Year 1020 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. Summer – Emperor Henry II conducts his third Italian military campaign, he remains non-commital. June 15 – Byzantine troops under Catepan Basil Boioannes capture the fortress of Troia; the French city of Saint-Germain-en-Laye is founded by King Robert II. King Canute the Great codifies the laws of England. King Gagik I of Armenia is succeeded by Hovhannes-Smbat III Almodis de la Marche, French noblewoman Beatrice of Bar, French duchess and regent Benno II, German bishop and architect Bernard of Menthon, French priest and saint Conrad I, duke of Bavaria Filarete of Calabria, Sicilian saint Gonzalo Sánchez, Spanish nobleman Gunhilda of Denmark, German queen Guo Xi, Chinese landscape painter Hallvard Vebjørnsson, Norwegian saint Kunigunde of Altdorf, German noblewoman Maria of Gaeta, Italian noblewoman Osbern Giffard, Norman nobleman Otto of Nordheim, duke of Bavaria Stephen IX, pope of the Catholic Church Su Song, Chinese statesman and scientist Sweyn Godwinson, English nobleman Vladimir Yaroslavich, Grand Prince of Kiev William I, count of Burgundy William Busac, English nobleman William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford William of Poitiers, French priest and writer Wulfhild of Norway, duchess consort of Saxony Zhang Zai, Chinese philosopher and cosmologist June 12 – Lyfing, archbishop of Canterbury June 15 – Dattus, Lombard rebel leader August 16 – Zhou Huaizheng, Chinese eunuch Al-Mu'ayyad Ahmad, Muslim imam Al-Sijzi, Persian mathematician Bernard I, Spanish nobleman Bouchard II, French nobleman Einar Sigurdsson, Norse Viking nobleman Ferdowsi, Persian poet and author Gagik I, king of Bagratid Armenia Gerald I, French nobleman Gojslav, king of Croatia Leif Ericson, Norse Viking explorer Melus of Bari, Lombard nobleman and rebel leader Radim Gaudentius, Polish archbishop Stephen I of Vermandois, French nobleman Trdat the Architect, Armenian chief architect
The Justice and Development Party, JDP is the party that has led the executive branch of the government of Morocco since 29 November 2011. The JDP advocates Islamic democracy. PJD was founded by Abdelkrim al-Khatib, one of the founders of the Popular Movement party, from which he was expelled in the mid-1960s, under the name of MPDC; the party was an empty shell for many years, until various members of a clandestine association Chabiba islamia, who formed the MUR joined the party, with the authorisation and encouragement of former Interior Minister Driss Basri. It changed its name to current PJD in 1998; the party won eight seats in the parliamentary election in 1997. In the parliamentary election held on 27 September 2002, the party won 42 out of 325 seats, winning most of the districts where it fielded candidates, its secretary-general since 2004 was MP representing Mohammedia. In the parliamentary election held on 7 September 2007, the PJD won 43 out of 325 seats, behind the Istiqlal Party, which won 52.
This was contrary to expectations. However, the party had limited number of candidates in the election. Abdelilah Benkirane was elected leader of the PJD in July 2008. Having won a plurality of seats in the November 2011 parliamentary election, the party formed a coalition with three parties, part of previous governments, Abdelilah Benkirane was appointed Prime Minister of Morocco on 29 November 2011, his new government has targeted average economic growth of 5.5 percent a year during its four-year mandate, to reduce the jobless rate to 8 percent by the end of 2016 from 9.1 percent at the start of 2012. Benkirane's government has actively pursued Morocco’s ties with the European Union, its chief trade partner, as well as becoming engaged with the six-member Gulf Co-operation Council. PJD is an Islamist conservative democrat party crucially supporting Moroccan monarchy. PJD disavows violence and seeks to defend Morocco’s Islamic identity through legislative means. According to The Washington Post, Saadeddine Othmani is a moderate Muslim.
According to a paper published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the PJD has placed economic and legal issues at the core of its platform and is committed to internal democracy. The party's stated platform includes: Education reestablishment. Economic partnerships with other countries. Enhancement of democracy and human rights. Encouraging investment. Greater Arab and Muslim unity. Justice and Development Party Attajdid newspaper
Alan Hywel Jones Hywel Jones professionally, is a British materials scientist, working on ceramic composites and body armour, metals, including sustainable use of precious metals and rare-earth elements, decorative alloys, wear-resistant coatings, materials analysis and ballistics, friction-stir methods. He has appeared on television to discuss some of his areas of interest. Jones was born in Wales in 1970, attended school in Ebbw Vale, about 37 kilometres north of Cardiff. Jones studied at the University of Warwick from 1988 to 1997, receiving a BSc in Physics, an MSc in Materials Characterisation, a PhD titled Synthesis and Tribology of Sialon / TiB2 Ceramic Composite, he secured a post as a post-doctoral research fellow and worked over three years on an EU-funded project on ultra-hard composites for tribological applications. Jones moved to a post at Sheffield Hallam University's Materials and Engineering Research Institute in 2000, continues to work there, he became a senior consultant in 2004 a senior research fellow, is now a principal research fellow.
He coordinates the consultancy activities of the institute, has been involved in several hundred projects. Jones worked from 2008 to 2012 on UK Ministry of Defence-funded research into novel light-weight ceramic composite materials for personal armour, which in turn extended into armour-piercing ammunition, as well as kiln surfaces and high-wear industrial fittings, his roles have included membership in the Education and Skills Working Group of Materials UK, which produced a report on a 20-year strategy for UK materials science, the "What's in my stuff" public outreach and education campaign around recycling, work as an expert witness in civil and criminal cases. Jones was a joint recipient of the Venture Prize of the Worshipful Company of Armourers and Brasiers, one of the ancient livery companies of London, for work on lightweight ceramic body armour, an award linked to the launch of university spin-off venture XeraCarb, he was a recipient of a Yorkshire Forward Award. Jones has worked with several fellow scientists and academics, including Anthony Pick, Karen Vernon-Parry, Cóilín Ó Dubhghaill and Maria Hanson.
In 2011, Jones co-founded XeraCarb Ltd. with Anthony Pick. With headquarters and factory in Barnsley, the company works on silicon carbide composite ceramics, suitable for body armour and kiln linings, among other applications. Following acquisition, the company has since February 2017 operated as part of Capital Refractories, within the CRL Group, with Jones retained as Chief Scientific Officer. In 2016, Jones co-founded, with Cóilín Ó Dubhghaill and others, Mikana Innovations Ltd. a spin-off based on joint work between Sheffield Hallam University and Rotary Engineering Ltd.. This company produces a hybrid alloy, based on Japanese craft techniques, suitable for volume production for the making of jewellery and other luxury items, hollowware. Jones has worked on a form of "stainless silver" alloy as well as advanced ceramics and the hybrid alloy mikana; the ceramics work has led to material advances in the making of personal armour and kiln lining, while mikana has properties similar to mokume gane while being more manageable and affordable.