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1026

Year 1026 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. Spring – King Conrad II, "the Elder", assembles an army of thousands of armored knights for an expedition into Italy, he besieges Pavia and marches to Milan, where he is crowned with the Iron Crown by Archbishop Aribert as king of the Lombards. Duke William V of Aquitaine, en route for Italy, decides to renounce his claim to the Lombard throne and turns back. April – Conrad II punishes the citizens of Pavia with starvation, for burning down the Royal Palace, he appoints Aribert as his viceroy in Italy and charges him to ensure that the order is complied with. Summer – Conrad II leaves the bulk of his army at the siege of Pavia and marches to Ravenna; the Ravennan militias close assault the imperial train. Conrad takes Ravenna, taking bloody revenge. Conrad II proceeds to Pesaro, but a malarian outbreak forces him to withdraw back up north to the Po Valley, he subdues the March of Turin. Autumn – Pavia falls to the imperial forces.

Only the intervention of Odilo of Cluny persuades Conrad to have mercy on the city and the defeated rebels. Battle of Helgeå: Naval forces of King Cnut the Great's North Sea Empire defeat the combined Swedish and Norwegian royal fleets. 9-year-old Henry "the Black" is made duke of Bavaria by his father, Conrad II, after the death of his predecessor Henry V. Pietro Barbolano becomes 28th doge of Venice. A Zubu revolt against the Liao dynasty is suppressed, with the Zubu forced to pay an annual tribute of horses and furs. Lidanus, Lombard Benedictine abbot Tostig Godwinson, earl of Northumbria Pope Victor III, born Dauferio, Lombard churchman William Firmatus, Norman hermit and pilgrim June 10 – Hugh II, French viscount and archbishop August 28 – Richard II, "the Good", duke of Normandy August 30 – Bononio, Lombard hermit and abbot September 21 – Otto-William, count of Burgundy November 27 – Adalbold II, bishop of Utrecht Adelaide-Blanche of Anjou, French queen and regent Frederick II, duke of Upper Lorraine Henry V, duke of Bavaria Hugh IV, lord of Lusignan Leo of Vercelli, German archdeacon and bishop

Prynnsberg Estate

Prynnsberg was a manor built between 1881 and 1884 in Clocolan, Free State, South Africa by Charles Newberry who immigrated to South Africa in 1864 as a carpenter to join his older brother John, mining in Greytown and gained enough holdings in the Kimberly diamond mining industry to stop mining and build his mansion. Charles's daughter was Winifred Brunton; when the Kimberly Mines opened in 1872, Charles Newberry spent seven years digging in the hottest Kimberly weather for diamonds gaining enough hold to be a shareholder in Cecil Rhodes Central Mining Company, which became De Beers. By the time Cecil Rhodes came to consolidate all the independent claims in the Big Hole to create De Beers Charles Newberry and his brother John had built up a substantial holding in "the big hole"; when Rhodes's consolidation came about in 1879 Charles Newberry found himself free to pursue other ventures while John became a director of the newly formed De Beers. Having met and fallen in love with the daughter of a Lesotho-based missionary while on a trip through the Eastern Free State he decided to make the Eastern Free State his home and along with his new wife set about the fulfilment of his dream of creating a classic English country estate in the wilds of Africa.

Having purchased the foundation of the estate from a man named Prynn he christened his venture Prynnsberg in 1881. The estate – which in its heyday covered over 20,000 hectares of land lies on the edge of the Maluti Mountains under a sandstone cliff in the Thaba Nchu District; the house began as additions to the original single story farmhouse and became a three-story, 20-room manor, constructed of finely crafted sandstone in the African veld. The estate included two churches, a vicarage, a gamekeepers’ lodge and various outbuildings; the house was built in old-world grandeur, becoming a national gem and, was decorated by the London firm James Shoolbred and Company of Tottenham Court Road. Prynnsberg includes enormous rooms of gold leaf and flocked wallpapers, intricate oak parquet, pressed leather panelling, rococo plaster ceilings, gilded cornices, elaborate tiled fireplaces, leaded windows and teak doors with Victorian stained glass and flamboyant friezes. There was a 700-Volt D. C. Dynamo which supplied power to the lathes refrigerator for the Cold Room where fruit from the orchard was stored.

Between 1884 and 1900, Charles and his wife Elizabeth collected local cultural art, which were housed in a private museum. Most of the items were 19th century, including arguably the world’s finest Nguni /Zulu sculpture and other Southern Bantu tribal items; the entirety of the collection came from Zulu, Venda, Ndebele, Northern Nguni, related peoples. The many Egyptian artefacts around the Prynnsberg estate came from the well-known English Egyptologist Guy Brunton, married to Charles’ oldest daughter Winifred. Winifred Brunton who has made a name for herself through her art created many murals and paintings within the house. During Prynnsberg's greatest years, when Charles still was head of the household, there were as many as 17 Europeans employed on the estate including a horticulturist, tutor, two farm managers, stone cutters and others; the estate housed travellers of similar rank and guests such as: Lord Milner, the Duke of Westminster, President Steyn and Rudyard Kipling, who painted a frieze of Noah's ark in the night nursery.

Amazingly, during the Boer War of 1899 to 1902, when Charles and his family moved back to Surrey, England for the duration, the estate was left unharmed, amongst the other farm burnings and destruction. In an attempt to save the estate for future generations Charles Newberry invoked a South African inheritance clause that left the estate to the eldest son of the fourth generation to follow him. What this amounted to was that the four generations to follow him would be trustees of the estate – on behalf of a yet to be born inheritor. In his own mind Charles Newberry must have thought that the extent of the wealth he would be leaving behind would be more than enough to sustain the four generations that followed; this was not the case. Elizabeth Newberry outlived Charles by some eight years. By the time she passed the estate onto their eldest son Ernest the substantial family holding in De Beers shares was gone, as was any working capital. Herein lies the key to Prynnsberg's neglect over the generations.

Living in a vast house surrounded by the likes of Chippendale furniture and a priceless collection of art and rare artefacts but with no working capital, they found themselves trapped in a gilded cage. Ernests' son Edgar was recorded to have said that he "couldn't stand the place". Plagued by an addiction to alcohol – like his father and mother – his son Trevor proved to be the least capable of all at sustaining any sort of control over the crumbling estate. By the time Trevor Newberry died intestate of an alcohol-induced end in the late 1980s Charles Newberry's Prynnsberg dream lay in tatters; the true line of inheritance should have been as follows: Charles Newberry I, Edgar Edward Newberry, Trevor Newberry back to Peter Newberry his son Robin Newberry, to Charles Newberry and John Newberry. Due to the corrupt nationalist government of South Africa, the four-generation trust of the original will of Charles Newberry was allowed to be broken; the oldest son of the third generation, Trevor Newberry had no heir, yet instead of the inheritance passing on to the next male heir, Peter Newberry and through him, his son Robin, nationalist

St Mary's Church, Tal-y-llyn

St Mary's Church, Tal-y-llyn is a medieval church near Aberffraw in Anglesey, north Wales. It was a chapel of ease for the parish church of St Peulan's, but the township that it once served, Tal-y-llyn, no longer exists, it was declared a redundant church in the early 1990s, has been in the care of the Friends of Friendless Churches since 1999. Services are held once per month during part of the year; the date of the church is unknown. The chancel was rebuilt in the 16th century, a side chapel added in the 17th century; the church furnishings, such as pews and communion rails, were added in the 18th century, although some of the pews are modern replacements after vandalism. It is a Grade I listed building, a national designation given to buildings of "exceptional national, interest", because it is "a rare example of a unrestored Medieval church of simple, rustic character." St Mary's Church is in a rural and thinly populated part of Anglesey, about 4.25 kilometres northeast of Aberffraw and about 3.75 kilometres southwest of Gwalchmai.

It stands on a low mound with a circumference of 120 yards. Its original purpose was to serve as one of five chapels of ease for the local parish church, St Peulan's, about 1.5 miles to the north. The township that St Mary's served, Tal-y-llyn, has now disappeared, although before the time of the Black Death there were 22 houses here; the date of foundation of the church is unknown. The nave is the oldest part of the church built in the 12th century. Changes saw the rebuilding of the chancel and the addition of a chapel on the south side of the building, it was used for services until the early 1990s, was made a redundant church in about 1992. It was placed in the care of the Friends of Friendless Churches in 1999, who hold a 999-year lease effective from 19 November 1999. Services are held in the church on one Sunday afternoon per month between October; the church was constructed using rubble masonry with boulder quoins. The floor is laid with flagstones throughout, the roof has modern slates; the nave measures 25 by 13 feet, the chancel measures 16 feet 6 inches by 11 feet, the chapel adjoining the chancel on the south side is 9 by 8 feet.

Between the nave and chancel is a pointed arch, with some 13th-century elements but reconstructed in the 16th century. The side chapel has rectangular windows in the west walls from the 17th century; the roof trusses, which date from the 15th and 17th centuries, are visible inside the building and the undersides are chamfered. There are two rectangular windows in the north wall of the nave, matching the window in the north wall of the chancel; the east window, in the chancel, has three rounded lights set in a square frame. The windows still are now boarded up. There are no windows on the south side, the most exposed side. There is an empty bellcote on the roof at the west end of the nave; the entrance is at the west end, where there is a rounded arch doorway set deep into the thick wall dating from the 14th century. The 12th-century font was removed; the church now houses a 15th-century octagonal font made of gritstone, positioned on an octagonal stem. The communion rails is of a simple design. There are south walls of the nave.

Many of the pews, which dated from the 18th century, were vandalised or stolen after the church was made redundant. Replacements were made by a local craftsman as part of the restoration project carried out in 1999 and 2000 by the Friends of Friendless Churches. St Mary's has national recognition and statutory protection from alteration as it has been designated as a Grade I listed building – the highest grade of listing, designating buildings of "exceptional national, interest". Fewer than 2% of the listed buildings in Wales are in this category, it was given this status on 5 April 1971, because it is "a rare example of a unrestored Medieval church of simple, rustic character." Cadw note as a reason for listing "the retention of a complete set of 18th century fittings, including simple benches", although this comment predates the 1990s vandalism. One modern guide to the buildings of the region comments that it has "the vernacular character of Anglesey's country buildings, which survives scarcely at all in the churches."

The 19th-century writer Samuel Lewis, took a different view of the building, calling it "a small edifice of no interest". Photographs of the church