Shanghai Expeditionary Army
The Shanghai Expeditionary Army was a corps-level ad hoc Japanese army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Shanghai Expeditionary Army was first raised on February 25,1932 as a reinforcement for Japanese forces involved during the First Battle of Shanghai and it was dissolved in June 1932, after the conclusion of that incident. The Shanghai Expeditionary Army was raised a second time on August 15,1937 on the eruption of full scale hostilities between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China. Its forces participated in the Second Battle of Shanghai, and the subsequent drive inland to the Battle of Nanking, troops from this army were involved in the subsequent Nanjing Massacre. The Shanghai Expeditionary Army was disbanded on February 1,1938, Order of Battle January 28 Incident See, Order of battle of the Battle of Shanghai Dorn, Frank. The Sino-Japanese War, 1937-41, From Marco Polo Bridge to Pearl Harbor, Japanese Armed Forces Order of Battle, 1937-1945
Infantry is the general branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot. As the troops who engage with the enemy in close-ranged combat, infantry units bear the largest brunt of warfare, Infantry can enter and maneuver in terrain that is inaccessible to military vehicles and employ crew-served infantry weapons that provide greater and more sustained firepower. In English, the 16th-century term Infantry describes soldiers who walk to the battlefield, and there engage, the term arose in Sixteenth-Century Spain, which boasted one of the first professional standing armies seen in Europe since the days of Rome. It was common to appoint royal princes to military commands, and the men under them became known as Infanteria. in the Canadian Army, the role of the infantry is to close with, and destroy the enemy. In the U. S. Army, the closes with the enemy, by means of fire and maneuver, in order to destroy or capture him, or to repel his assault by fire, close combat. In the U. S. Marine Corps, the role of the infantry is to locate, close with, and destroy the enemy fire and maneuver.
Beginning with the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century, artillery has become a dominant force on the battlefield. Since World War I, combat aircraft and armoured vehicles have become dominant. In 20th and 21st century warfare, infantry functions most effectively as part of a combined arms team including artillery, Infantry relies on organized formations to be employed in battle. These have evolved over time, but remain a key element to effective infantry development and deployment, until the end of the 19th century, infantry units were for the most part employed in close formations up until contact with the enemy. This allowed commanders to control of the unit, especially while maneuvering. The development of guns and other weapons with increased firepower forced infantry units to disperse in order to make them less vulnerable to such weapons. This decentralization of command was made possible by improved communications equipment, among the various subtypes of infantry is Medium infantry.
This refers to infantry which are heavily armed and armored than heavy infantry. In the early period, medium infantry were largely eliminated due to discontinued use of body armour up until the 20th century. In the United States Army, Stryker Infantry is considered Medium Infantry, since they are heavier than light infantry, Infantry doctrine is the concise expression of how infantry forces contribute to campaigns, major operations and engagements. It is a guide to action, not a set of hard, doctrine provides a very common frame of reference across the military forces, allowing the infantry to function cooperatively in what are now called combined arms operations. Doctrine helps standardise operations, facilitating readiness by establishing common ways of accomplishing infantry tasks, doctrine links theory, history and practice
February 26 Incident
The February 26 Incident was an attempted coup détat in Japan on 26 February 1936. It was organized by a group of young Imperial Japanese Army officers with the goal of purging the government and military leadership of their factional rivals, facing overwhelming opposition as the army moved against them, the rebels surrendered on 29 February. Unlike earlier examples of violence by young officers, the coup attempt had severe consequences. After a series of closed trials,19 of the leaders were executed for mutiny. The radical Kōdō-ha faction lost its influence within the army, the period of government by assassination came to a close, the Imperial Japanese Army had a long history of factionalism among its high-ranking officers, originally stemming from domainal rivalries in the Meiji period. Army officers were divided between those whose education had ended at the Army Academy and those who had advanced on to the prestigious Army War College. The latter group formed the elite of the corps, while officers of the former group were effectively barred by tradition from advancement to staff positions.
A number of these lesser-privileged officers formed the armys contribution to the young, the young officers believed that the problems facing the nation were the result of Japan straying from the kokutai. The privileged classes exploited the people, leading to poverty in rural areas. The solution, they believed, was a Shōwa Restoration modeled on the Meiji Restoration of 70 years earlier, by rising up and destroying the evil advisers around the Throne, the officers would enable the Emperor to re-establish his authority. The Emperor would purge Western ideas and those who exploited the people and these beliefs were strongly influenced by contemporary nationalist thought, especially the political philosophy of the former socialist Ikki Kita. The loose-knit group varied in size, but is estimated to have had roughly 100 regular members and its informal leader was Mitsugi Nishida. Nishida, an army lieutenant and disciple of Kita, had become a prominent member of the civilian nationalist societies that proliferated from the late 1920s.
He referred to the group as the Kokutai Genri-ha faction. Despite its relatively small size, the faction was influential, due in no part to the threat it posed. It had sympathizers among the staff and imperial family, most notably Prince Chichibu, the Emperors brother. Despite being fiercely anti-capitalist, it had managed to secure irregular funding from zaibatsu leaders who hoped to shield themselves. The exact nature of the relationship between the Kōdō-ha and the Kokutai Genri-ha is complicated, the two factions are often treated as the same or as two groups forming a larger whole
Aichi Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region. The region of Aichi is known as the Tōkai region and it is the focus of the Chūkyō Metropolitan Area. Originally, the region was divided into the two provinces of Owari and Mikawa, after the Meiji Restoration and Mikawa were united into a single entity. Nagoya Prefecture was renamed to Aichi Prefecture in April 1872, and was united with Nukata Prefecture on November 27 of the same year, the government of Aichi Prefecture is located in the Aichi Prefectural Government Office in Nagoya, which is the old capital of Owari. The Expo 2005 World Exposition was held in Seto and Nagakute, ayuchi is the original form of the name Aichi, and the Fujimae tidal flat is all that remains of the earlier Ayuchi-gata. It is now a protected area and it measures 106 km east to west and 94 km south to north and forms a major portion of the Nōbi Plain. With an area of 5,153.81 km2 it accounts for approximately 1. 36% of the surface area of Japan.
The highest spot is Chausuyama at 1,415 m above sea level, due to its robust economy, for the period from October 2005 to October 2006, Aichi was the fastest growing prefecture in terms of population, beating Tokyo, at 7.4 per cent. Thirty-eight cities are located in Aichi Prefecture and these are the towns and villages in each district, Companies headquartered in Aichi include the following. Companies such as Fuji Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Motors, Sony, Bodycote, as of 2001, Aichi Prefectures population was 50. 03% male and 49. 97% female. 139,540 residents are of foreign nationality, the sports teams listed below are based in Aichi. Other popular sites in Aichi include the tour of the Toyota car factory in the city by the name, the monkey park in Inuyama, and the castles in Nagoya, Toyohashi. Most attractions are man-made destinations, dealing with the history or modern marvels. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5, OCLC58053128 Aichi travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website Aichi Now-Official Site for Tourism Aichi Aichi, HOME of the Samurai Spirit Oda, Nobunaga Tokugawa, Ieyasu
Imperial Japanese Army
The Imperial Japanese Army or IJA, literally Army of the Greater Japanese Empire, was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan, from 1871 to 1945. Later an Inspectorate General of Military Aviation became the agency with oversight of the army. During the Meiji Restoration, the forces loyal to Emperor Meiji were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist daimyōs of Satsuma. This central army, the Imperial Japanese Army, became even more essential after the abolition of the han system in 1871. One of the differences between the samurai and the peasant class was the right to bear arms, this ancient privilege was suddenly extended to every male in the nation. In 1878, the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office, based on the German General Staff, was established directly under the Emperor and was given broad powers for military planning and strategy. The Japanese invasion of Taiwan under Qing rule in 1874 was an expedition by Japanese military forces in response to the Mudan Incident of December 1871.
The Paiwan people, who are indigenous peoples of Taiwan, murdered 54 crewmembers of a merchant vessel from the Ryukyu Kingdom on the southwestern tip of Taiwan. 12 men were rescued by the local Chinese-speaking community and were transferred to Miyako-jima in the Ryukyu Islands and it marked the first overseas deployment of the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy. Not surprisingly, the new led to a series of riots from disgruntled samurai. One of the riots, led by Saigō Takamori, was the Satsuma Rebellion. Thenceforth, the military existed in an intimate and privileged relationship with the imperial institution, top-ranking military leaders were given direct access to the Emperor and the authority to transmit his pronouncements directly to the troops. The sympathetic relationship between conscripts and officers, particularly junior officers who were mostly from the peasantry, tended to draw the military closer to the people. In time, most people came to look more for guidance in matters more to military than to political leaders.
By the 1890s, the Imperial Japanese Army had grown to become the most modern army in Asia, well-trained, well-equipped, however, it was basically an infantry force deficient in cavalry and artillery when compared with its European contemporaries. The Sino-Japanese War would come to symbolize the weakness of the military of the Qing dynasty and this was the result by Japans 120, 000-strong western-style conscript army of two armies and five divisions, which was well-equipped and well-trained when compared with their Qing counterparts. The Treaty of Shimonoseki made the Qing defeat official, with a shift in regional dominance in Asia from China to Japan. In 1899–1900, Boxer attacks against foreigners in China intensified eventually resulting in the siege of the legations in Beijing
The Yangtze River, known in China as the Cháng Jiāng or the Yángzǐ Jiāng, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world. The river is the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country and it drains one-fifth of the land area of the Peoples Republic of China and its river basin is home to one-third of the countrys population. The Yangtze is the sixth-largest river by volume in the world. The Yangtze River plays a role in the history, culture. The prosperous Yangtze River Delta generates as much as 20% of the PRCs GDP, for thousands of years, the river has been used for water, sanitation, industry, boundary-marking and war. The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River is the largest hydro-electric power station in the world, in recent years, the river has suffered from industrial pollution, agricultural run-off and loss of wetland and lakes, which exacerbates seasonal flooding. Some sections of the river are now protected as nature reserves, a stretch of the upstream Yangtze flowing through deep gorges in western Yunnan is part of the Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
In mid-2014 the Chinese government announced it was building a transport network, comprising railways and airports. Because the source of the Yangtze was not ascertained until modern times, Yangtze was actually the name of Chang Jiang for the lower part from Nanjing to the river mouth at Shanghai. In modern Chinese, Yangtze is still used to refer to the part of Chang Jiang from Nanjing to the river mouth. Yangtze never stands for the whole Chang Jiang, Chang Jiang is the modern Chinese name for the lower 2,884 km of the Yangtze from its confluence with the Min River at Yibin in Sichuan Province to the river mouth at Shanghai. Chang Jiang literally means the Long River, in Old Chinese, this stretch of the Yangtze was simply called Jiang/Kiang 江, a character of phono-semantic compound origin, combining the water radical 氵 with the homophone 工. Krong was probably a word in the Austroasiatic language of local peoples such as the Yue, similar to *krong in Proto-Vietnamese and krung in Mon, all meaning river, it is related to modern Vietnamese sông and Khmer kôngkea.
By the Han Dynasty, Jiang had come to any river in Chinese. The epithet 長, means long, was first formally applied to the river during the Six Dynasties period, various sections of Chang Jiang have local names. From Yibin to Yichang, the river through Sichuan and Chongqing Municipality is known as the Chuan Jiang or Sichuan River, in the Hubei Province, the river is called the Jing Jiang or the Jing River after Jingzhou. In Anhui Province, the takes on the local name Wan Jiang after the shorthand name for Anhui. And Yangzi Jiang t 揚子江s 扬子江, p Yángzǐjiāng) or the Yangzi River, the name likely comes from an ancient ferry crossing called Yangzi or Yangzijin
Battle of Wanjialing
The two and a half month battle resulted in heavy losses of the Japanese 101st and 106th Divisions. The chief commander in the frontline was the commander of the 9th Group Army Wu Qiwei and they were under the overall command of the supreme commander of the 9th Military Region Xue Yue. The Japanese side consisted of the 106th Division, led by Lieutenant-General Junrokurō Matsuura, under the 106th Division, there were the 111th Infantry Brigade and 136th Brigade, as well as regiments of cavalry, artillery and transport. During the battle, the 101st Division was deployed, during the battle, the would be deployed. Under the orders of Yasuji Okamura, the Japanese 106th Division intended to cross the Wanjialing Region in hopes of cutting off the connection between the Chinese Army in Nanxun and Wuning Railway. The plan was discovered by Xue Yue, and the Chinese Army managed to surround the 106th Division with 16 divisions at Lushan, unable to break through the Chinese lines, Japanese deployed poison gas.
Although the Chinese had a shortage of protective equipment against chemical weapons. At the beginning of September, Okamura ordered the 9th and 27th Divisions to relieve the 106th division, desperate to break open a safe path for their trapped ground forces, the Japanese Air Force began heavy bombing on Chinese positions with incendiary bombs, resulting in many Chinese deaths. On October 7, the Chinese suddenly launched fierce counter-attacks, combat ended on October 10, which was coincidentally the Chinese National Celebration Day. On October 13, the Chinese forces withdrew from the battlefield, the two and a half month battle resulted in tremendous casualties for the Japanese army, the failed offensive resulting in the crippling of the Japanese 101st and 106th divisions. These two divisions initially had a strength of over 47,000 troops, and lost about 30,000 men in battle. Archives reveal Chinas key victory against Japanese aggressors Battle of Wuhan Battle of Wuhan, Smash the Japanese Ambition
Battle of Wuhan
The Battle of Wuhan, popularly known to the Chinese as the Defense of Wuhan, and to the Japanese as the Capture of Wuhan, was a large-scale battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War. More than one million National Revolutionary Army troops were gathered, with Chiang Kai-shek personally in command, engagements were in both the northern and southern shores of the Yangtze River, spreading across vast areas of the Anhui, Henan and Hubei provinces. On 7 July 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army launched an invasion of China. With the onset of the war and Tianjin fell to the Japanese in less one month. On 12 November, the Japanese Army captured Shanghai, Nanjing was at risk of being besieged, and the Chinese government was forced to transfer its capital to Chongqing. However, the Chinese government did not transfer its elite troops, assistance from the USSR provided additional military and technical resources, including a small band of Soviet Air Force volunteers. Wuhan, located halfway up the Yangtze River, was the second largest city at the time with a population of two million, the city was divided by the Yangtze River and Hanshui into three regions, Wuchang and Hanyang.
Wuchang was the center, Hankou was a commercial district while Hanyang was the industrial estate. After the completion of the Yuehan Railway, the importance of Wuhan as a transportation hub in inland China was further established. When Japan captured Nanjing on 13 December, the Chinese shifted structures and industries to Wuhan, the Chinese war effort was focused on protecting Wuhan from being occupied by the Japanese. The Japanese government and the headquarters of the China Expeditionary Force thereby expected that the fall of Wuhan would lead to the end of Chinese resistance, the Battle of Wuhan was preceded by a Japanese air strike on 28 February 1938. It was known as the 2.28 Air battle and the Chinese were able to repel the attack, on 24 March, the Diet of Japan passed the National Mobilization Law that authorized unlimited funding of war. As part of the law, the National Service Draft Ordinance allowed the conscription of civilians, on 29 April, the Japanese air force launched major air strikes on Wuhan to celebrate Emperor Hirohitos birthday.
The Chinese, knowing this beforehand, were well prepared and this battle was known as the 4.29 Air battle, one of the most intense air battles of the Second Sino-Japanese War. The ROCAF shot down 21 Japanese planes at a loss of 12, after the fall of Xuzhou in May 1938, the Japanese planned an extensive invasion of Hankou and the takeover of Wuhan, intending to destroy the main force of the National Revolutionary Army. The Chinese, on the hand, were preparing for the defense of Wuhan. They managed to gather up more than one million troops, around 300 planes and 50 naval ships. In an attempt to buy time for the preparation of the defense of Wuhan
Battle of Xuzhou
The Battle of Xuzhou was fought between Japanese and Chinese forces in May 1938 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In contemporary accounts in English, the event was referred to as the Battle of Hsuchow. In 1937, the North China Area Army had chased Song Zheyuans 29th Army to the south along the Jinpu Railway after his defeat in the Battle of Lugou Bridge, most mechanized and air forces in Eastern China were wiped out in the Battle of Shanghai in 1937. Although new equipment was purchased, it had yet to be shipped, han Fuqu, the chairman of the Shandong province, rejected orders from Chiang Kai-shek and kept retreating to preserve his force. After Qingdao was occupied in January 1938, his policy was denounced, in March 1938 Japanese forces occupied the north of Shandong, including the capital city Jinan. The defense line along the Yellow River was torn apart, due to pressure from Japanese forces,64 Chinese divisions gathered around Xuzhou in Jiangsu, the headquarters of 5th Military Region of the National Revolutionary Army.
Without surrounding it, General Itagaki Seishiro moved south first to attack Taierzhuang, following this defeat, Japan intended an encirclement against Xuzhou and deployed the North China Area Army to the north and the Central China Expeditionary Army to the south. The North China Area Army had four divisions and two infantry brigades drawn from the Kwantung Army, the 5th Tank Battalion was used to support the 3rd Infantry Division advancing north along the railway to Xuzhou. Additional troops were deployed in the Battle of Northern and Eastern Henan by the North China Area Army to stop Chinese reinforcements from the west, a Chinese counterattack here resulted in the Battle of Lanfeng. However, with the approach of the Central China Expeditionary Army from the south, the situation was grim. The Japanese army won the battle and ultimately captured Xuzhou. Most of the Chinese soldiers broke through the encirclement through gaps in the Japanese lines to the west or dispersed into the countryside as guerrillas, the many Chinese troops who broke through the encirclement would play a major role in battles.
Order of battle, Battle of Xuzhou Huaihai Campaign of 1948-49, involving a Battle of Xuzhou Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, translated by Wen Ha-hsiung, Chung Wu Publishing,33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taiwan Republic of China
Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7,1937 to September 9,1945. The First Sino-Japanese War was fought from 1894 to 1895, China fought Japan, with some economic help from Germany, the Soviet Union and the United States. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the war merged into the conflict of World War II as a major front of what is broadly known as the Pacific War. Many scholars consider the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 to have been the beginning of World War II, the Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century. The war was the result of a decades-long Japanese imperialist policy to expand its influence politically and militarily in order to access to raw material reserves, food. The period after World War One brought about increasing stress on the Japanese polity, leftists sought universal suffrage and greater rights for workers. Increasing textile production from Chinese mills was adversely affecting Japanese production, the Depression brought about a large slowdown in exports.
All of this contributed to militant nationalism, culminating in the rise to power of a militarist fascist faction and this faction was led at its height by the Imperial Rule Assistance Associations Hideki Tojo cabinet under the edict from Emperor Shōwa. Before 1937, China and Japan fought in small, localized engagements, the last of these incidents was the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937, which is traditionally seen as the beginning of total war between the two countries. Since 2017 the Chinese Government has regarded the invasion of Manchuria by the Kwantung Army in 1931, initially the Japanese scored major victories, such as the Battle of Shanghai, and by the end of 1937 captured the Chinese capital of Nanjing. After failing to stop the Japanese in Wuhan, the Chinese central government was relocated to Chongqing in the Chinese interior, by 1939, after Chinese victories in Changsha and Guangxi, and with Japans lines of communications stretched deep into the Chinese interior, the war reached a stalemate.
The Japanese were unable to defeat the Chinese communist forces in Shaanxi, on December 7,1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, and the following day the United States declared war on Japan. The United States began to aid China via airlift matériel over the Himalayas after the Allied defeat in Burma that closed the Burma Road, in 1944 Japan launched the invasion, Operation Ichi-Go, that conquered Henan and Changsha. However, this failed to bring about the surrender of Chinese forces, in 1945, the Chinese Expeditionary Force resumed its advance in Burma and completed the Ledo Road linking India to China. At the same time, China launched large counteroffensives in South China and retook the west Hunan, the remaining Japanese occupation forces formally surrendered on September 9,1945 with the following International Military Tribunal for the Far East convened on April 29,1946. China was recognized as one of the Big Four of Allies during the war, in the Chinese language, the war is most commonly known as the War of Resistance Against Japan, and known as the Eight Years War of Resistance, simply War of Resistance.
It is referred to as part of the Global Anti-Fascist War, which is how World War 2 is perceived by the Communist Party of China, in Japan, the name Japan–China War is most commonly used because of its perceived objectivity. In Japan today, it is written as 日中戦争 in shinjitai, the word incident was used by Japan, as neither country had made a formal declaration of war
Battle of Shanghai
It was one of the largest and bloodiest battles of the entire war, described by Peter Harmsen as Stalingrad on the Yangtze. Since 1931, China and Japan had been embroiled in incessant, smaller conflicts, often known as incidents, the term incident was used by the Japanese Imperial High Command to play down the Japanese invasions of China. The Chinese soldiers had to rely primarily on weapons in their defense of Shanghai, against an overwhelming Japanese onslaught of air, naval. In the end, Shanghai fell, and China lost a significant portion of its best troops, the resistance of Chinese forces, shocked the Japanese, who had been indoctrinated with notions of cultural and martial superiority, and dramatically demoralized the Japanese army. The battle can be divided into three stages, and eventually involved nearly one million troops, the first stage lasted from August 13 to August 22,1937, during which the NRA attempted to eradicate Japanese troop presence in downtown Shanghai. In Chinese, the Battle of Shanghai is known as the Battle of Songhu, song is short for Wusong, a strategic town in the northern suburbs of Shanghai, where the Huangpu River flows into the Yangtze.
Hu is the abbreviation for Shanghai, in Chinese literature, the battle is referred to as 813, denoting August 13, the date when battle began. Several Japanese sources refer to the battle as the Second Shanghai Incident, the 1937 Battle of Shanghai was a full-scale battle signifying the beginning of an all-out war between the two countries. There were several underlying causes for this, since the outbreak of the war on July 7,1937, most combat had occurred in and around North China in operations collectively known as the Battle of Beiping-Tientsin. Originally, neither China nor Japan wanted the skirmishing to escalate into full-scale war and he decided to pursue full-scale war with Japan. The Japanese north-to-south advance meant that the Chinese army had to defend along a horizontal axis, in addition, most of the more robust Chinese defense works were not in North China, but in East China, along the lower Yangtze Delta. Importantly, Japanese troops were reinforced from Japan, through Korea and Manchukuo and on to North China, by way of efficient naval.
Chinese troop movement was severely handicapped by lack of motorized vehicles, the vast majority of Chinese troops had reached the front line simply by marching. It took considerably longer for Chinese reinforcements from South China to reach North China than it did for the Japanese to reinforce from their home islands and this meant transferring the Chinese army to fight a war in North China was impractical. The Imperial Japanese Navy had total supremacy in Chinese seas and the retreating Chinese forces would have been annihilated, Chiang decided to establish a second front in Shanghai, with the intention of drawing enemy troops to the East and Central China Theater. His plan was to force the Japanese to change the direction of advance into east-to-west. This way, Chinese troops would have room in the southwest to retreat and regroup should Shanghai, the Chinese plan was to fight to delay the Japanese advance, as much as possible, gaining time to move the government and vital industries into the Chinese interior.
This was the basis of the strategy of trading space for time, public opinion and patriotism were strong factors in Chiangs decision to pursue full-scale war with Japan
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan