Ohio /oʊˈhaɪ. oʊ/ is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Ohio is the 34th largest by area, the 7th most populous, the states capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, the name originated from the Iroquois word ohi-yo’, meaning great river or large creek. Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state on March 1,1803, Ohio is historically known as the Buckeye State after its Ohio buckeye trees, and Ohioans are known as Buckeyes. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives, Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state and a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their home state, Ohios geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo, Ohio has the nations 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North Americas population and 70% of North Americas manufacturing capacity.
To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline, Ohios southern border is defined by the Ohio River, and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohios neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Ontario Canada, to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the rivers 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark, the border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with a flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills, in 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, at attempt to address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region.
This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia, the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States. Grand Lake St. Marys in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles, was the largest artificial lake in the world and it should be noted that Ohios canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their emergence to location on canals. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold, precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round
Oliver P. Morton
Oliver Hazard Perry Throck Morton, commonly known as Oliver P. Morton, was a U. S. He served as the 14th Governor of Indiana during the American Civil War, during the war, Morton thwarted and neutralized the Democratic-controlled Indiana General Assembly. He was criticized for arresting and detaining political enemies and suspected southern sympathizers, during his second term as governor, and after being partially paralyzed by a stroke, he was elected to serve in the U. S. Senate. He was a leader among the Radical Republicans of the Reconstruction era, in 1877, during his second term in the Senate, Morton suffered a second debilitating stroke that caused a rapid deterioration in his health, he died that year. Morton was mourned nationally and his funeral procession was witnessed by thousands and he is buried in Indianapoliss Crown Hill Cemetery. Morton was an Indiana native born in Wayne County near the settlement of Salisbury on August 4,1823, to James Throck. His grandfather had shortened the surname, Throckmorton, to Morton.
He was named for Oliver Hazard Perry, the victorious Commodore in the Battle of Lake Erie, Morton disliked his name from an early age, and before beginning his political career he shortened it to Oliver Perry Morton, dropping the middle names of Hazard and Throck. His mother died when he was three, and he was raised by his maternal grandparents and he spent most of his young life living with them in Ohio. Morton returned to eastern Indiana as a man, and joined his family at Centerville. Leaving school at the age of fifteen, Morton briefly worked as an apothecarys clerk, in 1845 he returned to Centerville and was admitted to the Indiana bar in 1846. Morton formed a law practice with Judge Newman and became a successful, Morton married Lucinda Burbank in 1845. The couple had five children, but only two survived infancy, in 1852 Morton campaigned and was elected to serve as a circuit court judge, but resigned after only a year, he found that he preferred to practice law. By 1854 he was active in Indiana politics, Morton was an anti-slavery Democrat, but living in a region dominated by the Whig Party he had little hope of furthering a political career without changing his party affiliation.
Passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromises ban on slavery in the western territories, as the Democrats divided over the issue, Morton took a stand with the Free Soil supporters and opposed the Act. Senator Jesse D. Bright, the states Democrats expel its members, including Morton. That same year Morton joined with other factions to form the Peoples party. He served as a delegate to the 1856 Republican National Convention in Philadelphia, thirty-two-year-old Morton became the Peoples/Republican candidate for governor of Indiana in 1856
Dearborn County, Indiana
Dearborn County is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. In 2010, the population was 50,047, the county seat and largest city is Lawrenceburg. Dearborn County is part of the Cincinnati-Middletown, OH-KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area, Dearborn County was formed in 1803. It was named for Dr. Henry Dearborn, Dearborn was U. S. Secretary of War at the time the county was named. Early growth was centered on Lawrenceburg which was an important railroad junction connecting two of the major rail lines. Dearborn County originally included what is now Ohio County when it was organized in 1803, Lawrenceburg was designated as the county seat. However, from the start, a contention existed between the towns of Lawrenceburg and Rising Sun over that designation. According to the 2010 census, the county has an area of 307.42 square miles. Part of the county line is formed by the Ohio River. Dearborn County contains the Perfect North Slopes ski resort, average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.94 inches in September to 5.53 inches in May.
At the 2010 United States Census, there were 50,047 people,18,743 households and 13,773 families residing in the county, the population density was 164.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 20,171 housing units at a density of 66.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97. 5% white,0. 6% black or African American,0. 4% Asian,0. 2% American Indian,0. 1% Pacific islander,0. 3% from other races, and 1. 0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1. 0% of the population, in terms of ancestry,46. 5% were German,19. 2% were Irish,11. 4% were English, and 7. 8% were American. The average household size was 2.64 and the family size was 3.07. The median age was 40.0 years, the median household income was $47,697 and the median family income was $66,561. Males had an income of $45,270 and females $33,353. The per capita income was $25,023, about 4. 5% of families and 7. 2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8. 5% of those under age 18 and 6. 3% of those age 65 or over
Indiana in the American Civil War
Indiana, a state in the Midwest, played an important role in supporting the Union during the American Civil War. Despite anti-war activity within the state, and southern Indianas ancestral ties to the South, Indiana contributed approximately 210,000 Union soldiers and marines. Indianas soldiers served in 308 military engagements during the war, the majority of them in the western theater and its state government provided funds to purchase equipment and supplies for troops in the field. The state experienced two minor raids by Confederate forces, and one raid in 1863, which caused a brief panic in southern portions of the state and its capital city. Indiana experienced significant political strife during the war, especially after Governor Oliver P. Morton suppressed the Democratic-controlled state legislature, major debates, which led to violence, related to the issues of slavery and emancipation, military service for African Americans, and the draft. Increased wartime manufacturing and industrial growth in Hoosier cities and towns ushered in a new era of economic prosperity, by the end of the war, Indiana had become less rural state than it previously had been.
Indianas votes were split between the parties for several decades after the war, making it one of a few key swing states that often decided national elections. Between 1868 and 1916, five Indiana politicians were vice-presidential nominees on the major party tickets, in 1888 Benjamin Harrison, one of the states former Civil War generals, was elected president of the United States. Indiana was the first of the western states to mobilize for the Civil War. When news reached Indiana of the attack on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, on April 12,1861, many Indiana residents were surprised, but their response was immediate. On April 15, Indianas governor, Oliver P. Morton, Indianas geographical location in the Midwest, its large population, and its agricultural production made the states wartime support critical to the Unions success. On April 15,1861, President Lincoln called for a total of 75,000 volunteers to join the Union army, on the same day, Governor Morton telegraphed the president offering 10,000 Indiana volunteers.
The states initial quota was set at six regiments for three months of service, orders were issued on April 16 to form the states first regiments and to gather at Indianapolis. By April 27, Indianas first six regiments were organized as the First Brigade, Indiana Volunteers. Indiana ranked second among the states in terms of the percentage of its men of age who served in the Union army. Indiana contributed 208,367 men, roughly 15 percent of the total population to serve in the Union army. Most of Indianas soldiers were volunteers,11,718 were re-enlistments, Military conscription, which began in October 1862, was a divisive issue within the state. A total of 3,003 Hoosier men were drafted in October 1862, Indianas volunteers and draftees provided the Union army with 129 infantry regiments,13 cavalry regiments,3 cavalry companies,1 regiment of heavy artillery, and 26 light artillery batteries
Lawrenceburg is a city in Dearborn County, United States. The population was 5,042 at the 2010 census, the city is the county seat and largest city of Dearborn County. Lawrenceburg is in southeast Indiana, on the Ohio River west of Cincinnati, founded in 1802, Lawrenceburg was named for the maiden name of founder Samuel C. In the 19th century Lawrenceburg became an important trading center for riverboats on the Ohio River, Lawrenceburg is located at 39°5′46″N 84°51′28″W. According to the 2010 census, Lawrenceburg has an area of 5.21 square miles. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,042 people,2,057 households, the population density was 1,020.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,313 housing units at a density of 468.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93. 5% White,3. 0% African American,0. 3% Native American,0. 8% Asian,0. 3% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 2% of the population. 39. 1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.96.
The median age in the city was 35.5 years. 24. 1% of residents were under the age of 18,10. 6% were between the ages of 18 and 24,26. 6% were from 25 to 44,24. 1% were from 45 to 64, and 14. 7% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49. 0% male and 51. 0% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 4,685 people,1,914 households, and 1,140 families residing in the city. The population density was 956.1 people per square mile, there were 2,162 housing units at an average density of 441.2 per square mile. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 85% of the population,34. 4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was out with 24. 2% under the age of 18,11. 5% from 18 to 24,28. 3% from 25 to 44,20. 1% from 45 to 64. The median age was 35 years, for every 100 females there were 88.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.4 males, the median income for a household in the city was $29,306, and the median income for a family was $37,978
Indiana Guard Reserve
The Indiana Guard Reserve, formerly the Liberty Guard and the Indiana Legion, is the state defense force of the state of Indiana. The Indiana Guard Reserve serves under the authority of the governor of the State of Indiana through his executive agent for military matters. The Guard Reserve is a military organization designed to supplement the Indiana National Guard. The Indiana Guard Reserve provides MEMS qualified soldiers who can augment Indiana Homeland Security missions, the Indiana Guard Reserve is organized pursuant to Indiana Code IC 10-16-8. Commanders Personal Staff – Consists of the sergeant major of the Indiana Guard Reserve division. G-2 Intelligence – Consists of the assistant chief of staff G-2/director of intelligence, g-3 Operations and Training – Consists of the assistant chief of staff G-3/director of operations, plans officer, training officer, and the operations sergeant major. G-4 Logistics – Consists of the assistant chief of staff G-4/director of logistics, deputy director logistics, procurement officer, general supply technician, and the logistics sergeant major.
G-5 Civil Affairs – Consists of the assistant chief of staff G-5/director of civil affairs, director of recruiting/retention, recruiting sergeant major, Headquarters – Consists of the commandant and the sergeant major. Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment – Serves as headquarters for the Indiana Guard Reserve general staff and support personnel and Rescue Detachment, Consists of the commander, first sergeant, and the supply sergeant. Office Management – Consists of the IGR administrative assistant, 1st Brigade – Headquartered in Fort Wayne and encompasses the northeast quarter of the state. The 1st Brigade consists of the subordinate units, 1st Battalion – Headquartered in Kokomo. 2nd Battalion – Headquartered in Marion, Indiana, 3rd Battalion – Headquartered in South Bend, Indiana. 2nd Brigade – Headquartered in Lafayette and encompasses the northwest quarter of the state, 3rd Brigade – Headquartered in Bedford and encompasses the southwest quarter of the state. The 3rd Brigade consists of the subordinate units, 1st Battalion – Headquartered in Bloomington.
2nd Battalion – Headquartered in Evansville, Indiana, 3rd Battalion – Headquartered in Jasper, Indiana. 4th Battalion – Headquartered in Terre Haute, Indiana, 4th Brigade – Headquartered in Shelbyville and encompasses the southeast quarter of the state. The 4th Brigade consists of the subordinate units, 1st Battalion – Headquartered in Anderson. 2nd Battalion – Headquartered in Columbus, Indiana, 3rd Battalion – Headquartered in New Albany, Indiana
A regiment is a military unit. Their role and size varies markedly, depending on the country, in Medieval Europe, the term regiment denoted any large body of front-line soldiers, recruited or conscripted in one geographical area, by a leader who was often the feudal lord of the soldiers. By the 17th century, a regiment was usually about a thousand personnel. In many armies, the first role has been assumed by independent battalions, task forces and other, similarly-sized operational units. By the beginning of the 18th century, regiments in most European continental armies had evolved into permanent units with distinctive titles and uniforms, when at full strength, an infantry regiment normally comprised two field battalions of about 800 men each or 8–10 companies. In some armies, an independent regiment with fewer companies was labelled a demi-regiment, a cavalry regiment numbered 600 to 900 troopers, making up a single entity. With the widespread adoption of conscription in European armies during the nineteenth century, the regimental system underwent modification.
Prior to World War I, a regiment in the French, Russian. As far as possible, the battalions would be garrisoned in the same military district, so that the regiment could be mobilized. A cavalry regiment by contrast made up an entity of up to 1,000 troopers. Usually, the regiment is responsible for recruiting and administering all of a military career. Depending upon the country, regiments can be either combat units or administrative units or both and this is often contrasted to the continental system adopted by many armies. Generally, divisions are garrisoned together and share the same installations, thus, in divisional administration and officers are transferred in and out of divisions as required. Some regiments recruited from specific areas, and usually incorporated the place name into the regimental name. In other cases, regiments would recruit from an age group within a nation. In other cases, new regiments were raised for new functions within an army, e. g. the Fusiliers, the Parachute Regiment, a key aspect of the regimental system is that the regiment or battalion is the fundamental tactical building block.
This flows historically from the period, when battalions were widely dispersed and virtually autonomous. For example, a regiment might include different types of battalions of different origins, within the regimental system and usually officers, are always posted to a tactical unit of their own regiment whenever posted to field duty
Harrison is a city in Hamilton County, United States. The city is located in the Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky metropolitan area, the population was 10,292 as of the 2013 census. Harrison was laid out in 1810, named in honor of William Henry Harrison and it was incorporated in 1850, and became a city in 1981. Harrison Township was established in 1850, formerly part of Crosby Township, among the historic sites in the citys vicinity is the Eighteen Mile House, which was built during the earliest years of the nineteenth century. Harrison was the home of Ohios fifth governor Othneil Looker and it was one of the few stops in Ohio on the Whitewater Canal, built between 1836 and 1847, which spanned a distance of 76 miles. On July 13,1863, Morgans Raiders, a Confederate cavalry force, the column passed through taking fresh horses and burning the bridge over the Whitewater River near the southwest part of the town. The first train came to Harrison Township in 1864, in 1882 Harrison Depot was built at West Broadway and Railroad Avenue.
It burned to the ground, Harrison Village Park is the final resting place for a small number of veterans of the Revolutionary War. In the center of the park is a bandstand, prior to it being a bandstand it was a fountain. In the early 1930s the fountain was drained and filled in and it seems many children came down with cases of impetigo after spending a hot summer swimming in the fountain full of untreated water. In 1940 the dog track in West Harrison closed due to pressure from the racing circuit. Monkeys in silk jackets had been used as jockeys for the dogs, the track had originally opened in 1932, when parimutuel betting was illegal in Indiana. However, during the Depression, heads were turned as the track attracted revenue to the area and was one of the highest paying jobs at $12 a week. Parts of the city were devastated on June 2,1990, by an F4 tornado, the American Watchmakers-Clockmakers Institute is headquartered in Harrison. Harrison Mayor William Neyer was elected November 3,2015 with 58.
05% of the vote, upon losing the election Mayor Joel McGuire resigned and choose not to finish his term or help with the new transaction. With the resignation of Mayor McGuire, vice mayor William Neyer, per Harrison City Charter became the Mayor, mr. Neyer will be sworn in to his newly elected term next January. Harrison city council is made up of seven members Ryan Grubbs, Ray Acra, Mark Louis, Hank Menninger, Ethan Dole, Randy Shank and its police department is an accredited department with 20 sworn officers and three civilian personnel. It is headed by Col. Charles Lindsey, Chief of Police, the Fire Department is headed by Chief Rob Hursong
John Hunt Morgan
John Hunt Morgan was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. In April 1862, he raised the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry Regiment, fought at Shiloh, and launched a raid in Kentucky. He attacked the supply-lines of General William S. Rosecrans, in July 1863, he set out on a 1000-mile raid into Indiana and Ohio, taking hundreds of prisoners. But after most of his men had been intercepted by Union gunboats, Morgan surrendered at Salineville, the legendary Morgans Raid, which had been carried out against orders, gained no tactical advantage for the Confederacy, while the loss of his regiment proved a serious setback. Morgan escaped from his Union prison but his credibility was low and he was killed at Greeneville, Tennessee in September 1864. Morgan was the brother-in-law of Confederate general A. P. Hill, John Hunt Morgan was born in Huntsville, the eldest of ten children of Calvin and Henrietta Morgan. He was the brother-in-law of A. P. Hill and he was said to be a direct descendant of Revolutionary War general and hero Daniel Morgan.
Whose own great grand-uncle was perhaps historys most successful privateer, Henry Morgan, Morgans home was built in Lexington, Kentucky was built in 1814. Currently a historic landmark, and guided tours are available upon request, Morgans family is known for John Wesley Hunt who became a leading landowner and businessman in Kentucky and one of the wealthiest men in the western part of the country. His business empire included interest in banking, horse breeding, among his business associates were Henry Clay and John Jacob Astor. Which contributed for much of the familys longterm wealth, Morgans paternal grandparents were Luther and Anna Morgan. Luther Morgan had settled in Huntsville, but a downturn in the economy forced him to mortgage his holdings. His father, Calvin Morgan, lost his Huntsville home in 1831 when he was unable to pay the property following the failure of his pharmacy. The family moved to Lexington, where he would one of his father-in-laws sprawling farms. Morgan grew up on the farm outside of Lexington and attended Transylvania College for two years, but was suspended in 1844 for dueling with a fraternity brother, in 1846, Morgan joined the Fraternal Order of Freemasons, at Daviess Lodge #22, Kentucky.
Morgan desired a career, but the small size of the US military severely limited opportunities for officers commissions. In 1846 Morgan enlisted with his brother Calvin and uncle Alexander in the U. S. Army as a private during the Mexican-American War. He was elected lieutenant and was promoted to first lieutenant before arriving in Mexico
Fayette County, Indiana
Fayette County is one of 92 counties in U. S. state of Indiana located in the east central portion of the state. As of 2010, the population was 24,277, the county seat and only incorporated town is Connersville which holds a majority of the countys population. The county is an economically depressed area with high unemployment. The county lacks an airport and bus service. Conclusion of the Treaty essentially ended Indian occupation of the county, in the territory of Indiana and Franklin counties were carved from Dearborn and Clark counties in 1811. At that time much of southeastern Indiana was divided between the two latter counties, Fayette County was created by act of the Indiana General Assembly in Dec.1818 from portions of Wayne and Franklin counties and unincorporated territory in the northern portion of the county. It was named for the Marquis de la Fayette, a French hero of the Revolutionary War, Connersville, a small village of less than a hundred inhabitants, was designated the county seat.
The county was divided into 5 townships in Feb.1819, in 1821, the organization of Waterloo Township subsumed the portion of Brownsville Township remaining in Fayette County, along with a portion of Harrison Township west of the Whitewater River. In 1826, a part in the southeastern portion of Jackson township not included in the limits of the county in 1818. In 1841, Connersville became the first, and remains the only, after early settlement, during industrial growth, the countys population concentrated in the town of Connersville. At the time of its organization in 1819, the county had approximately 3000 residents. According to the 2010 census, the county has an area of 215.16 square miles. The county is located in the portion of the Whitewater River Valley running south. The only major waterway in the county is the West Fork of the Whitewater River running north to south through the center of the county, There is only a single tiny lake in the county, Manloves lake in Posey Township. The county is flat with low, rolling hills.
The county is part of the Eastern Broadleaf Forest biome dominated by trees including over 175 native species of oak. Most of the use is farms, vacant woodland and pasture. The most common crops are corn and soybeans, the nearest large cities are Cincinnati 58 miles to the southeast, Indianapolis 66 miles to the west, Louisville 127 miles to the south, and Columbus, Ohio 135 miles to the northeast
Infantry is the general branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot. As the troops who engage with the enemy in close-ranged combat, infantry units bear the largest brunt of warfare, Infantry can enter and maneuver in terrain that is inaccessible to military vehicles and employ crew-served infantry weapons that provide greater and more sustained firepower. In English, the 16th-century term Infantry describes soldiers who walk to the battlefield, and there engage, the term arose in Sixteenth-Century Spain, which boasted one of the first professional standing armies seen in Europe since the days of Rome. It was common to appoint royal princes to military commands, and the men under them became known as Infanteria. in the Canadian Army, the role of the infantry is to close with, and destroy the enemy. In the U. S. Army, the closes with the enemy, by means of fire and maneuver, in order to destroy or capture him, or to repel his assault by fire, close combat. In the U. S. Marine Corps, the role of the infantry is to locate, close with, and destroy the enemy fire and maneuver.
Beginning with the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century, artillery has become a dominant force on the battlefield. Since World War I, combat aircraft and armoured vehicles have become dominant. In 20th and 21st century warfare, infantry functions most effectively as part of a combined arms team including artillery, Infantry relies on organized formations to be employed in battle. These have evolved over time, but remain a key element to effective infantry development and deployment, until the end of the 19th century, infantry units were for the most part employed in close formations up until contact with the enemy. This allowed commanders to control of the unit, especially while maneuvering. The development of guns and other weapons with increased firepower forced infantry units to disperse in order to make them less vulnerable to such weapons. This decentralization of command was made possible by improved communications equipment, among the various subtypes of infantry is Medium infantry.
This refers to infantry which are heavily armed and armored than heavy infantry. In the early period, medium infantry were largely eliminated due to discontinued use of body armour up until the 20th century. In the United States Army, Stryker Infantry is considered Medium Infantry, since they are heavier than light infantry, Infantry doctrine is the concise expression of how infantry forces contribute to campaigns, major operations and engagements. It is a guide to action, not a set of hard, doctrine provides a very common frame of reference across the military forces, allowing the infantry to function cooperatively in what are now called combined arms operations. Doctrine helps standardise operations, facilitating readiness by establishing common ways of accomplishing infantry tasks, doctrine links theory, history and practice
Indiana /ɪndiˈænə/ is a U. S. state located in the midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 38th largest by area and the 16th most populous of the 50 United States and its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11,1816, before becoming a territory, varying cultures of indigenous peoples and historic Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Indiana has an economy with a gross state product of $298 billion in 2012. Indiana has several areas with populations greater than 100,000. The states name means Land of the Indians, or simply Indian Land and it stems from Indianas territorial history. On May 7,1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a resident of Indiana is officially known as a Hoosier.
The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted large game such as mastodons. They created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking, the Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, such new tools included different types of spear points and knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as axes, woodworking tools. During the latter part of the period, they built mounds and middens. The Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC, the Woodland period took place in Indiana, where various new cultural attributes appeared. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, an early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods, nearing the end of the stage, the people developed highly productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD, the Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with mounds and plazas defining ceremonial