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1025

Year 1025 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. December 15 – Byzantine Emperor Basil II dies in Constantinople after a 50-year reign. Never married, he is succeeded by his brother and co-emperor Constantine VIII who becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. Constantine calls the Sicilian invasion off. Catapan Basil Boioannes diverts the Byzantine expeditionary force assembled on Calabria to join the siege of Capua. April 18 – Bolesław I the Brave is crowned in Gniezno as the first king of Poland, he takes advantage of the interregnum in Germany, receives permission for his coronation from Pope John XIX. September – At the urging of Queen Constance of Arles, the three sons of King Robert II of France revolt against their father – Hugh Magnus, Henry I and Robert I, Duke of Burgundy start a civil war over power. December 25 – Mieszko II Lambert, son of Bolosław I, is crowned as king of Poland by archbishop Hippolytus in Gniezno Cathedral. Emir Al-Mu ` izz ibn Badis of the Zirid dynasty in Ifriqiya fails.

Srivijaya, a Buddhist kingdom based in Sumatra, is attacked by Emperor Rajendra I of the Chola dynasty of southern India in a dispute over trading rights in Southeast Asia. It declines in importance. August 28 – Go-Reizei, Japanese emperor Agnes of Poitou, Holy Roman Empress Anna Dalassene, Byzantine empress and regent Edith of Wessex, English queen Elisaveta Yaroslavna of Kiev, Norwegian queen Gerald of Sauve-Majeure, French abbot Gertrude of Poland, Grand Princess of Kiev John Italus, Byzantine philosopher John of Lodi, Italian hermit and bishop Lothair Udo II, German margrave Nong Zhigao, Vietnamese chieftain of Nong Ruben I, Armenian prince Rudolf of Rheinfelden, duke of Swabia Simon I, French nobleman Tora Torbergsdatter, Norwegian Viking queen William VIII, French nobleman June 17 – Bolesław I the Brave, king of Poland September 17 – Hugh Magnus, king of France September 29 – Louis I, count of Chiny and Verdun December 15 – Basil II, Byzantine emperor December 22 – Wang Qinruo, Chinese chancellor Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad, Muslim theologian Burchard of Worms, German bishop and writer Eustathius of Constantinople, Byzantine patriarch Fujiwara no Seishi, Japanese empress Matilda, countess palatine of Lotharingia Musharrif al-Dawla, Buyid emir of Iraq Mhic Mac Comhaltan Ua Cleirigh, Irish king Sabur ibn Ardashir, Persian statesman Watanabe no Tsuna, Japanese samurai

Caloboletus

Caloboletus is a fungal genus in the family Boletaceae. It was circumscribed by Italian mycologist Alfredo Vizzini with Caloboletus calopus as the type species; the erection of Caloboletus follows recent molecular studies that outlined a new phylogenetic framework for the Boletaceae. Boletus peckii was transferred to this genus by Vizzini, but was subsequently moved to the genus Butyriboletus based on molecular evidence; the generic name Caloboletus, derived from the Greek calos "nice", refers to the attractive red coloring of the stipe. Caloboletus calopus Vizzini Caloboletus conifericola Vizzini Caloboletus firmus Vizzini Caloboletus frustosus D. Arora & J. L. Frank Caloboletus inedulis Vizzini Caloboletus kluzakii Vizzini Caloboletus marshii D. Arora, C. F. Schwarz & J. L. Frank – United States Caloboletus panniformis Vizzini Caloboletus polygonius Vizzini Caloboletus radicans Vizzini Caloboletus roseipes Vizzini Caloboletus rubripes Vizzini Caloboletus yunnanensis Kuan Zhao & Zhu L. Yang

Joe Togher

Joe Togher was an Irish Republican. Togher's father was a shopkeeper in Headford, his mother was from Carlow, they had three more sons and a daughter, his father died when he was young, so in 1910 his mother moved the family into Francis Street in Galway where she opened a small hotel to support them. She was busy with the business so it was Joe's sister Nell who looked after him, he went to'The Mon'. Joe was a champion sculler, he joined the Post Office in 1915 as a learner and transferred to the telegraphic section. In 1916 the RIC mounted a guard on the GPO, though this did not take place until the Wednesday after the Rising; the executions that followed sickened many Galwegians. The Redmond Volunteers had been acting in Galway since 1913, but many regarded them with suspicion and felt they were acting as special constables for the British, they began to decline. Togher joined the Castlegar company of the IVs. In 1919 he went to University College, Galway to study medicine, but soon gave this up to work in the sorting office of the GPO.

Mick Newell, the captain of the Volunteers, suggested to him that he should remain inconspicuous as he could be very useful because of his job. Peter Hynes instructed him on making them up and breaking them down. Togher worked undercover as far as possible. "I dealt with all the incoming and outgoing mails for both the military and RIC at Renmore and Eglinton Barracks. It meant quite a lot of night work for me. To enter the office at night, which I could not do I was obliged to climb in through a second floor window, extract any mail I was doubtful about, bring them back home, break up the cipher, pass the information to the Brigade Commandant, Seamus Murphy." His biggest problem was getting those mails back unnoticed. He supplied information to units of the IRA in south Mayo and to Michael Collins in GHQ in Dublin, the latter via men who worked on the mail van on the Galway/Dublin train; as every second person on the street in the area where he worked was either a policeman or a soldier, it was remarkable that he was able to achieve all this.

One day a cipher gave a large amount of trouble, so rather than copying it, he took it away, but this resulted in all the telegrams being locked away at night in the assistant superintendent's safe. They managed to make an impression of the key to the safe while the assistant super was busy, a blacksmith in the Volunteers named Flanagan made a perfect copy which worked beautifully. In October 1920 the British set up a central intelligence depot in a house in Dominick Street. A Captain Keating was in complete charge and had over-riding authority on all branches of the British forces, army, RIC, navy and Black & Tans – in all, some 2,000 men. Joe Togher had a pal, Michael Brennan, who befriended Keating and as a result managed to supply Togher "with many items of useful information such as Keating fitting and sending out agents throughout the county disguised as tramps or otherwise, some of whom never returned and others who brought back useless information". About this time the Volunteers decided someone was passing information on them to the Crown Forces – how else could they explain the precision attacks and raids being made on homes and people in the Barna/Moycullen hinterland?

The Volunteers had their own secret service trying to infiltrate the secret lines of the British. This group was pioneered by John Hosty, a printer in O'Gorman's, he asked Togher for help. Shortly after, he picked out five letters addressed in the same handwriting to The County Officer, Black & Tans, Eglinton St Barracks. All the letters were signed Patrick W. Joyce, it was obvious from them that he was supplying information to the British. Togher passed these on to John Hosty, in turn they were sent to the Provisional Government in Dublin who sent back an order that Joyce was to be court martialled; as a result, he was buried in a bog between Barna and Moycullen. The Tans knew Joyce believed him dead, they believed a priest had given him his last confession and wrongly assumed this to be Father Michael Griffin, so they abducted him, tortured him, shot him, buried him in a bog in Barna. When his remains were discovered a week it became an international incident and generated worldwide publicity.

As a result, a number of locals, including Togher, were imprisoned in Galway Gaol. He was interrogated by a Captain Harrison "who seemed to have a mass of information, most of it correct, as to men and formations and happenings". Togher was told he was second in line to be shot after Frank Hardiman. With some others he was released but he "decided we were released to be shot, I went on the run", he helped form a new company but they had problems, lacking as they were in arms and military training, so they could not do much apart from burning enemy stores and taking occasional shots at different barracks and at the 17th Lancers on Earl's Island from a point across the river known as the Dyke. With others he managed to do valuable intelligence work using information passed on by Miss Carter in the County Club, George Cunniffe in the Railway Hotel, the staff in Baker's Hotel in Eyre Street, in the Skeffington Arms and other hostelries frequented by the British, he made good contacts a Sergeant Cantwell RAM Corps, a signals NCO named McKeown, and