SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

1048

Year 1048 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. September 18 – Battle of Kapetron: A combined Byzantine-Georgian army under Byzantine generals Aaronios and Katakalon Kekaumenos, confronts the invading Seljuk Turks, led by Ibrahim Inal, at Kapetron; the Byzantines defeat their opposing Turkish forces in the flanks, but in the centre Ibrahim Inal captures Liparit, is able to safely withdraw the Byzantine territory, laden with spoils and captives, including Liparit. Winter – Emperor Constantine IX sends an embassy with gifts and a ransom, for the release of Liparit IV to Tughril. However, the sultan sets Liparit free, on condition. Winter – Emperor Henry III appoints his cousin, Bishop Bruno of Toul, as successor of Damasus II at an assembly at Worms; the city of Oslo is founded by King Harald III of Norway. 1048 or 1066 - End of the Viking Age: Vikings make an unsuccessful raid on the Kingdom of England. King Edward the Confessor goes to war against Flanders, blockading the English Channel with a fleet based at Sandwich in Kent.

July 16 – At orders of Henry III, German troops under Boniface III, enter Rome and expel Pope Benedict IX. July 17 – Pope Damasus II succeeds Benedict IX as the 151st pope of the Catholic Church, but he dies after 24 days. May 18 – Omar Khayyam, Persian mathematician and poet May 25 – Shen Zong, emperor of the Song Dynasty Alexios I, Byzantine emperor Arwa al-Sulayhi, queen and co-ruler of Yemen Domnall Ua Lochlainn, High King of Ireland Harding of Bristol, English sheriff reeve Magnus II, king of Norway Matilda of Germany, duchess of Swabia Peter I, Italian nobleman Sheikh Ahmad-e Jami, Persian Sufi writer and poet Turgot of Durham, Scottish bishop January 25 – Poppo, abbot of Stavelot-Malmedy June 1 – Minamoto no Yorinobu, Japanese samurai June 7 – Berno of Reichenau, German abbot August 9 – Damasus II, pope of the Catholic Church November 11 – Adalbert, duke of Upper Lorraine December 9 – Al-Biruni, Persian scholar and polymath Æthelstan of Abingdon, English abbot Cenn Fáelad Ua Cúill, Irish poet and Chief Ollam Humbert I, founder of the House of Savoy Jing Zong, Chinese empress of Western Xia Mael Fabhaill Ua hEidhin, king of Hy Fiachrach Rainulf II, Italo-Norman nobleman

Raja Isa

Raja Isa bin Raja Akram Shah, better known as Raja Isa is a Malaysian football head coach. He is more known in Indonesia, where he coached several teams in the Liga 1 and Liga 2. Raja Isa started coaching for Selangor FA youth teams, but was brought to Indonesia as part of Irfan Bakti coaching staff at Persipura Jayapura in 2007. Raja Isa and Irfan had worked together before at Melaka TMFC, as assistant head coach and head coach respectively; when Irfan returned to Malaysia that year to coach Perlis FA, Raja Isa was promoted to the head coach position. He guided Persipura to the 2007 Copa Indonesia Final, where his team was beaten 3-0 on penalties to Sriwijaya FC after 1-1 on normal regulation time. In 2008, after he was released by Persipura, Raja Isa was appointed as the head coach of PSM Makassar. Early in 2009, Raja Isa was appointed at another club in Persiram Raja Ampat, he had a stint in PSMS Medan from 2011 to 2012. In April 2013, he was named as new head coach of Persijap Jepara, he holds this position until his contract was terminated in May 2014.

Raja Isa: Jurulatih Kelab Bola Sepak Indonesia dari Malaysia

Claude McKay

Festus Claudius "Claude" McKay was a Jamaican writer and poet, a seminal figure in the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote five novels: Home to Harlem, a best-seller that won the Harmon Gold Award for Literature, Banana Bottom, Romance in Marseille, in 1941 a manuscript called Amiable With Big Teeth: A Novel of the Love Affair Between the Communists and the Poor Black Sheep of Harlem which remained unpublished until 2017. McKay authored collections of poetry, a collection of short stories, two autobiographical books, A Long Way from Home and My Green Hills of Jamaica, a non-fiction, socio-historical treatise entitled Harlem: Negro Metropolis, his 1922 poetry collection, Harlem Shadows, was among the first books published during the Harlem Renaissance. His Selected Poems was published posthumously, in 1953. McKay was attracted to communism in his early life, but he always asserted that he never became an official member of the Communist Party USA. However, some scholars dispute that claim, noting his close ties to active members, his attendance at communist-led events, his months-long stay in the Soviet Union in 1922–23, which he wrote about favorably.

He became disillusioned with communism, by the mid-1930s had begun to write negatively about it. By the late 1930s his anti-Stalinism isolated him from other Harlem intellectuals, by 1942 he converted to Catholicism and left Harlem, he worked for a Catholic organization until his death. Festus Claudius McKay, known as Claude McKay, was born September 15, 1889 or 1890 in Nairne Castle near James Hill in upper Clarendon Parish, Jamaica, he referred to his home village as a name given to the area by locals. He was the youngest child of Thomas Francis McKay and Hannah Ann Elizabeth Edwards, well-to-do farmers who had enough property to qualify to vote, he had seven siblings. McKay's parents were well-respected members of the Baptist faith. Thomas was a strict, religious man who struggled to develop close relationships with his children due to his serious nature. In contrast, Hannah had a warmth that allowed her to give love to all of her children. Thomas was of Ashanti descent. Claude recounted that his father would share stories of Ashanti customs with the family.

At the age of four, McKay went to school at Mt. Zion Church. Around the age of nine, he was sent to live with his oldest brother, Uriah Theodore known as U'Theo, a teacher, to be given a proper education, his brother enjoyed being a journalist though he did not professionally do this for a living. Due to his brother's influence, McKay became an avid reader of classical and British literature, as well as philosophy and theology. With the time he had on his hands, he would read poems during other material; when McKay was in elementary school, he became intrigued and passionate about poetry, which he started to write at the age of 10. As a teenager in 1906, he became apprenticed to a carriage and cabinet maker known as Old Brenga, maintaining his apprenticeship for about two years. During that time, in 1907, McKay met a man named Walter Jekyll, who became a mentor and an inspiration for him, who encouraged him to concentrate on his writing. Jekyll convinced McKay to write in his native dialect, set some of McKay's verses to music.

Jekyll helped McKay publish his first book of poems, Songs of Jamaica, in 1912. These were the first poems published in Jamaican Patois. McKay's next volume, Constab Ballads, was based on his experiences of joining the constabulary for a brief period in 1911. McKay's poem; the poem takes place in New York. The fruits in New York causes the speaker of the poem to feel nostalgic; the poem describes the many Caribbean fruits integrated into the New York "cityscape," such as,"alligator pears and tangerines". The color of the fruits remind him of the diversity in Jamaica, he incorporates figurative language in order to. For example, the speaker describes how he is "hungry for old familiar ways/ a wave of longing through my body wept", he reminiscences on his life back home in Jamaica, which explains why he identifies with the many fruits sold on the New York city streets. McKay left for the U. S. in 1912 to attend Tuskegee Institute. He was shocked by the intense racism he encountered when he arrived in Charleston, South Carolina, where many public facilities were segregated.

At Tuskegee, he disliked the "semi-military, machine-like existence there" and left to study at Kansas State University. At Kansas State, he read W. E. B. Du Bois' Souls of Black Folk, which had a major impact on him and stirred his political involvement, but despite superior academic performance, in 1914 he decided he did not want to be an agronomist and moved to New York City, where he married his childhood sweetheart Eulalie Lewars. McKay published two poems in 1917 in The Seven Arts under the pseudonym Eli Edwards while working as a waiter on the railways. In 1919, he met Max Eastman, who produced The Liberator, it was here, as the co-editor of The Liberator, that he published one of his most famous poems, "If We Must Die", during the "Red Summer", a period of intense racial violence against black people in Anglo-American societies. The poem was la