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1022

Year 1022 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. Spring – Battle of Svindax: The Byzantine army under Emperor Basil II defeats the Georgians at Svindax. King George I is forced ending the Byzantine -- Georgian wars. Summer – Nikephoros Phokas conspires with the Byzantine general Nikephoros Xiphias against Basil II; the rebellion Xiphias assassinates Phokas. Spring – Emperor Henry II divides his army into three columns and descends through Rome onto Capua; the bulk of the expeditionary force led by Henry, makes its way down the Adriatic coast. Pilgrim, archbishop of Cologne, marches with his army down the Tyrrhenian coast to lay siege to Capua; the citizens surrender the city to the imperial army. Pilgrim besieges the city of Salerno for forty days. Prince Guaimar III offers to give hostages – Pilgrim accepts the prince's son and co-prince Guaimar IV, lifts the siege. Summer – Outbreak of the plague among the German troops forces Henry II to abandon his campaign in Italy, he reimposes his suzerainty on the Lombard principalities.

King Olof Skötkonung is succeeded by his son Anund Jakob as ruler of Sweden. He becomes the second Christian king of the Swedish realm; the 14-year-old Al-Mu'izz ibn Badis takes with support of the Zirid nobles the government over and ascends to the throne in Ifriqiya. The Chinese military has one million registered soldiers during the Song Dynasty, an increase since the turn of the 11th century. King Robert II burns 13 Cathari heretics at Orléans; these are the first burning victims for heresy in Medieval Europe. Pope Benedict VIII convenes a synod at Pavia, he issues decrees to restrain incontinence of the clergy. Æthelnoth, archbishop of Canterbury, travels to Rome to obtain the pallium, received by Benedict VIII. Fujiwara no Nobunaga, Japanese nobleman Harold II, king of England Manasses III, French nobleman Michael Attaleiates, Byzantine historian Ordulf, duke of Saxony Rajaraja Narendra, Indian ruler March 12 – Symeon, Byzantine monk March 23 – Zhen Zong, emperor of the Song Dynasty March 30 – Atenulf, Italian nobleman and Benedictine abbot June 28 – Notker III, German Benedictine monk and writer July 23 – Lei Yungong, Chinese palace eunuch and adviser August 15 – Nikephoros Phokas, Byzantine aristocrat September 2 – Máel Sechnaill II, High King of Ireland November 20 – Bernward, bishop of Hildesheim December 2 – Elvira Menéndez, queen of León Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid, Twelver Shia theologian Arikesarin, Indian ruler of the Shilahara Dynasty Aziz al-Dawla, Fatimid governor of Aleppo Konstantin Dobrynich, mayor of Novgorod Moninho Viegas, French knight Olof Skötkonung, king of Sweden Rededya, leader of the Kassogians Sidi Mahrez, Tunisian scholar

Battle of Agordat (1941)

The Battle of Agordat was fought near Agordat in Eritrea from 26 to 31 January 1941, by the Italian army and Royal Corps of Colonial Troops against British and Indian forces, during the East African Campaign of the Second World War. The British had the advantage of breaking Italian codes and cyphers before the offensive and received copious amounts of information from Italian sources on the order of battle and plans of the Regia Aeronautica and the Italian army. After the garrison of Italian and colonial troops at Kassala in Sudan was ordered to withdraw in mid-January, the British offensive into Eritrea due in February 1941 began in mid-January instead. Agordat was an excellent defensive position and the British advance was slowed by delaying actions and mined roads but the attack began on 28 January on the left flank, repulsed. Determined fighting took place on the hills and plain below until 31 January, when the British attacked behind four Matilda tanks and Bren Gun Carriers, which destroyed the Italian Fiat M11/39 tanks and forced the infantry to retreat.

To avoid being cut off the Italians began a disorderly retreat to Keren, leaving behind 1,000 prisoners, several guns and 14 knocked out tanks. The Battle of Agordat saw some of the most determined and effective defensive operations of the war by the Italian and local forces; the battle was the first big victory in the British offensive against Italian East Africa and was followed by the Battle of Keren, which led to the fall of Italian Eritrea. Amedeo, Duke of Aosta the Viceroy and Governor-General of the Africa Orientale Italiana, commander in chief of Comando Forze Armate dell'Africa Orientale Italiana and Generale d'Armata Aerea ordered an Italian attack on Kassala, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan to begin on 4 July 1940 after Italy had declared war on Britain and France on 10 June. Three columns of Italian and colonial forces comprising about 6,500 men launched the assault, supported by the Regia Aeronautica and some cavalry squadrons acting as vanguards. Kassala was defended by fewer than 500 men of the Sudan Defence Force and local police, who remained under cover during a twelve-hour bombardment by the Regia Aeronautica knocked out six Italian tanks and inflicted considerable casualties on the attackers.

At 1:00 p.m. Italian cavalry entered Kassala and the defenders withdrew to Butana Bridge, having lost one man killed, three wounded and 26 missing, some of whom rejoined their units. Italian casualties were 114 wounded. At Kassala, the 12th Colonial Brigade built machine-gun posts and strongpoints. During the Italian attack at Kassala, General Pietro Gazzera, the Governor of Galla-Sidamo captured the Sudan fort of Gallabat with a battalion of Italian colonial troops and banda. Gallabat was fortified. Karora was occupied unopposed and on 7 July, another colonial battalion and banda supported by artillery and aircraft, attacked Kurmuk and overcame sixty Sudanese police after a short engagement; the Italian attacks had gained a valuable entry point to Sudan at Kassala and by capturing Gallabat made it harder for the British to support the indigenous Ethiopian resistance fighters, the Patriots, in Gojjam. The loss of Kurmuk prompted some of the locals to resort to banditry; the SDF continued to operate close to Kassala and on 5 July, a company of the 2nd Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment arrived at Gedaref.

Platt decided to bluff the Italians into believing that there were far greater forces on the Sudan border and an Italian map captured on 25 July showed that around 20,000 British and Sudanese troops were believed to be in Kassala province. After the conquest of British Somaliland, the Italians in the AOI adopted a more defensive posture. In late 1940, Italian forces had suffered defeats in the Mediterranean, the Western Desert, the Battle of Britain and in the Greco-Italian War. General Ugo Cavallero, the new Italian Chief of the General Staff in Rome, adopted a new strategy in East Africa. In December 1940, Cavallero ordered the Italian forces in East Africa to concentrate on the defence of the AOI by withdrawing to better defensive positions. On 31 December, Frusci ordered a retirement from the area north of Kassala along the track east of Sabdaret with outposts at Serobatib and Adaret, with a mobile force at Sabdaret as a reserve. Earlier in the month, Frusci had received orders from Rome to cancel plans to invade Sudan, withdraw from Kassala and Metemma in the lowlands along the Sudan–Eritrea border and hold the more defended mountain passes on the Kassala–Agordat and Metemma–Gondar roads.

Frusci was reluctant to withdraw from the lowlands, because it would be a propaganda defeat after he had announced that the British were about to attack and would be defeated. Kassala was an important railway junction. In November 1940, Gazelle Force operated from the Gash river delta against Italian advanced posts around Kassala on the Ethiopian plateau, where hill ranges from 2,000–3,000 ft bound wide valleys and the rainfall makes the area malarial from July to October. After a

I Want to Live (Josh Gracin song)

"I Want to Live" is a debut song written by Brett James and Rivers Rutherford, recorded by American country music singer Josh Gracin. It was released in March 2004 as the first single from his debut album Josh Gracin; the song peaked at number 4 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks charts in mid-2004, it peaked on the Billboard Hot 100 at number 57. A mid-tempo ballad, "I Want to Live" centralizes on a character who, upon realizing that his life has been unsatisfactory, decides that he wants to change — to "take everything that this world has to give"; the song's opening electric guitar riff is based on the Led Zeppelin song "Kashmir". A fiddle-and-drum fadeout was omitted from the radio edit of "I Want to Live". Directed by Brent Hedgecock, the video shows Gracin hanging out with his friends at a karaoke bar when his friends ask him to go up and sing; as he's singing, Josh is placed in areas that come from the backgrounds that are playing behind him as he's singing. The video premiered on CMT in mid-2004.

"I Want to Live" debuted at number 57 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks for the week of March 13, 2004. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics