1024 Hale

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1024 Hale
Discovery [1]
Discovered by G. van Biesbroeck
Discovery site Yerkes Obs.
Discovery date 2 December 1923
MPC designation (1024) Hale
Named after
George Ellery Hale[2]
(American astronomer)
A923 YO13
main-belt[1][3] · (outer)[4]
background [5]
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 89.22 yr (32,587 d)
Aphelion 3.5095 AU
Perihelion 2.2230 AU
2.8663 AU
Eccentricity 0.2244
4.85 yr (1,772 d)
0° 12m 11.16s / day
Inclination 16.090°
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
28.46±6.70 km[6]
41.28 km (derived)[4]
43.274±0.148 km[7]
45.964±17.12 km[8]
47.33±8.98 km[9]
47.674±0.893 km[10]
48.18±0.78 km[11]
51.37±15.55 km[12]
16.0±0.1 h[13]
0.0496 (derived)[4]
SMASS = Ch[3] · C[14]
10.60[11] · 10.70[3][9]
10.78[8][14] · 10.8[4][10]
10.83[6] · 11.00[12]

1024 Hale, provisional designation A923 YO13, is a carbonaceous background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 45 kilometers (28 miles) in diameter. The asteroid was discovered on 2 December 1923, by Belgian–American astronomer George Van Biesbroeck at the Yerkes Observatory in Wisconsin, United States.[1] It was named for American astronomer George Ellery Hale.[2] The dark C-type asteroid may have a rotation period of 16 hours.[4]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Hale is a non-family asteroid from the main belt's background population.[5] It orbits the Sun in the outer asteroid belt at a distance of 2.2–3.5 AU once every 4 years and 10 months (1,772 days; semi-major axis of 2.87 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.22 and an inclination of 16° with respect to the ecliptic.[3] The body's observation arc begins begins at Yerkes Observatory with its first recorded observation in December 1928, or five years after its official discovery observation.[1]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Hale has been characterized as a carbonaceous C-type asteroid by Pan-STARRS' photometric survey and by the SDSS-MFB (Masi Foglia Binzel).[4] In the SMASS classification it is a "hydrated" Ch-subtype.[3]

Rotation period[edit]

In January 2013, a first rotational lightcurve of Hale was obtained from photometric observations by Michael S. Alkema at the Elephant Head Observatory (G35) in Arizona, United States. Analysis of the fragmentary lightcurve gave a rotation period of 16.0 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.10 magnitude (U=1+).[13] As of 2018, no secure period has been obtained.[4]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Hale measures between 28.46 and 51.37 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.0260 and 0.10.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0496 and a diameter of 41.28 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.8.[4]


This minor planet was named after George Ellery Hale (1868–1938), a prolific American astronomer and pioneer of a new generation of large aperture telescopes, namely the 60-inch Hale and the 100-inch Hooker telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, as well as the 200-inch Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. He founded the discovering Yerkes and Mount Wilson observatories and was their first director. Hale also founded The Astrophysical Journal and invented the spectroheliograph, which allowed to take monochromatic images of the Sun. The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 98).[2]


  1. ^ a b c d "1024 Hale (A923 YO13)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1024) Hale. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 88. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1024 Hale (A923 YO13)" (2018-02-26 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "LCDB Data for (1024) Hale". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  5. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  6. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  7. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  8. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Nugent, C.; Mainzer, A. K.; Wright, E. L.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; et al. (October 2017). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Three: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 154 (4): 10. arXiv:1708.09504Freely accessible. Bibcode:2017AJ....154..168M. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa89ec. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  9. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  10. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  11. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 16 March 2018.  Online catalog
  12. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  13. ^ a b Alkema, Michael S. (July 2013). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Elephant Head Observatory: 2012 November - 2013 April". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 40 (3): 133–137. Bibcode:2013MPBu...40..133A. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  14. ^ a b Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 

External links[edit]