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Horseshoes

Horseshoes is a lawn game played between two people using four horseshoes and two throwing targets set in a lawn or sandbox area. The game is played by the players alternating turns tossing horseshoes at stakes in the ground, which are traditionally placed 40 feet apart. Modern games use a more stylized U-shaped bar, about twice the size of an actual horseshoe; the National Horseshoe Pitchers Association, the sport of Horseshoes governing body maintain an up-to-date set of rules and their specifications of the game on their website. They outline the style of play, the two most common scoring methods, acceptable equipment, exact court specifications as well as additional methods of organizing tournament and league competitions; the game begins with a horseshoe toss to decide who goes first. The winner of the toss throws both horseshoes—one at a time—at the opposite stake, the second player throws both of their horseshoes—again, one at a time—at their end. After scoring, the next round is done in reverse order, or by throwing back at the original stake.

Play continues until one player has at least 15 points at the end of a round. NHPA sanctioned games are played to 40 points, or a shoe limit of 40 or 50 shoes; the horseshoes can be made of either plastic or metal. In horseshoes, there are two ways to score: by throwing "ringers" or by throwing the horseshoe nearest to the stake. A ringer is a horseshoe, thrown in such a way as to encircle the stake. Disputes are settled by using a straightedge to touch the two points at the ends of the horseshoe, called "heel calks". If the straightedge does not touch the stake at any point, the throw is classified as a ringer. One player pitches both shoes in succession to one pit, followed by the other player; this is formally called an inning. Only one pitcher can score points per inning, however some leagues and tournaments play "count all", in which all points in each inning are counted. A live shoe, not a ringer, but comes to rest 6 inches or closer to the stake, has a value of one point. If both of one player's horseshoes are closer than the opponent's, two points are scored.

A ringer scores three points. In the case of one ringer and a closer horseshoe, both horseshoes are scored for a total of four points. If a player throws two ringers, that player scores six points. If each player throws a ringer, the ringers cancel and no points are scored. If two ringers are thrown by one player and one ringer by the opponent, the player throwing two ringers scores three points; this is called "two dead and three" or "three ringers three" for score-keeping purposes. Such occurrences are called "dead ringers" and are still used toward the pitcher/ringer average. Back-yard games can be played to any number of points, agreed upon, but are to 21 points, win by 2. In most sanctioned tournaments the handicapped divisions pitch 50 shoe games, most points win. If there is a tie, the pitchers pitch two additional innings until the tie is broken. Championship divisions, or non-handicapped divisions are pitched to 40 points, regardless of the number of shoes pitched. Single points in amateur games must measure 6 inches or less from any part of the shoe to the nearest part of the stake.

A game cannot be won when an opposing player, tossing a shoe, bumps an opponent's shoe to cause the opponent to reach the winning score be it 11 or 21. The game-winning point must be attained by the person tossing the horseshoe pertaining to his own score. Examples: If a player has 10 points and an opponent has 8 points, the player with 10 points tosses a horseshoe and bumps his opponent's horseshoe for a ringer, the opponent scores 3 points for a total of 11 points, but does not win the game because of the two-point rule. If a player has 9 points and an opponent 8 points and the player with 9 points tosses a horseshoe and bumps his opponent's horseshoe for a ringer, the opponent cannot score 3 points, because the winning point must be attained by his own toss. However, the opponent can take two points, bringing his total point score to 10; this scoring system gives rise to the popular expression "Close only counts in horseshoes", or alternatively "Close only counts in horseshoes and hand grenades".

The games of horseshoes and quoits are related. At the beginning of the twentieth century, there was general agreement about how horseshoes should be played, but details differed. Organizers of horseshoe matches published their own rules in local newspapers; the most dramatic difference from the modern game was the peg or pin, as the center stake was called, which protruded only 2 inches from the ground. The horseshoes were true horseshoes, nearly circular in shape, and, as in quoits, the expectation was that a ringer would land around the peg and remain there, some insisting the shoe not touch the peg. In the 1907 "World Championship", shoes that rested 2 feet from the peg were declared foul, cost the player a half-point each. A player could score one or two points if his shoes were closer to the peg than his opponent's. Ringers scored five points, leaners, three; the scoring rewarded with 10 points a player who capped or slid under an opponent's ringer with one of their own, a difficult achievement with a 2-inch peg.

Topping two ringers by an opponent with a ringer of one's own earned fifteen points, two ringers topping two ringers counted twenty-one points. There were similar rewards for topping a leaner with a leaner or a leaner with a ringer. In 1920, the Chicago Horseshoe Tournament prescribed a peg 8 inches above the gr

The Two Orphans (1954 film)

The Two Orphans is a 1954 French-Italian historical melodrama film directed by Giacomo Gentilomo and starring Myriam Bru, Milly Vitale and André Luguet. It is based on the 1874 play The Two Orphans by Adolphe d'Ennery and Eugène Cormon, one of a large number of film adaptations, it was shot with sets designed by the art director Virgilio Marchi. Myriam Bru as Henriette Gérard Milly Vitale as Louise André Luguet as Count de Linières Franco Interlenghi as Knight Roger de Vaudrey Jacques Castelot as Marquis de Presles Gabrielle Dorziat as La Frochard Andrea Checchi as Captain Marrest Adriana Benetti as Thérèse, the mother Mirko Ellis as Jacques Frochard Bianca Maria Fusari as Marianne Vauthier Giuseppe Porelli as The duke at the party Paolo Poli as Pierre Frochard Sandro Ruffini as Doctor Martin Alessandro Fersen as Michel Gérard - the father Miranda Campa as The Mother Superior Carlo Duse Nadia Gray as Diane de Vaudrey - countess de Linières Charles Fawcett Ileana Lauro Franco Fantasia as Roger de Vaudrey's Friend Hedda Linton Andreina Zani Sue Ellen Blake as Prostitute in jail Alberto Farnese Orphans of the Storm The Two Orphans The Two Orphans The Two Orphans The Two Orphans Klossner, Michael.

The Europe of 1500-1815 on Film and Television. McFarland, 2002; the Two Orphans on IMDb