March 10 – Battle of Gwiju: Korean forces led by General Gang Gam-chan gain a decisive victory over the Khitan Liao Dynasty at modern-day Kusong, ending the Third Goryeo-Khitan War. Toi invasion: Jurchen pirates, from the Khitan Liao Dynasty in modern-day Manchuria, sail with about 50 ships to invade Kyūshū in Japan, they assault the islands Iki. In April the pirates are defeated by the Japanese army. Japanese statesman and regent Fujiwara no Michinaga retires from public life, installing his son Yorimichi as regent. Michinaga, continues to direct affairs of state from his retirement, remains the de facto ruler of Japan, until his death in 1028.

November 17 – Sima Guang, Chinese politician and writer December 29 – Munjong, ruler of Goryeo Abe no Sadato, Japanese nobleman and samurai Dominic de la Calzada, Spanish priest and saint Gundekar II, bishop of Eichstätt Mauger, archbishop of Rouen Śrīpati, Indian astronomer and mathematician Sweyn II, king of Denmark Wang Gui, Chinese official and chancellor Wen Tong, Chinese painter and calligrapher Yūsuf Balasaguni, Karakhanid statesman Zeng Gong, Chinese scholar and historian June 28 – Heimerad, German priest and saint October 6 – Frederick of Luxembourg, count of Moselgau Aldhun, bishop of Lindisfarne Sergius II, patriarch of Constantinople Sviatopolk I, Grand Prince of Kiev


Enteritis is inflammation of the small intestine. It is most caused by food or drink contaminated with pathogenic microbes, such as serratia, but may have other causes such as NSAIDs, radiation therapy as well as autoimmune conditions like Crohn's disease and coeliac disease. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. Related diseases of the gastrointestinal system include inflammation of the stomach and large intestine. Duodenitis and ileitis are subtypes of enteritis which are only localised to a specific part of the small intestine. Inflammation of both the stomach and small intestine is referred to as gastroenteritis. Signs and symptoms of enteritis are variable and vary based on the specific cause and other factors such as individual variance and stage of disease. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhoea, fever, nausea and weight loss. Crohn's disease – known as regional enteritis, it can occur along any surface of the gastrointestinal tract. In 40% of cases it is limited to the small intestine.

Coeliac disease – caused by an autoimmune reaction to gluten by genetically predisposed individuals. Eosinophilic enteropathy – a condition where eosinophils build up in the gastrointestinal tract and blood vessels, leading to polyp formation, necrosis and ulcers, it is most seen in patients with a history of atopy, however is overall uncommon. In Germany, 90% of cases of infectious enteritis are caused by four pathogens, Rotavirus and Salmonella. Other common causes of infectious enteritis include bacteria such as Shigella and E. coli, as well as viruses such as adenovirus and calicivirus. Other less common pathogens include Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile and Staphylococcus aureus. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common sources of infectious enteritis, the most common bacterial pathogen found in 2 year old and smaller children with diarrhoea, it has been linked to consumption of contaminated water and food, most poultry and milk. The disease tends to be less severe in developing countries, due to the constant exposure which people have with the antigen in the environment, leading to early development of antibodies.

Rotavirus is responsible for infecting 140 million people and causing 1 million deaths each year in children younger than 5 years. This makes it the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhoea and diarrhea-related deaths in the world, it selectively targets mature enterocytes in the small intestine, causing malabsorption, as well as inducing secretion of water. It has been observed to cause villus ischemia, increase intestinal motility; the net result of these changes is induced diarrhoea. Enteritis necroticans is an fatal illness, caused by β-toxin of Clostridium perfringens; this causes inflammation and segments of necrosis throughout the gastrointestinal tract. It is most common in developing countries, however has been documented in post-World War II Germany. Risk factors for enteritis necroticans include decreased trypsin activity, which prevent intestinal degradation of the toxin, reduced intestinal motility, which increases likelihood of toxin accumulation. Ischemic enteritis is uncommon compared to ischemic colitis due to the vascularised nature of the small intestine, allowing for sufficient blood flow in most situations.

It develops due to circulatory shock of mesenteric vessels in the absence of major vessel occlusion associated with an underlying condition such as hypertension, arrhythmia or diabetes. Thus it has been considered to be associated with atherosclerosis. Surgical treatment is required due to the likelihood of stenosis or complete occlusion of the small intestine. Ischemic damage can range from mucosal infarction, limited only to the mucosa. Mucosal and mural infarcts in and of themselves may not be fatal, however may progress further to a transmural infarct; this has the potential for perforation of the wall, leading to peritonitis. Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract is common after treatment with radiation therapy to the abdomen or pelvis, it is classified as early if it manifests within the first 3 months, delayed if it manifests 3 months after treatment. Early radiation enteritis is caused by cell death of the crypt epithelium and subsequent mucosal inflammation, however subsides after the course of radiation therapy is completed.

Delayed radiation enteritis is a chronic disease which has a complex pathogenesis involving changes in the majority of the intestinal wall. Diagnosis may be simple in cases where the patient's signs and symptoms are idiopathic to a specific cause; however this is not the case, considering that many pathogens which cause enteritis may exhibit the similar symptoms early in the disease. In particular, shigella and many other bacteria induce acute self-limited colitis, an inflammation of the lining of the colon which appears similar under the microscope. A medical history, physical examination and tests such as blood counts, stool cultures, CT scans, MRIs, PCRs, colonoscopies and upper endoscopies may be used in order to perform a differential diagnosis. A biopsy may be required to obtain a sample for histopathology. Mild cases do not require treatment and will go away after a few days in healthy people. In cases where symptoms persist or when it is more severe, specific treatments based on the initial cause may be required.

In cases where diarrhea is present, replenishing fluids lost is recommended, in cases with prolong

Antonio Ghislanzoni

Antonio Ghislanzoni was an Italian journalist and novelist who wrote librettos for Verdi, among other composers, of which the best known are Aida and the revised version of La forza del destino. Ghislanzoni was born in Lecco and studied in a seminary, but was expelled for bad conduct in 1841, he decided to study medicine in Pavia, but abandoned this after a short time to pursue a singing career as a baritone and to cultivate his literary interests. In 1848, stimulated by the nationalist ideas of Mazzini, Ghislanzoni founded several republican newspapers in Milan but had to take refuge in Switzerland. While travelling to Rome, where he wanted to help defend the nascent republic, Ghislanzoni was arrested by the French and detained in Corsica. In the mid-1850s, having forsaken the stage, Ghislanzoni became active in journalism in the bohemian circles of Milan, serving as director of Italia musicale and editor of the Gazzetta musicale di Milano, he founded L'uomo di pietra the magazine Rivista minima, collaborating with, among others, Arrigo Boito.

In 1869, Ghislanzoni retired from journalism and returned to his native Lombardy, where he dedicated himself to literature and writing libretti for operas. He wrote many short stories in verse and diverse novels including Un suicidio a fior d'acqua, Angioli nelle tenebre, La contessa di Karolystria and Storia dell'avvenire, his novel of theatrical life Gli artisti da teatro, was republished into the 20th century. He published musical essays, the most important being Reminiscenze artistiche. Ghislanzoni wrote some eighty-five libretti, including Edmea for Catalani, Aida and Salvator Rosa for Gomes, I Lituani for Ponchielli and the second version of La forza del destino, he contributed a few verses to the revised translation into Italian of Verdi's Don Carlos. Ghislanzoni died in Caprino Bergamasco, Bergamo in 1893 at age 69, he was an atheist. Aida, directed by Clemente Fracassi Aida, directed by Claes Fellbom Scapigliatura Works by Antonio Ghislanzoni at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Antonio Ghislanzoni at Internet Archive Works by Antonio Ghislanzoni at LibriVox