100th Infantry Battalion (United States)
The 100th Infantry Battalion is the only infantry unit in the United States Army Reserve. In World War II, the then-primarily Nisei battalion was composed largely of members of the Hawaii Army National Guard. The 100th saw heavy combat during World War II before and after combining with the 442nd Infantry Regiment, another mostly Nisei military unit, into a single fighting combat team. Based at Fort Shafter, Hawaii, the 100th Battalion has reservists from Hawaii, American Samoa and Saipan, the unit was unofficially nicknamed the Purple Heart Battalion, with the motto Remember Pearl Harbor. On the morning 7 December 1941, the United States was attacked by the Empire of Japan, after the attack, Japanese-Americans and those of Japanese descent faced prejudice at home. However, three days after the attack, the rifles were stripped from them because of the ethnicity of members. Nisei that were a part of the ROTC program at the University of Hawaii were discharged from the Hawaii Territorial Guard and those former members eventually formed the Varsity Victory Volunteers.
At 11,30 a. m. martial law was declared, the FBI rounded up known Japanese sympathizers, Buddhist priests, language school principals and teachers and business leaders and instructors of judo and related martial arts. Their desire was to organize into a force to be sent to Europe or Africa to fight the Germans and Italians. Under the title Hawaiian Provisional Infantry Battalion the week-long zig-zag journey took them to a port in Oakland where they were designated the 100th Infantry Battalion on 12 June 1942, the unit number was an indication of the Armys recently formulated plan for a modern organization for the Combat Arms. Under normal pre-war Army procedures, all battalions were organic to the regiment they were a part of. With the new system of organization, the regiment was reorganized as a headquarters with no organic battalions. The headquarters was organized into three combat commands that could be dispatched on separate combat actions with units that were attached, one Infantry battalion would be assigned to a combat command, with attachments from the higher headquarters reserve.
The 100th, was not initially attached to a regiment and it came to be unofficially known as the One-Puka-Puka. In Oakland, the 100th boarded a train to their destination, Camp McCoy. Immediately following their arrival to Camp McCoy many of the Nisei felt animosity and distrust from fellow soldiers and military, the 100th was quartered in tents, four soldiers per tent, which contained a bunk bed, blanket and backpack. It would be several months until the Nisei moved into military barracks, eventually soldiers were permanently placed into military units, such as Companies A through E, and pushed through physical and tactical training. Some of the officers and NCOs appointed to the 100th were schooled in psychology and were ordered to test their physical and military capabilities
United States Army
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Archduke Felix of Austria
Archduke Felix of Austria was the last surviving child of the last Austrian Emperor Charles I and a member of the Habsburg. He was a brother of former Crown Prince Otto of Austria. Archduke Felix was born in the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna the third son of the heir presumptive to the throne of Austria-Hungary the Archduke Charles. On 21 November 1916 the Emperor Franz Joseph died and Felixs father succeeded as the new Emperor of Austria, Archduke Felix was less than three years old when Austria-Hungary collapsed following its defeat in the First World War. As a result, republics were declared in the now-separate countries Austria, on 1 April 1922 his father Emperor Charles died in Madeira. In the autumn of 1937 Archduke Felix was permitted to return to Austria and he became the first Habsburg since the abolition of the monarchy to pursue a career as an officer in the Austrian Army. With the Anschluss approaching Archduke Felix, his sister Archduchess Adelheid, during the Second World War while in the United States and his brother Carl Ludwig volunteered to serve in the 101st Infantry Battalion known as the Free Austria Battalion.
However the battalion was disbanded when a number of exiled Jewish volunteers who made up the majority of force ultimately declined to confirm their enlistment. Felix, unlike his brother Otto, always refused to renounce his rights to the Austrian throne and membership of the Habsburg family, as a result, he was banned from entering Austria except for a brief three-day stay in 1989 in order to attend his mothers funeral. After his presence known, he was warned by the Austrian government that he would face prosecution if he ever tried to enter the country illegally again. Felix built up a number of businesses in Mexico and Brussels. During his time in exile Archduke Felix lived in Portugal, Mexico and he lived in the colonia of San Ángel in Mexico City where he died 6 September 2011. He was interred in the crypt in Muri Abbey, near Zürich. The abbey is a burial place of the Habsburg dynasty, and contains the remains of his wife. Felix was married civilly on 18 November 1952 at Beaulieu and they had seven children, and twenty-two grandchildren.
Archduke Carl Philipp of Austria married firstly in 1994 Martina Donath, married secondly in 1998 Annie-Claire Christine Lacrambe, two sons, one from his first wife, and one from the second wife Julien, Louis-Damien. Archduchess Kinga Barbara of Austria married in 1985 Baron Wolfgang von Erffa, one son and four daughters Zita, Hubert Laszlo, Maria Assunta, Maria-Isabel, Archduke Raimund of Austria married in 1994 Bettina Götz, one son and two daughters Felix, Maria. Archduchess Myriam of Austria married in 1983 Jaime Corcuera Acheson, a Mexican descendant of the Earls of Gosford, four sons Karl Sebastian, Pedro Johannes, Andres
Werner von Trapp
Werner Ritter von Trapp was the second-oldest son of Georg von Trapp and his first wife, Agatha Whitehead von Trapp. He was a member of the Trapp Family Singers, whose lives were the inspiration for the play and he was portrayed as the character Kurt. Werner was named for an uncle who was killed during World War I. In the family chorus he sang tenor and Maria Augusta had three children together, Rosmarie von Trapp, Eleonore von Trapp, and Johannes von Trapp. They went to the United States in 1938, settled in Vermont in 1942, Georg Ritter von Trapp died in 1947 and the family eventually ceased performing. He became a farmer before eventually retiring in Waitsfield. He married Erika Klambauer in 1948 and had six children, Martin, Elisabeth, Tobias and he was the grandfather of Sofia, Melanie and August, the current incarnation of the Trapp Family Singers. Werner von Trapp died on 11 October 2007, listing from Trapp Family Lodge The von Trapp Family in Federal Records Von Trapp Kids Keep the Tradition
Zita of Bourbon-Parma
Zita of Bourbon-Parma was the wife of Emperor Charles of Austria. As such, she was the last Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary, born as the seventeenth child of the dispossessed Robert I, Duke of Parma and his second wife Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal, Zita married the Archduke Charles of Austria in 1911. Charles and Zita left for exile in Switzerland and Madeira, after her husbands death and her son Otto served as symbols of unity for the exiled dynasty. A devout Roman Catholic, she raised a family after being widowed at the age of 29. Asteroid 689 Zita is named in her honour, Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma was born at the Villa Pianore in the Italian Province of Lucca,9 May 1892. The unusual name Zita was given her after a popular Italian Saint who had lived in Tuscany in the 13th century, Zitas father had lost his throne as a result of the movement for Italian unification in 1859 when he was still a child. He fathered twelve children during his first marriage to Princess Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies, Duke Robert became a widower in 1882, and two years he married Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal, Zitas mother.
The second marriage produced a further twelve children, Zita was the 17th child among Duke Roberts 24 children. Robert moved his family between Villa Pianore and his castle in Schwarzau in lower Austria. It was mainly in two residences that Zita spent her formative years. The family spent most of the year in Austria moving to Pianore in the Winter, to move between them, they took a special train with sixteen coaches to accommodate the family and their belongings. Zita and her siblings were raised to speak Italian, German, Spanish and English She recalled, We grew up internationally. My father thought of himself first and foremost as a Frenchman, I once asked him how we should describe ourselves. He replied, We are French princes who reigned in Italy, in fact, of the twenty-four children only three including me, were actually born in Italy. At the age of ten, Zita was sent to a school at Zanberg in Upper Bavaria. She was summoned home in the autumn of 1907 at the death of her father and her maternal grandmother sent Zita and her sister Franziska to a convent on the Isle of Wight to complete her education.
Brought up as devout Catholics, the Parma children regularly undertook good works for the poor, in Schwarzau the family turned surplus cloth into clothes. Zita and Franziska personally distributed food and medicines to the needy in Pianore, three of Zitas sisters became nuns and, for a time, she considered following the same path
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
Camp Atterbury, located in south-central Indiana, about 4 miles west of Edinburgh, serves as a military and civilian training base under the auspices of the Indiana National Guard. The camp is named in memory of William Wallace Atterbury, a New Albany, during its peak years during World War II, Camp Atterburys primary mission was to provide combat training for the U. S. Army. Numerous auxiliary and service units, as well as four U. S. Army divisions, Wakeman Hospital Center, the camps 6, 000-bed hospital and convalescent center, became the largest in the Fifth Service Command. It trained medical personnel and treated an estimated 85,000 patients during the war, between 1943 and 1946, a portion of the camp was used an internment compund for an estimated 15,000 soldiers, most of them Italian and German prisoners of war. A small chapel that the Italian prisoners built in 1943 is the only remaining POW-related structure. Camp Atterbury served as a reception and separation center during the war. Its separation center, one of eighteen such facilities in the United States, Camp Atterbury and Wakeman Hospital were deactivated in December 1946.
After World War II, Camp Atterbury remained on stand-by status until 1950, after the U. S. Army discontinued its use as a military installation in December 1968, the Indiana National Guard assumed responsibility for oversight of the camp. Since 1969 the camp had continued to serve as a military and it supports the Indiana National Guard and its missions, the Camp Atterbury Joint Maneuver Training Center, and the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center. War Department issued orders to consider sites for a new U. S. Army training center in Indiana. The site, which portions of Johnson and Brown Counties, was was selected because of its terrain, its location near larger urban areas. On April 28,1941, the U. S, War Department announced its intention to establish a military training camp that would be capable of housing 30,000 men. On January 14,1942, about a month after the attack on Pearl Harbor, and the United States entry into World War II, War Department announced its decision to proceed with its plan to build the military training center in southern Indiana.
Initial land acquisition for the camp encompassed 40,351.5348 acres in 643 tracts, the land acquisition cost an estimated $3.8 million. In addition to the land, the site encompassed numerous farmsteads, the town of Kansas, fifteen cemeteries, four of the areas fifteen cemeteries remained intact, the gravesites in the other cemeteries were exhumed and relocated. Initial work at the site began in February 1942, various civilian contractors built the camp over a period of six months from February to August 1942. At the peak of construction in June 1942, there were 14,491 workers on the payroll, an estimated 700 vehicles and daily bus service provided transportation from nearby towns and an on-site concession tent served meals to 600 workers at a time. Other names that had been considered were Camp Johnson, Camp Bartholomew, in addition, Camp Atterbury was nicknamed Mudbury during its construction because of its muddy grounds, the result of heavy spring rains during 1942
A battalion is a military unit. The use of the term varies by nationality and branch of service. Typically a battalion consists of 300 to 800 soldiers and is divided into a number of companies, a battalion is typically commanded by a lieutenant colonel. In some countries the word battalion is associated with the infantry, the term was first used in Italian as battaglione no than the 16th century. It derived from the Italian word for battle, the first use of battalion in English was in the 1580s, and the first use to mean part of a regiment is from 1708. The battalion must, of course, have a source of re-supply to enable it to sustain operations for more than a few days, the battalion is usually part of a regiment, brigade, or group, depending on the organizational model used by that service. The bulk of a battalions companies are often homogeneous with respect to type, a battalion includes a headquarters company and some sort of combat service support, typically organized within a combat support company.
The term battalion is used in the British Army Infantry and some including the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers. It was formerly used in the Royal Engineers, and was used in the now defunct Royal Army Ordnance Corps. Other corps usually use the term regiment instead, an infantry battalion is numbered ordinarily within its regiment. It normally has a company, support company, and three rifle companies. Each company is commanded by a major, the officer commanding, the HQ company contains signals, catering, administration, training and medical elements. The support company usually contains anti-tank, machine gun, pioneer, mechanised units usually have an attached light aid detachment of the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers to perform field repairs on vehicles and equipment. A British battalion in theatre during World War II had around 845 men in it, and, as of 2012, with successive rounds of cutbacks after the war, many infantry regiments were reduced to a single battalion. A battalion group or battlegroup consists of a battalion or armoured regiment with sub-units detached from other military units acting under the command of the battalion commander.
In the Canadian Forces, most battalions are reserve units of between 100–200 soldiers that include an operationally ready, field-deployable component of approximately a half-company apiece, the nine regular force infantry battalions each contain three or four rifle companies and one or two support companies. Canadian battalions are generally commanded by lieutenant-colonels, though smaller reserve battalions may be commanded by majors, with the Dutch artillery units, the equivalent of a battalion is called an afdeling. Combat companies consist of infantry, combat engineers, or tanks, in the latter case, the unit is called an eskadron, which translates roughly to squadron
Emperor of Austria
The emperors retained the title of Archduke of Austria. The wives of the emperors bore the title of empress, while members of the family the title archduke or archduchess. Members of the House of Austria, the Habsburg dynasty, had for centuries been elected as Holy Roman Emperor, thus the term Austrian emperor may occur in texts dealing with the time before 1804, when no Austrian Empire existed. In these cases the word Austria means the composite monarchy ruled by the dynasty, a special case was Maria Theresa, she bore the imperial title as the consort of Francis I, but she herself was the monarch of the Austrian Hereditary Lands including Bohemia and Hungary. Therefore, on 11 August 1804 he created the new title of Emperor of Austria for himself, for two years, Francis carried two imperial titles, being Holy Roman Emperor Francis II and by the Grace of God Emperor Francis I of Austria. This led Francis II/I on 6 August 1806 to declare the Reich dissolved, from 1806 onwards, Francis was Emperor of Austria only.
He had three successors—Ferdinand I, Francis Joseph I and Charles I—before the Empire broke apart in 1918, a coronation ceremony was never established, the heir to the throne became emperor the moment his predecessor died or abdicated. The symbol of the Austrian Emperor was the private crown dating back to Rudolf II. The Austrian Emperors had an extensive list of titles and claims that reflected the geographic expanse, the function of the emperor was styled like a secular papacy. Therefore, it was the goal to demonstrate the highest majesty and dignity of the monarch to his subjects and to other monarchs. His and his entourages life was governed by strict rules all the time. The members of the House of Habsburg were ranked as princes and princesses of the blood imperial and their permanent address and their travels abroad had to be agreed to by the Emperor. Otherwise the marriage would be one to the hand, called a morganatic marriage. To manage the political implications of the Imperial house since 1867 the Emperor, Minister des kaiserlichen und königlichen Hauses und des Äußeren, the I. &R.
Minister of the Imperial and Royal House and of the Exterior, one of the three ministers common to Austria and Hungary. Under Francis I, Klemens Wenzel had covered these and many other agenda, bearing the title Haus-, the Emperors household, his personal officers and the premises where they worked were called Hof. The highest officials managing the Court were the Grand Master of the Court, the Grand Marshal of the Court, the Grand Chamberlain, whoever wanted to meet the Emperor himself had to apply to the Obersthofmeisteramt. Francis Joseph I expected soldiers to appear in uniform at his court and he never shook hands with visitors, in letters he never addressed his subjects as Sir or Mr. The Emperors court managed e. g. R, the Imperial Crypt below the Capuchin Church and Monastery in Vienna, where three of the four Emperors of Austria have been buried
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known as FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and emerged as a figure in world events during the mid-20th century. He directed the United States government during most of the Great Depression and he is often rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U. S. Presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in 1882 to an old, prominent Dutch family from Dutchess County and he attended the elite educational institutions of Groton School, Harvard College, and Columbia Law School. At age 23 in 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt, and he entered politics in 1910, serving in the New York State Senate, and as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, Roosevelt was presidential candidate James M. Coxs running mate and he was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform governor, promoting the enactment of programs to combat the depression besetting the United States at the time.
In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated incumbent Republican president Herbert Hoover in a landslide to win the presidency, Roosevelt took office while in the United States was in the midst of the worst economic crisis in its history. Energized by his victory over polio, FDR relied on his persistent optimism and activism to renew the national spirit. He created numerous programs to support the unemployed and farmers, and to labor union growth while more closely regulating business. His support for the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 added to his popularity, the economy improved rapidly from 1933–37, but relapsed into a deep recession in 1937–38. The bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the Supreme Court, when the war began and unemployment ended, conservatives in Congress repealed the two major relief programs, the WPA and CCC. However, they kept most of the regulations on business, along with several smaller programs, major surviving programs include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Wagner Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Social Security.
His goal was to make America the Arsenal of Democracy, which would supply munitions to the Allies, in March 1941, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to Britain and China. He supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort, as an active military leader, Roosevelt implemented a war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and initiate the development of the worlds first atomic bomb. His work influenced the creation of the United Nations. Roosevelts physical health declined during the war years, and he died 11 weeks into his fourth term. One of the oldest Dutch families in New York State, the Roosevelts distinguished themselves in other than politics. One ancestor, Isaac Roosevelt, had served with the New York militia during the American Revolution, Roosevelt attended events of the New York society Sons of the American Revolution, and joined the organization while he was president