The 1030s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1030, and ended on December 31, 1039.
- 1 Events
- 1.1 1030
- 1.2 1031
- 1.3 1032
- 1.4 1033
- 1.5 1034
- 1.6 1035
- 1.7 1036
- 1.8 1037
- 1.9 1038
- 1.10 1039
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- Battle of Azaz: Emperor Romanos III (Argyros) decides to retaliate upon the incursions of the Muslims on the eastern frontier. He leads an Byzantine expeditionary force (20,000 men) to secure Antioch. Emir Shibl al-Dawla Nasr sues for peace, but Romanos refuses to negotiate. The Byzantine army invades Syria and encampes in Azaz (near Aleppo). There, they are encircled by the Arabs (Mirdasids) who cut off the Byzantines from food and water. Romanos orders a retreat to Antioch. As the army is exhausted from the heat and the lack of supplies, the retreat soon turns into a flight in panic – with probably 10,000 killed.
- June – Emperor Conrad II (the Elder) leads a invasion into Hungary. He plunders the lands west of the River Rába, but suffers from consequences of the scorched earth tactics used by the Hungarians. Conrad, threatened by starvation, is forced to retreat back to Germany. King Stephen I pursues his forces, which are defeated and captured by the Hungarians at Vienna.
- July 29 – Battle of Stiklestad: King Olaf II Haraldsson (St. Olaf) attemps to reconquer Norway with help from King Anund Jakob of Sweden. He is defeated by an superior Norwegian peasant and Danish army (14,000 men). Olaf is killed in the battle, he is later canonized and becomes the patron saint of Norway and Rex perpetuum Norvegiae ('the eternal king of Norway').
- The first mention is made of Tartu, Estonia, as Grand Prince Yaroslav I (the Wise) of Novgorod and Kiev defeats the Chuds, and founds a fort named Yuryev (modern-day Tartu).
- The first mention is made of Thalwil, Switzerland, which is derived from Tellewilare, and indicates the early medieval orgins of Thalwil as an Alemannic farmstead.
- Henry I revolts against his father King Robert II (the Pious) in a civil war over power and property. Robert's army is defeated, and he retreats to Beaugency.
- April 30 – Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni dies after a 28-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Mas'ud I who seizes the throne of the Ghaznavid Empire, which includes much of Afghanistan, Iran and India.
- Ouyang Xiu, an Chinese historian and scholar, obtains his jinshi degree at the age of 23, by passing the imperial examinations in the country, leading him into a distinguished path as a scholar-official.
- July 20 – Henry I becomes sole King of France, on the death of his father Robert II.
- The Ummayyad Caliphate of Córdoba collapses.
- Bezprym seizes the throne of Poland from Mieszko II.
- France suffers from a famine (until 1033).
- October 21 – Benedict IX succeeds John XIX, as the 145th pope, while (probably) still in his teens.
- The city of Kursk is mentioned for first time.
- February 2 – Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes King of Burgundy.
- Panic spreads throughout Europe that the end of the universe may be near, on the supposed 1,000th anniversary of the crucifixion of Christ, due to some unusually harsh spring weather. The Book of Revelation predicts the end of the earth after a 1,000 year period.
- April 11 – Empress Zoe of Byzantium marries her chamberlain, and elevates him to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire, as Michael IV.
- November 25 – King Malcolm II of Scotland dies in battle at Glamis. He is succeeded by Duncan, son of his eldest daughter, rather than Macbeth, who was possibly another grandson of his.
- Franche-Comté becomes subject to the Holy Roman Empire.
- In al-Andalus, benefiting from the weakening of the Muslim central authority, the count of Portugal, Gonçalo Maia, conquers Montemor-o-Velho.
- The heir to the displaced Balhae kings revolts against the Liao dynasty, and flees to Goryeo when defeated.
- Pisa launches a naval assault against the Saracen pirates strongholds in the Lipari Islands.
- Harald I becomes king of England.
- Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark.
- Magnus I becomes king of Norway.
- William II (the future William I of England) becomes duke of Normandy.
- Construction on the cathedral of Saint Sabino begins in Bari.
- Koper is awarded town rights.
- The first Freimarkt festival is held in Bremen.
- A Zirid attack in Sicily takes Palermo from the Normans, but fails to fully reconquer the island.
- February 5 – Edward the Confessor's younger brother Alfred Aetheling is blinded and murdered, in an apparent attempt to seize the throne of England from Harold I.
- Pope Benedict IX is briefly forced out of Rome, but returns with the help of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor.
- The Flower Sermon first appears in Buddhist literature.
- Construction of the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev is ended.
- Ferdinand I becomes the king of Castile and Leon.
- Harold I seizes the crown of England from his half-brother Harthacanute.
- George Maniaces begins a campaign against the Arabs in Sicily.
- August 15 – On the death of his uncle, Stephen I, Peter becomes second King of Hungary.
- The name of Versailles, at this time a small village, appears for the first time in a medieval charter in France.
- In the Muslim taifa of Zaragoza, the ruling Banu Tujibi clan is deposed by Al-Mustain I, Sulayman ibn Hud al-Judhami, who starts the Huddid Dynasty, which rules over the region for a century (possibly 1039).
- June 4 – Henry III becomes King of Germany.
- The Abbey of Bec is founded.
- Bretislav I of Bohemia invades Poland.
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- Shepard, Jonathan (2010). "Azaz, Battle near", p. 102. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533403-6.
- Tvauri, Andres (2012). The Migration Period, Pre-Viking Age, and Viking Age in Estonia. pp. 33, 59, 60. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- Moriceau, Jean-Marc (2011) L'Homme contre le loup. Une guerre de deux mille ans, Paris, Fayard.
- "The Apocalyptic Dossier: 967-1033". Boston University. Boston University Center for Millennial Studies.
- Landes, Richard. "Introduction to Apocalypticism and Millennialism". Catholic Resources for Bible, Liturgy, Art, and Theology.
- "A Brief History of the Apocalypse". www.abhota.info. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
- Revelation Chapter 20
- Meynier, Gilbert (2010). L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique: De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte. p. 50.
- Benvenuti, Gino (1985). Le Repubbliche Marinare. Amalfi, Pisa, Genova e Venezia. Rome: Newton & Compton Editori. p. 42. ISBN 88-8289-529-7.
- Meynier, Gilbert (2010). L'Algérie, cœur du Maghreb classique: De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte. p. 50.
- History of Song (1346).
- Parker, Philip (2010). World History. Dorling Kindersley Limited. p. 430. ISBN 9781405352574.
- Panton, James (2011). Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy. Scarecrow Press. p. 16. ISBN 9780810874978.
- Stalls, Clay (1995). Possessing the land: Aragon's expansion into Islam's Ebro frontier under Alfonso the Battler, 1104-1134. Brill. p. viii. ISBN 90-04-10367-8.
- Constable, Giles (2008). Three Treatises From Bec on the Nature of Monastic Life. University of Toronto Press. p. 28. ISBN 9781442691629.