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1042

Year 1042 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. April 19 – Emperor Michael V Kalaphates banishes his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoë, for plotting to poison him, to the island of Principo, his announcement as sole emperor leads to a popular revolt. April 20 – Zoë is proclaimed as empress at an assembly in Hagia Sophia along with her sister Theodora as co-ruler. Michael V flees to the monastery of Stoudios but is arrested and castrated. Zoë recalls Synodianos, governor of the Catepanate of Italy, replaces him with George Maniakes. All of Apulia is in the hands of the Lombard rebels. June 11 – Zoë marries, a Byzantine bureaucrat who ascends as co-emperor Constantine IX at Constantinople. Theodora agrees to surrender her co-emperorship. Summer – George Maniakes goes on a march through Apulia, plundering the towns that have declared for the Lombard rebels. Constantine IX recalls Maniakes to Constantinople. George Maniakes is declared emperor by his troops, he captures Pardos. Byzantine–Arab War: The Byzantines reconquer the fortress city of Edessa.

Returning it to Christian hands, after 400 years of Islamic rule. Duklja secures its independence from the Byzantine Empire. January 25 – Abbad I dies after a 19-year reign as independent ruler of the Taifa of Seville in Al-Andalus, he is succeeded by his son Abbad II. Casimir I, duke of Poland, succeeds in reuniting the realm which earns him the name "the Restorer", he signs a treaty with duke of Bohemia, at Regensburg. June 8 – Magnus the Good becomes king of Denmark after the death of Harthacnut. Despite of a claim to the throne by Sweyn II, Magnus takes control of Denmark. Autumn – Norman mercenaries assemble at Matera and decide to elect William Iron Arm as count of Melfi and leader of the Normans in Southern Italy. Harald Hardrada, leader of the Varangian Guard in the Byzantine Empire, returns to Norway because of his involvement in Maniakes' revolt. Finnish–Novgorodian War: Grand Prince Vladimir Yaroslavich wages a campaign against the Tavastians. June 8 – King Harthacnut collapses while attending a party.

He dies without an heir, Edward the Confessor becomes king of England. The Almoravids, led by Abdallah ibn Yasin, invade Morocco. Bolesław II the Generous, king of Poland Canute IV, king of Denmark Fujiwara no Morozane, Japanese nobleman and regent Gissur Ísleifsson, Icelandic clergyman and bishop Johannes of Jerusalem, French monk and abbot Louis the Springer, German nobleman Minamoto no Yoshitsuna, Japanese samurai Sancho V, king of Aragon and Pamplona January 25 – Abbad I, founder of the Abbadid Dynasty June 8 – Harthacnut, king of Denmark and England August 24 – Michael V Kalaphates, Byzantine emperor Anushtakin al-Dizbari, Fatimid governor of Aleppo Pardos, Byzantine governor of Italy

In-N-Out Burger

In-N-Out Burger is an American regional chain of fast food restaurants with locations in the Southwest and the Pacific coast. It was founded in California, in 1948 by Harry Snyder and Esther Snyder; the chain is headquartered in Irvine and has expanded outside Southern California into the rest of California, as well as into Arizona, Utah and Oregon. The current owner is the Snyders' only grandchild; as the chain has expanded, it has opened several distribution centers in addition to its original Baldwin Park location. The new facilities, located in Lathrop, California. In-N-Out Burger has chosen not to go public; the company's business practices have been noted for employee-centered personnel policies. For example, In-N-Out is one of the few fast food chains in the United States to pay its employees more than state and federally mandated minimum wage guidelines – starting at 14 USD per hour in California, as of July, 2019; the In-N-Out restaurant chain has developed a loyal customer base and has been rated as one of the top fast food restaurants in several customer satisfaction surveys.

In-N-Out Burger's first location was opened in the Los Angeles suburb of Baldwin Park, California, in 1948 by the Snyders at the southwest corner of what is now the intersection of Interstate 10 and Francisquito Avenue. The restaurant was the first drive-thru hamburger stand in California, allowing drivers to place orders via a two-way speaker system; this was a new and unique idea, since in post-World War II California, carhops were used to take orders and serve food. The second In-N-Out was on the corner of Azusa Canyon Road and San Bernardino Road, the third was in Pasadena and the fourth was opened west of the intersection of Grand Avenue and Arrow Highway in Covina, California, in the late 1950s; the company remained a small southern California chain until the 1970s. The Snyders managed their first restaurants to ensure quality was maintained; the chain had 18 restaurants when Harry Snyder died in 1976, at the age of 63. In 1976, 24-year-old Rich Snyder became the company president after his father's death.

Along with his brother Guy, Rich had begun working in his father's In-N-Outs at an early age. Over the next 20 years, the chain experienced a period of rapid growth under Rich's leadership, expanding to 93 restaurants; the first location outside of the Los Angeles metropolitan area was opened in San Diego County in 1990, the 57th location in the chain. In 1992, In-N-Out opened its first non-Southern California restaurant in Nevada, its first Northern California location was opened the following year in Modesto. Expansion spread to Northern California, including the San Francisco Bay Area, while additional Las Vegas-area restaurants were added. However, after opening store 93 In-N-Out in Fresno, California, on December 15, 1993, Rich Snyder and four other passengers died in a plane crash on approach to John Wayne Airport in Orange County, California; the charter aircraft they were on had been following a Boeing 757 in for landing, became caught in its wake turbulence, crashed. The ensuing crash investigation led to the Federal Aviation Administration requirement for an adequate distance between heavy aircraft and following light aircraft to allow wake turbulence to diminish.

Upon Rich Snyder's death in 1993, Guy Snyder assumed the presidency and continued the company's aggressive expansion until he died from an overdose of painkillers in 1999. He was president for six years, expanding In-N-Out from 93 to 140 locations, his mother Esther subsequently took over the presidency. The company opened locations in Arizona in 2000 and added new restaurants in Reno and Carson City, Nevada in late 2004. In-N-Out became a huge success in these new locations. In 2007, it opened its first restaurant in Arizona; the store opening broke company records for the most burgers sold in one day and the most sold in one week. In 2008, In-N-Out expanded into a fourth state by opening a location in Washington, Utah, a suburb of St. George. By late 2009, the chain expanded into northern Utah with three new locations situated in Draper, American Fork, Orem. More locations opened in the spring of 2010 in West Valley City, West Jordan and Riverton. In May 2010, In-N-Out announced plans to open new spots into Texas within the Dallas–Fort Worth area with the first In-N-Out opening in Frisco and Allen on May 11, 2011.

The chain opened its first location in Austin in December 2013. There are 21 restaurant locations in the Dallas–Fort Worth area, four in the Austin area; these new locations in Texas required the company to build a new patty production facility and distribution center in the state, according to company vice president Carl Van Fleet. In March 2014, the company confirmed its first location in San Antonio; the fall of 2014 saw the restaurant open its 22nd Texas location in Killeen. On November 20, 2014, In-N-Out opened its first location in San Antonio followed by its first location in Waco in November 2015. In January 2017, In-N-Out announced plans to expand into Houston with multiple sites planned in the area, the first being in Stafford. In January 2015, In-N-Out opened its 300th restaurant, located in Anaheim, California. At the time of the opening, the company had generated $558 million in annual sales and employed nearly 18,000 in California, Utah and Arizona; the company opened its first location in Oregon on September 9, 2

Tahu Kukutai

Tahu Hera Kukutai is a New Zealand sociology academic. After a 2010 PhD titled'The thin brown line: re-indigenizing inequality in Aotearoa New Zealand at Stanford University, Kukutai moved to the University of Waikato, rising to full professor. Kukutai, Tahu. "The problem of defining an ethnic group for public policy: Who is Maori and why does it matter." Social Policy Journal of New Zealand 23: 86–108. Kukutai and John Taylor, eds. Indigenous data sovereignty: Toward an agenda. Vol. 38. Anu Press, 2016. Kukutai, Tahu; the dynamics of ethnicity reporting: Maori in New Zealand. Te Puni Kokiri, 2003. Kukutai, Tahu H. "White Mothers, Brown Children: Ethnic Identification of Maori‐European Children in New Zealand." Journal of Marriage and Family 69, no. 5: 1150–1161. Kukutai and Paul Callister. "A “main” ethnic group? Ethnic self-prioritisation among New Zealand youth." Social policy journal of New Zealand 36: 16–31. Tahu Kukutai on Twitter Tahu Kukutai publications indexed by Google Scholar