1040 Klumpkea

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1040 Klumpkea
Discovery [1]
Discovered by B. Jekhovsky
Discovery site Algiers Obs.
Discovery date 20 January 1925
MPC designation (1040) Klumpkea
Named after
Dorothea Klumpke[2]
(American astronomer)
1925 BD · 1930 DC1
1936 BB
main-belt[1][3] · (outer)
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 93.10 yr (34,005 d)
Aphelion 3.7117 AU
Perihelion 2.5142 AU
3.1129 AU
Eccentricity 0.1923
5.49 yr (2,006 d)
0° 10m 46.2s / day
Inclination 16.688°
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
22.340±0.175 km[5][6]
22.669±0.304 km[7]
23.13±0.38 km[8]
34.98±4.3 km[9]
59.2±0.1 h[10]
C (assumed)[11]
S (possible)

1040 Klumpkea, provisional designation 1925 BD, is a Tirela asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 23 kilometers (14 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 20 January 1925, by Russian–French astronomer Benjamin Jekhowsky at the Algiers Observatory in North Africa.[1] This likely elongated asteroid is the largest member of the stony Tirela family – also known as the Klumpkea family – and has a longer than average rotation period of 59.2 hours.[11] It was named after American astronomer Dorothea Klumpke.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Klumpkea is the largest member of the Tirela family (612),[4] a large asteroid family of more than a thousand members which has been further divided into 8 different subclusters.[12]:18,23 The family is named after 1400 Tirela. Alternatively it is also known as the Klumpkea family by Milani and Knežević.[13][14]

It orbits the Sun in the outer asteroid belt at a distance of 2.5–3.7 AU once every 5 years and 6 months (2,006 days; semi-major axis of 3.11 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.19 and an inclination of 17° with respect to the ecliptic.[3] The body's observation arc begins at Algiers on its official discovery observation in January 1925.[1]


This minor planet was named after American astronomer Dorothea Klumpke (1861–1943), spouse of Welsh astronomer Isaac Roberts (1829–1904). Dorothea Klumpke was the first woman to receive the degree of Doctor of Mathematical Sciences at the Sorbonne University in Paris, France. The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H99). The asteroid 339 Dorothea has also been named in her honor by its discoverer Max Wolf.[2]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Klumpkea's spectral type is uncertain. Although the overall spectral type of the Tirela/Klumpkea family is that of a stony S-type,[12]:23 which agrees with observations by the WISE/Akari surveys, the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) assumes it to be a carbonaceous C-type asteroid, based on the low albedo measured by SIMPS (see below).[11]

Rotation period and pole[edit]

In February 2002, a rotational lightcurve of Klumpkea was obtained from seven consecutive nights of photometric observations by Robert Stephens at his Santana Observatory (646) in California. Lightcurve analysis was difficult and only gave a provisional rotation period of 59.2±0.1 hours with a high brightness amplitude of 0.77 magnitude (U=2), indicative of an elongated shape.[10]

In 2016, a modeled lightcurve gave a concurring sidereal period of 56.588±0.003 hours using data from the Uppsala Asteroid Photometric Catalogue, the Palomar Transient Factory survey, and individual observers (such as above), as well as sparse-in-time photometry from the NOFS, the Catalina Sky Survey, and the La Palma surveys (950). The study also determined a spin axis for Klumpkea of (172.0°, 48.0°) in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β).[15]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Klumpkea measures between 22.34 and 34.98 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.063 and 0.245.[5][6][7][8][9] CALL assumes a carbonaceous standard albedo of 0.057 and calculates a diameter of 44.22 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.5.[11]


  1. ^ a b c d e "1040 Klumpkea (1925 BD)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1040) Klumpkea. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 89. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1040 Klumpkea (1925 BD)" (2018-02-26 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Asteroid 1040 Klumpkea". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; Kramer, E. A.; Masiero, J. R.; et al. (June 2016). "NEOWISE Diameters and Albedos V1.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2016PDSS..247.....M. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  6. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; et al. (November 2011). "Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary Albedos and Diameters". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 20. arXiv:1109.4096. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...68M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/68. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 30 August 2018. (catalog)
  8. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 30 August 2018. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  9. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System – IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  10. ^ a b Stephens, R. D. (September 2002). "Photometry of 973 Aralia, 1189 Terentia, 1040 Klumpkea, and 1998 Titius". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 29: 47–48. Bibcode:2002MPBu...29...47S. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  11. ^ a b c d e "LCDB Data for (1040) Klumpkea". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  12. ^ a b Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). "Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families" (PDF). Asteroids IV: 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  13. ^ "Asteroid (1040) Klumpkea – Proper elements". AstDyS-2, Asteroids – Dynamic Site. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  14. ^ Milani, Andrea; Cellino, Alberto; Knezevic, Zoran; Novakovic, Bojan; Spoto, Federica; Paolicchi, Paolo (September 2014). "Asteroid families classification: Exploiting very large datasets" (PDF). Icarus. 239: 46–73. arXiv:1312.7702. Bibcode:2014Icar..239...46M. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.05.039. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  15. ^ Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Broz, M.; Marciniak, A.; Warner, B. D.; Pilcher, F.; et al. (March 2013). "Asteroids' physical models from combined dense and sparse photometry and scaling of the YORP effect by the observed obliquity distribution" (PDF). Astronomy and Astrophysics. 551: 16. arXiv:1301.6943. Bibcode:2013A&A...551A..67H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220701. Retrieved 30 August 2018.

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