Year 1028 was a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. November 11 – Emperor Constantine VIII dies at Constantinople after a 3-year reign. On his deathbed, without a male heir, Constantine arranges that his eldest daughter, Zoë Porphyrogenita, succeeds him and marries the Byzantine nobleman, Romanos III. November 15 – Zoë Porphyrogenita takes the throne as empress consort, her husband, Romanos III becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Cnut the Great sails from England to Norway with a fleet of 50 ships, he is crowned king of Norway. Cnut becomes the sole ruler of England and part of Sweden. April 14 – The 10-year-old Henry III, son of Emperor Conrad II, is elected and crowned king of Germany in Aachen Cathedral by Pilgrim, archbishop of Cologne. King Sancho Garcés III conquers Castile. February 17 – Al-Juwayni, Persian scholar and imam Burchard II, bishop of Halberstadt Nuño Álvarez de Carazo, Spanish nobleman and warrior Qutb Shah, Persian Sufi religious leader and scholar Robert of Molesme, founder of the Cistercian Order William I, king of England January 3 – Fujiwara no Michinaga, Japanese nobleman August 7 – Alfonso V, king of León November 11 – Constantine VIII, Byzantine emperor Lin Bu, Chinese poet and calligrapher Liu Wenzhi, Chinese official of the Song Dynasty Lý Công Uẩn, founder of the Vietnamese Lý Dynasty Qawam al-Dawla, Buyid governor and ruler of Kerman Sayyida Shirin, Bavandid princess and wife of Fakhr al-Dawla William of Bellême, French nobleman

Cyrus Pringle

Cyrus Guernsey Pringle was an American botanist who spent a career of 35 years cataloguing the plants of North America. He is in the top five historical botanists for quantity of new species discovered — 1,200 species, 100 varieties, twenty-nine genera, four combinations; the standard author abbreviation Pringle is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. He was born on May 1838 in East Charlotte, Vermont, his ancestry on his father's side was Scottish Presbyterian. He studied in Hinesburg and Bakersfield, at Stanbridge, before entering the University of Vermont in the year 1859, enrolling in the classical course. However, the death of his older brother during the first semester, made it necessary for him to aid his widowed mother in the management of the farm and to give up all ideas of college. In the early part of his life he was interested in the Quaker religious doctrine of the Friends, it was through these meetings that he met, married, school teacher Almira L. Greene of Starksboro, Vermont on February 25, 1863.

His first horticultural undertakings were on his mother's farm in 1857, when, at the age of nineteen, he budded a small seedling apple tree, with a large, sweet summer apple. In 1858 he started his first nursery, containing a small pear orchard, fruit yards, gardens of currants, grapes and potatoes, he made a plan for each garden, giving the name and location of each plant. By crossing, he obtained. 6,", called "Snowflake." This potato was introduced to the public in New York. Robert Fenn, an Englishman much interested in crossing American and English varieties of potatoes, recognized Pringle's ability and the two of them worked together on other projects, such as the crossing of "Snowflake" with "Rector of Woodstock" and vice versa. Another cross-bred potato of 1870, "Ruby," gained a first-class certificate from the London Horticultural Society, with "Snowflake," was awarded a Silver Medal by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, he sold seedlings of lilies and wheat. He grew nearly all the species of lilies.

His Hubbard squash seeds brought a dollar a pound at one time, he ran a "hospital" for bulbs. People would send their sick specimens to him in Vermont for rehabilitation. During the American Civil War, about five months after his marriage, he, was drafted into the Union Army on July 13 along with two other Vermont Quakers, they shared the Quakers' disapproval of war, when Pringle's uncle offered to pay the $300 necessary for his release, he would not allow this to be done, regarding that solution as a selfish compromise with principle. Refusing to perform all military duty, he was subjected to severe discipline; the Friends were kept for days in the guardhouse in company with criminals. On October 3, 1863, at Culpeper, Pringle was staked to the ground, with his arms outstretched and his legs cruelly racked, he was threatened with death if he would not give up, but his only reply was, "It can but give me pain to be asked or required to do anything I believe to be wrong." After a day of extreme pain he wrote in his diary, "This has been the happiest day of my life, to be privileged to fight the battle for universal peace."When Secretary of War Stanton heard of this treatment, he ordered "the three incorrigibles" sent to Washington.

Isaac Newton, Commissioner of Agriculture, went to President Lincoln about their case, the President asked the Secretary to release them. The Secretary refused. In the meantime, Pringle's physical strength began to give way, he spent most of his three weeks in Washington in bed, it was only after President Lincoln had gone to Stanton that the parole was granted. After recovering his health in 1868, Pringle again turned his energies to plant breeding, attempting to hybridize new varieties of fruit and corn and grains such as wheat and oats. In 1872, Pringle's wife separated from her husband to pursue evangelistic work, they divorced on October 16, 1877. Sometime around the 1870s, Pringle began to collect plants throughout Vermont, from deep in mossy woods, by lakesides, or high on mountain summits. On December 13, 1874, he was appointed to the Vermont Board of Agriculture. During three successive years he took boat trips up the lower St. Lawrence, to the Saguenay, the St. Francis and St. John Rivers of northern Maine.

In 1878, he displayed many of the Vermont specimens which he had been collecting, at the Paris Exposition. In 1880, he was named as botanical collector for the American Museum of Natural History, as an agent for the United States Census Bureau, to explore the forests of that region and to collect data for a final report. In 1884, he made a botanical survey of the north and northwestern portions of Arizona, under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, this branched into a 26-year survey of Mexico; the Mexican Herald referred to him as one of the most brilliant and scholarly men to grace Mexico with his presence. During his thirty-five years of field work in the United States and Mexico, he distributed to herbaria over 500,000 specimens, embracing some 20,000 species, about 12 per cent of which were new to science. In April, 1896, he was elected a member of the New England Botanical Club, within the first year of its existence and when in Boston attended the meetings, he became vice-president and charter member of the Vermont Bota


"Luca$" is the seventeenth episode of the 25th season of the American animated sitcom The Simpsons, the 547th episode of the series. It first aired on the Fox network in the United States on April 6, 2014, it was directed by Chris Clements. In the episode, Marge thinks that Lisa is dating below her standards when she brings home a competitive eater-in-training named Lucas Bortner, so she enlists Homer to help Lisa explore other options. Meanwhile, Bart receives gifts from Snake Jailbird for helping him get out of a jam, but when a betrayal from Milhouse sends Snake back to prison, Bart hatches a plan to get him out; the episode begins at a playground where Homer has fallen asleep while stuck in the jungle gym's giant metal spiral. Marge drops Bart and Lisa off at school, who are hiding in the back seat so they can preserve their reputations. Homer's story is shown in flashback form, when he finishes, the jungle gym falls over into a puddle. Bart is seen in Principal Skinner's office, giving an alibi on why he was tardy.

Skinner decides to pursue corporal punishment, while he's distracted with Groundskeeper Willie, Bart makes a run for it. Bart manages to escape Skinner. Bart takes refuge in his treehouse, he reveals. Chief Wiggum arrives, thinking Snake is there, so Bart lies that Snake made it to the top of Mount Springfield. Back at school, Lisa sees a boy choking on pizza, she performs the Heimlich maneuver on him, reveals his name is Lucas Bortner and he's a competitive eater. She doesn't think that competitive eating is for him, gets a crush on him, she thinks about changing him. Meanwhile, grateful for Bart's actions, steals a PlayStadium 4 and leaves it in Bart's room. Milhouse suspects something, finds out his stuff was stolen. Lucas arrives at the Simpsons' house, for a short while, draws the attention of Homer after hearing "competitive eater". Lucas suggests a variety of foods to Lisa including Vienna sausage, blueberry pie, free-style baked beans and cow brain. Disgusted by the cow brain, Lisa picks the beans.

Inside the house and Selma start insulting Lucas, compares him to Homer. Marge is surprised. Meanwhile, Bart starts receiving more stolen items from Snake, including a Tiger and a Knight's Armor and Shield. Lisa suggests that Lucas eat ice cream, he instructs Lisa to kick him on the head. Marge, eavesdropping on it, believes Lisa is going to marry Lucas and ruin her future. Bart goes up to the treehouse. Milhouse confronts demands that Bart tell how Bart is getting all the free stuff. Bart tries to distract Milhouse by playing him the music from Osmos, however Milhouse demands to be told. Bart reveals that it is Snake, Milhouse reveals Snake to the authorities, who vow to execute him in an electric chair. Marge suggests to Homer, she tells him to act like a gentleman. Marge suspects that if Homer acts like himself, Lisa will have a husband like him, but she doesn't mention it. Homer realizes, he gets angry and leaves to sleep on Flanders' couch, stating that the Simpsons' couch "is crap". At Moe's Tavern, Homer works up the courage to ask Lisa out for dinner and she accepts.

Meanwhile, Bart cycles to the police station and explains Snake's story in the hope he might be pardoned. Wiggum rejects Bart's plea. Homer vows not to embarrass Marge, but is still resentful that she thinks a husband for Lisa who acts like Homer would be a bad thing. At the Gilded Truffle, Homer is on his best behavior and asks for vegetarian lasagna. Marge tries to apologize, he forgives her when she reveals she's wearing a sexy purple dress she bought after selling the sewing machine. She leaves Homer and Lisa to continue their date and waits at the restaurant bar, where Jimbo starts hitting on her; the next day at school, Lisa discovers that Lucas quit competitive eating and decided to do "what Adele does". She tries to teach him how to whistle, but he fails, although he thinks he's whistling. Dennis Perkins of The A. V. Club gave the episode a C, saying "Again, the resolution to the central plot is, by turns, lazy and inadequately developed. If The Simpsons is to be judged on its own merits, without referring to its past glories, fine—based on this episode, this isn’t a show I’d tune in to every week."The episode received a 1.9 rating and was watched by a total of 4.30 million people, making it the second most watched show on Animation Domination that night.

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