Year 1052 was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. Summer – Godwin, earl of Wessex, sails with a large fleet up the Thames to London forcing King Edward the Confessor to reinstate him into his previous position of power. Battle of Jabal Haydaran: The Zirid Dynasty is defeated by the invading Bedouin tribes of the Banu Hilal. Byōdō-in, a Japanese Buddhist temple, changes its name by order of Fujiwara no Yorimichi. May 23 – Philip I, king of France Agnes of Aquitaine, countess of Savoy Conrad II, duke of Bavaria Dirk V, count of Friesland Gleb Svyatoslavich, Kievan prince Jón Ögmundsson, Icelandic bishop and saint Robert of Bellême, Norman nobleman Roman Svyatoslavich, Kievan prince March 6 – Emma of Normandy, queen of England and Norway May 6 – Boniface III, Italian prince and margrave June 19 – Fan Zhongyan, chancellor of the Song Dynasty October 4 – Vladimir Yaroslavich, Grand Prince of Kiev December 14 – Aaron Scotus, Irish abbot and musician Amadeus I, count of Savoy Guaimar IV, Italian nobleman Halinard, French archbishop Hugh II, count of Ponthieu Pandulf III, Lombard prince Pandulf of Capaccio, Lombard nobleman Rodulf, Norman missionary bishop and abbot Sweyn Godwinson, English nobleman Xu Daoning, Chinese painter Xuedou Chongxian, Chinese Buddhist monk

Lipstick feminism

Lipstick feminism is a variety of third-wave feminism that seeks to embrace traditional concepts of femininity, including the sexual power of women, alongside feminist ideas. Unlike early feminist campaigns that focused on the basic fundamental rights of women, starting with the Women's Suffrage Movement, lipstick feminism seeks to ascertain that women could still be feminist without ignoring or negating their femininity in terms of sexuality. During the second wave of feminism, feminists had focused on legal and social equality of women and refused to'embrace' their sexuality. Despite the stereotypes surrounding feminists, the dominate social narratives surrounding feminism at the time, women like Zora Neale Hurston and Emma Goldman have argued that by using philosophical ideas of aesthetics and ideas of femininity, it is possible to empower and analyze the ways that gender works in daily life. Lipstick feminism embraces the concepts of womanhood and female sexuality emitted from a woman's body.

Scholars of lipstick feminism believe that women have a right to act in accordance with passion and sexuality. Lipstick feminism seeks to reclaim certain derogatory words and turn them into powerful tools for their cause such as the word'slut' as seen in the SlutWalk movement, it developed in part as a response to the ideological backlash against radical varieties of second-wave feminism, with the negative stereotypes it generated of the “ugly feminist” or the “anti-sex feminist”. Linguistically, lipstick feminism proposed to semantically reclaim, for feminist usage, double-standard insult words, such as “slut”, in order to eliminate the social stigma applied to a woman whose sexual behaviour was "patriarchically" interpreted to denote “immoral woman” and libertine. Philosophically, lipstick feminism proposes that a woman can be empowered — psychologically politically – by the wearing of cosmetic make up, sensually-appealing clothes, the embrace of sexual allure for her own self-image as a confidently sexual being.

The rhetoric of choice and empowerment is used to validate such overt sexual practices, because they no longer represent coerced acquiescence to societally established gender roles, such as “the good girl”, “the decent woman”, “the abnegated mother”, “the virtuous sister”, et aliæ. Other feminists object that the so-called empowerment of lipstick feminism is a philosophic contradiction wherein a woman chooses to sexually objectify herself, so ceases to be her own woman, in control neither of her self nor of her person. Feminist scholars have discussed whether or not the decision to perform traditional gendered actions, such as shaving your legs and wearing short skirts can be considered an act of empowerment. Feminist scholars like Fionnghuala Sweeney and Kathy Davis argue that there is a freedom that can come from understanding and embracing gender norms of sexuality as a means of freeing yourself from the stereotypes of women in society. Lipstick feminism counter-proposes that the practice of sexual allure is a form of social power in the interpersonal relations between a man and a woman, which may occur in the realms of cultural and gender equality.

Scholars have pointed out the contradictions between feminist viewpoints and traditional gender roles. Scholar Kathy Davis wrote, “feminist scholars need to ground their normative, theoretical critique of passion in a grounded analysis of what the experience of passion feels like and what it means to those who have it, but it suggests contradictions between feminist theory and embodied experience are a useful starting point for reflecting critically on some of the silences within feminist theory itself.” Stiletto feminism, a more ideologically radical variety of lipstick feminism, sees the postmodern use of fetish fashion as empowering. In the U. S. television series, The West Wing, the 57th episode, “Night Five”, features a scene wherein the characters debate the merits of lipstick feminism. The female protagonist decides it is empowering, while determining that sex-negativism distracts from important issues like pay equity and "honest-to-God sexual harassment". F. R. Levy, Female Chauvinist Pigs.

Sylvia Walby, The Future of Feminism. "Lipstick Feminists", by Elizabeth Austin. Washington Monthly, Nov, 1998. "Lipstick helped feminism" Banana Powder UK

Charles Chadwick (novelist)

Charles Chadwick CBE is an English novelist. His father is Trevor Chadwick. Chadwick worked as a civil servant from the early 1970s, he held a position as a British Council officer in Nigeria in 1972, worked in Kenya, Brazil and Poland, where he was the Council's Director. He retired from the civil service in 1992, he wrote several novels, all of which were rejected by publishers. However, in 2004, he was offered a major Faber and Faber publishing deal for his novel It's All Right Now, written over a period of thirty years. In its initial edition, the book was 679 pages, covers the life of an ordinary middle-aged English man from his thirties into his sixties; the book was published in May 2005 by Faber & Faber in the UK and HarperCollins in the U. S, he was appointed CBE in 1992 for services to the British Council whilst he was a British Council officer. Retired Civil Servant Strikes it Rich; the Guardian, February 18, 2004. Life Through an Accountant's Averted Eyes. Los Angeles Times, July 17, 2005.

Newsnight Review, BBC, April 4, 2005. The Kid Is Alright. Newsweek, June 13, 2005. Ansichten eines Jedermanns. Die Zeit, October 29, 2007; the Untalented Mr. Ripple; the New York Times, June 26, 2005. The Long Haul; the Washington Post, July 10, 2005. A World Unto Himself. Harper's Magazine, July 2005. Charles Chadwick interview. BookBrowse