1054 Forsytia

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1054 Forsytia
Discovery [1]
Discovered by K. Reinmuth
Discovery site Heidelberg Obs.
Discovery date 20 November 1925
MPC designation (1054) Forsytia
Pronunciation /fɔːrˈsɪtiə/ or /fɔːrˈstiə/
Named after
Forsythia (flowering plant)[2]
1925 WD · 1962 DD
A907 EA
main-belt · (outer)[3]
background [4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 110.32 yr (40,295 days)
Aphelion 3.3198 AU
Perihelion 2.5284 AU
2.9241 AU
Eccentricity 0.1353
5.00 yr (1,826 days)
0° 11m 49.56s / day
Inclination 10.849°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 42.867±11.18 km[5]
45.42 km (derived)[3]
45.47±4.3 km[6]
46.40±13.38 km[7]
46.69±15.08 km[8]
47.780±3.344 km[9]
53.04±0.71 km[10]
7.650±0.001 h[11]
0.0592 (derived)[3]
C (assumed)[3]
10.12[5] · 10.12±0.51[12] · 10.30[6][10] · 10.40[1][3][8] · 10.46[7] · 10.87[9]

1054 Forsytia (/fɔːrˈsɪtiə/ or /fɔːrˈstiə/), provisional designation 1925 WD, is a dark background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 46 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 20 November 1925, by astronomer Karl Reinmuth at the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory in southwest Germany.[13] It is named after the flowering plant forsythia, and marks the beginning of a sequence of 28 thematically named asteroids by the discoverer.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Forsytia is a non-family asteroid from the main belt's background population.[4] It orbits the Sun in the outer asteroid belt at a distance of 2.5–3.3 AU once every 5.00 years (1,826 days; semi-major axis of 2.92 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.14 and an inclination of 11° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

The asteroid was first observed as A907 EA at Heidelberg in March 1907. The body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation in November 1925.[13]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Forsytia is an assumed carbonaceous C-type asteroid.[3]

Rotation period[edit]

In March 2002, a rotational lightcurve of Forsytia was obtained from photometric observations by American amateur astronomer John Gross at his Sonoran Skies Observatory (G94) in Arizona. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period of 7.650 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.23 magnitude (U=3).[11]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Forsytia measures between 42.867 and 53.04 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.035 and 0.0750.[5][6][7][8][9][10]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0592 and a diameter of 45.42 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.4.[3]


This minor planet was named after forsythia, a genus of flowering shrubs in the Oleaceae family. The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 100).[2]

Reinmuth's flowers[edit]

Due to his many discoveries, Karl Reinmuth submitted a large list of 66 newly named asteroids in the early 1930s. The list covered his discoveries with numbers between (1009) and (1200). This list also contained a sequence of 28 asteroids, starting with this asteroid, that were all named after plants, in particular flowering plants (also see list of minor planets named after animals and plants).[2]


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1054 Forsytia (1925 WD)" (2017-07-02 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  2. ^ a b c d Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1054) Forsytia. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 90. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Archived from the original on 24 September 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (1054) Forsytia". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  5. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Nugent, C.; Mainzer, A. K.; Wright, E. L.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; et al. (October 2017). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Three: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 154 (4): 10. arXiv:1708.09504Freely accessible. Bibcode:2017AJ....154..168M. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa89ec. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  6. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Archived from the original on 2016-06-03. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  7. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  8. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  9. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  10. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  11. ^ a b Gross, John (September 2003). "Sonoran Skies Observatory lightcurve results for asteroids 1054, 1390, 1813 1838, 2988, 3167, 4448, and 5262". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 30 (3): 44–46. Bibcode:2003MPBu...30...44G. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  12. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  13. ^ a b "1054 Forsytia (1925 WD)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 

External links[edit]