Year 1031 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. July 20 – King Robert II dies at Melun, after a 35-year reign, he is succeeded by Henry I, who becomes the sole ruler of France. Henry's mother, Queen dowager Constance of Arles, prefers her third son, Robert, as heir to the throne and, with the help of Count Odo II, begins a war against Henry; the Caliphate of Córdoba collapses after years of infighting. The last Umayyad ruler, Caliph Hisham III, tries to consolidate the caliphate, but his raising of taxes leads to heavy opposition and he is imprisoned by his rivals. King Mieszko II is forced to escape Poland after an attack of Grand Prince Yaroslav I of Kiev, who installs Mieszko's half-brother Bezprym onto the Polish throne. France suffers from a famine; the Byzantine general George Maniakes captures Edessa from the Arab Muslims and stabilizes the eastern frontier. March 26 – Malcolm III, king of Scotland Hoël II, duke of Brittany Matilda of Flanders, queen consort of England Muhammad ibn Ammar, Moorish poet and writer Robert, Norman nobleman and Earl of Cornwall Roger I, Norman nobleman Shen Kuo, Chinese polymath scientist and engineer Spytihněv II, duke of Bohemia January 1 – William of Volpiano, Italian abbot January 5 – Gunnor, duchess consort of Normandy April 10 – Liudolf of Lotharingia, German nobleman June 17 – Hyeonjong, king of Goryeo June 25 – Sheng Zong, emperor of the Liao Dynasty June 28 – Taira no Tadatsune, Japanese governor July 20 – Robert II, king of France August 20 – Burchard, French archbishop and count September 2 – Emeric, Hungarian prince and co-heir September 9 – Gang Gam-chan, Korean general November 29 – Al-Qadir, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Aribo, German archbishop and primate Fadl ibn Muhammad, Shaddadid emir of Ganja Qadi'Abd al-Wahhab, Abbasid scholar and jurist Snorri Goði, Icelandic Viking warrior and chieftain

Albany Research Center

The Albany Research Center, now part of National Energy Technology Laboratory, is a U. S. Department of Energy laboratory staffed by Federal employees and contractors located in Albany, Oregon. Founded in 1943, the laboratory specialized in life cycle research starting with the formulation, and/or melting of most metals and ceramics. Researchers at the laboratory solved industrial processing problems by investigating melting, fabrication and chemical analysis and wear and performance testing of materials through the use of equipment and analytical techniques. Since joining NETL, the laboratory has switched its research focus to materials and processes for fossil energy production and conversion; the facility occupies 38 buildings. The United States Bureau of Mines selected a location in Albany to be home to the Northwest Electro-development Laboratory on March 17, 1943; the grounds of the center and some buildings had been the home of Albany College from 1925 until 1937. The facility was planned to develop new metallurgical processes as well as study ways to use low-grade resources using the surplus of electricity in the region.

In 1945, the name was changed to the Albany Metallurgy Research Center. Research at the facility in the early years included studying zirconium, which led to advances in producing ductile zirconium under William J. Kroll; this included work with the Navy and the Atomic Energy Commission on development of the USS Nautilus, the first nuclear-powered submarine. In 1955, production of zirconium at the research center stopped when it was taken over by private industry. Other work at Albany included research on titanium casting, recycling metals and alloys, creating sulfurcrete, studying metal corrosion among other areas; the center was renamed as the Albany Research Center in 1977, in 1985 it was listed by the American Society for Metals as a historical landmark. During the mid-1990s until the mid-2000s, the center worked with the Oregon Department of Transportation on preventing corrosion on bridges exposed to salt water. In 1996, the United States Congress eliminated the Bureau of Mines, with the Albany facility transferred to the U.

S. Department of Energy. At first it reported directly to the department's Office of Fossil Energy, but in 2005 it was realigned under the National Energy Technology Laboratory with the name changing to NETL-Albany. At that time the research center had an annual budget of $10 million. Though the research center began additional upgrades in 2009 to add on two new modular office complexes to the facility and bringing to total staff up to 120 people. During that same year the center received an R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine. From 1945 until 1978, the Research Center was involved in working with radioactive materials, first for the Atomic Energy Commission and for the Energy Research and Development Administration; as part of Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program cleanup operations, a radiological survey was conducted of the site in 1985. Portions of 18 buildings and 37 exterior locations were designated as needing decontamination; the cleanup was done in two phases: Phase I from July 1987 to January 1988 and Phase II from August 1990 to April 1991.

The hazardous waste material was sent to the Hanford Site for disposal. The site was certified to Department of Energy standards and guidelines for cleanup of residual radioactive contamination in 1993. In conjunction with the Office of Fossil Energy, the facility investigates many of the nation's challenges in the production and use of all types of fossil energy systems to include the need to produce new materials for the energy systems of tomorrow and to develop new methods to ameliorate the releases associated with these new systems. Three directorates of NETL's Research & Innovation Center are represented at the Albany site: Geological and Environmental Systems, Materials Engineering and Manufacturing, Energy Conversion Engineering. Specific research is conducted on geographic information systems for fossil fuels, advanced alloys and ceramics for coal and natural gas power plants, magnetohydrodynamic generators, their facilities include a GIS visualization laboratory, fabrication plant, a melting and casting facility, a MHD laboratory.

An assessment of the minerals thermochemistry program of the Bureau of Mines

Laryngeal paralysis

Laryngeal paralysis in animals is a condition in which the nerves and muscles that control the movements of one or both arytenoid cartilages of the larynx cease to function, instead of opening during aspiration and closing during swallowing, the arytenoids remain stationary in a somewhat neutral position. The muscle that causes abduction of the arytenoid cartilage, the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle, ceases to function; this leads to inadequate ventilation during exercise and during thermoregulatory panting as well as incomplete protection of the airway during swallowing. One of the most common forms of laryngeal paralysis develops in geriatric medium to large breed dogs, in particular the Labrador retriever, but some other breeds; this had been traditionally known as idiopathic largyngeal paralysis, was believed to be a result of a condition affecting the nerves of the larynx. However investigations into ILP by two groups in Michigan and Tennessee between 2005 - 2013 showed that the condition was not limited to, or a result of, dysfunction of the laryngeal nerves.

Instead it was the most visible symptom of a progressing polyneuropathy of old age, which affected other nerves in the body. This finding, now believed correct following further research, has led to the proposed renaming of this type of laryngeal paralysis from "Idiopathic laryngeal paralysis" to "Geriatric onset laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy". Animals affected by laryngeal paralysis have reduced tolerance for exercise and heat and an increased risk of aspiration pneumonia; the condition is not regarded as causing pain, other than physical distress and anxiety caused by any difficulty in breathing or emotional distress from any difficulty with physical movement. Where laryngeal paralysis is related to a general progressive polyneuropathy, as in GOLPP, the nervous system will degenerate causing increasing difficulty in management of the limbs and breathing, in most cases euthanasia. Laryngeal paralysis is common in large breed and geriatric dogs in the Labrador retriever, is found in cats, can occur in horses where it is referred to as roaring, roarer's syndrome, or medically as laryngeal hemiplegia or recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.

Laryngeal paralysis can be unilateral or bilateral depending upon dysfunction of one or both arytenoid cartilages. In most cases, the cause of laryngeal paralysis is idiopathic. However, the disorder may arise secondary to general neuropathies, generalized neuromuscular diseases, muscular diseases, neoplasia either in the cervical region or the cranial mediastinum, or trauma; this acquired form occurs predominantly in middle-aged to old large breed or giant breed dogs such as the Labrador Retriever, golden retriever, Siberian Husky, St. Bernard; these dogs are born with a normal larynx, but over time the nerves and muscles that control the laryngeal cartilages lose function. Laryngeal paralysis may be congenital in some breeds, appearing in dogs between two and six months of age. Affected puppies may have difficulty swallowing and breathing, they may gag and their bark sounds abnormal. In Dalmatians it is part of another condition called'laryngeal paralysis-polyneuropathy complex.' Affected puppies should not be used for breeding.

Choke collars are not thought to be a significant risk factor for this disorder. However, after LP is diagnosed it is recommended to stop using a collar or anything else around the dog's neck and to switch to a harness instead. Signs of laryngeal paralysis include voice change, gagging or coughing, exercise intolerance, inspiratory stridor, difficulty breathing, in severe cases cyanosis or syncope. Secondary problems may occur, including aspiration or edema in the lungs, though the problem remains an upper respiratory problem. Affected dogs are vulnerable to heat stroke and heat exhaustion due to their limited ability to cool themselves down by panting, but the disorder itself can be mistaken for heat stroke. Signs may occur at any time, but owners may only notice that their dog's bark sounds different, that their dog can't run as much as before, or that the dog has trouble in hot weather in unilateral cases because the unaffected side can compensate for the paralysed side; however most unilateral cases will progress to include both sides of the larynx, a more serious problem with symptoms appearing more often.

Signs are worse in hot and humid weather, during exercise, during times of stress or excitement, in obese pets. Acute or late-stage symptoms are unmistakable and require immediate emergency treatment; this condition is diagnosed by direct examination of the larynx under light sedation, which allows checking for benign or malignant tumors. Tests, such as thoracic radiographs, CT-scans, or echocardiography, are sometimes needed to rule out heart, lung, or mediastinal diseases or other possible causes of the symptoms seen with LP; some vets may recommend running a thyroid profile since LP can be a symptom or complication of hypothyroidism. Mild cases are managed by limiting activity, keeping a healthy body weight, avoiding exposure to high ambient temperatures. Mild sedatives can be used to therefore improve respiration. Corticosteroids may be administered i