Israeli Air Force Museum
The Israeli Air Force Museum is located at Hatzerim Airbase in the Negev desert. The museum was established in 1977 and has open to the public since 1991. The museum displays a variety of Israeli Air Force and foreign aircraft, aerospatiale Gazelle - Former Syrian aircraft, captured 1982. 69355 MiG-15 - former Polish aircraft, bearing Egyptian livery, miG-17 MiG-21 - #007, liveried as Operation Diamond aircraft MiG-21 - #339, two seat variant, acquired 2011 from IAI via Romania. MiG-23 - Former Syrian aircraft, defected 1989, bristol Beaufighter - remains of Israeli aircraft shot down 1948, retrieved 1994
101 Squadron (Israel)
101 Squadron of the Israeli Air Force, known as the First Fighter Squadron, is Israels first fighter squadron, formed on May 20,1948, six days after Israel declared its independence. Initially flying the Avia S-199, it has operated the Supermarine Spitfire, North American Mustang, Dassault Mystere IV, Dassault Mirage IIICJ, IAI Nesher. It currently operates out of Hatzor Airbase, flying the F-16C Fighting Falcon, four of these flew the squadrons first mission on May 29, strafing the Egyptian ground forces near Ad Halom, in the prelude to Operation Pleshet. During these initial operations, the squadron operated with a few planes versus almost complete Arab theater Air supremacy and it was all destiny - One of the last surviving founders of IAF recalls mission that stopped Egypt from advancing on Tel Aviv
General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force. Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft, over 4,500 aircraft have been built since production was approved in 1976. Although no longer being purchased by the U. S. Air Force, in 1993, General Dynamics sold its aircraft manufacturing business to the Lockheed Corporation, which in turn became part of Lockheed Martin after a 1995 merger with Martin Marietta. The F-16 has an internal M61 Vulcan cannon and 11 locations for mounting weapons, the F-16 has been procured to serve in the air forces of 25 other nations. As of 2015, it is the second most common operational military aircraft in the world. Experiences in the Vietnam War revealed the need for air superiority fighters, boyds work called for a small, lightweight aircraft that could maneuver with the minimum possible energy loss, and which incorporated an increased thrust-to-weight ratio.
Air Force F-X proponents remained hostile to the concept because they perceived it as a threat to the F-15 program, the Air Forces leadership understood that its budget would not allow it to purchase enough F-15 aircraft to satisfy all of its missions. The Advanced Day Fighter concept, renamed F-XX, gained political support under the reform-minded Deputy Secretary of Defense David Packard. As a result, in May 1971, the Air Force Prototype Study Group was established, with Boyd a key member and this was the region where USAF studies predicted most future air combat would occur. The anticipated average flyaway cost of a version was $3 million. This production plan, was only notional as the USAF had no plans to procure the winner. Five companies responded and in 1972, the Air Staff selected General Dynamics Model 401 and Northrops P-600 for the prototype development. GD and Northrop were awarded contracts worth $37.9 million and $39.8 million to produce the YF-16 and YF-17, with first flights of both prototypes planned for early 1974.
To overcome resistance in the Air Force hierarchy, the Fighter Mafia, the high/low mix would allow the USAF to be able to afford sufficient fighters for its overall fighter force structure requirements. The mix gained broad acceptance by the time of the flyoff, defining the relationship of the LWF. The YF-16 was developed by a team of General Dynamics engineers led by Robert H. Widmer. The first YF-16 was rolled out on 13 December 1973, and its 90-minute maiden flight was made at the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards AFB, California and its actual first flight occurred accidentally during a high-speed taxi test on 20 January 1974. The test pilot, Phil Oestricher, decided to lift off to avoid a potential crash, the slight damage was quickly repaired and the official first flight occurred on time
North American P-51 Mustang
The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang is an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II, the Korean War and other conflicts. The Mustang was designed in 1940 by North American Aviation in response to a requirement of the British Purchasing Commission, the Purchasing Commission approached North American Aviation to build Curtiss P-40 fighters under license for the Royal Air Force. Rather than build an old design from another company, North American Aviation proposed the design, the prototype NA-73X airframe was rolled out on 9 September 1940,102 days after the contract was signed, and first flew on 26 October. The Mustang was originally designed to use the Allison V-1710 engine and it was first flown operationally by the RAF as a tactical-reconnaissance aircraft and fighter-bomber. The addition of the Rolls-Royce Merlin to the P-51B/C model transformed the Mustangs performance at altitudes above 15,000 ft, the P-51 was used by Allied air forces in the North African, Mediterranean and Pacific theaters.
During World War II, Mustang pilots claimed to have destroyed 4,950 enemy aircraft, despite the advent of jet fighters, the Mustang remained in service with some air forces until the early 1980s. After the Korean War, Mustangs became popular civilian warbird and air racing aircraft, in April 1940 the British government established a purchasing commission in the United States, headed by Sir Henry Self. Self was given responsibility for Royal Air Force production and research and development, and served with Sir Wilfrid Freeman. Self sat on the British Air Council Sub-committee on Supply and one of his tasks was to organize the manufacturing and supply of American fighter aircraft for the RAF. At the time, the choice was limited, as no U. S. aircraft in production or flying met European standards. The Curtiss-Wright plant was running at capacity, so P-40s were in short supply, North American Aviation was already supplying its Harvard trainer to the RAF, but was otherwise underutilized. NAA President Dutch Kindelberger approached Self to sell a new medium bomber, Self asked if NAA could manufacture the Tomahawk under license from Curtiss.
Kindelberger said NAA could have an aircraft with the same engine in the air sooner than establishing a production line for the P-40. In March 1940,320 aircraft were ordered by Sir Wilfred Freeman who had become the head of the Ministry of Aircraft Production. The NA-73X, which was designed by a led by lead engineer Edgar Schmued, followed the best conventional practice of the era. One was a wing designed using laminar flow airfoils which were developed co-operatively by North American Aviation and these airfoils generated very low drag at high speeds. The results of this test showed the superiority of the wing designed with the NAA/NACA 45–100 airfoils, the other feature was a new cooling arrangement that reduced the cooling drag. It was discovered that, after lot of development, the assembly could take advantage of the Meredith Effect
The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft that was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries before and after World War II. The Spitfire was built in many variants, using several wing configurations and it was the only British fighter to be in continuous production throughout the war. The Spitfire continues to be popular among enthusiasts, about 54 remain airworthy, Spitfire units, had a lower attrition rate and a higher victory-to-loss ratio than those flying Hurricanes because of its higher performance. Spitfires in general were tasked with engaging Luftwaffe fighters during the Battle, much loved by its pilots, the Spitfire served in several roles, including interceptor, photo-reconnaissance, fighter-bomber and trainer, and it continued to serve in these roles until the 1950s. The Seafire was an adaptation of the Spitfire which served in the Fleet Air Arm from 1942 through to the mid-1950s. As a consequence of this, the Spitfires performance and capabilities improved over the course of its service life and this made its first flight in February 1934.
Of the seven designs tendered to F7/30, the Gloster Gladiator biplane was accepted for service and this led to the Type 300, with retractable undercarriage and the wingspan reduced by 6 ft. This was submitted to the Air Ministry in July 1934, but was not accepted, on 3 January 1935, they formalised the contract with a new specification, F10/35, written around the aircraft. On 5 March 1936, the prototype took off on its first flight from Eastleigh Aerodrome, at the controls was Captain Joseph Mutt Summers, chief test pilot for Vickers, who is quoted as saying Dont touch anything on landing. This eight-minute flight came four months after the flight of the contemporary Hurricane. K5054 was fitted with a new propeller, and Summers flew the aircraft on 10 March 1936, after the fourth flight, a new engine was fitted, and Summers left the test-flying to his assistants, Jeffrey Quill and George Pickering. They soon discovered that the Spitfire was a good aircraft. The rudder was over-sensitive and the top speed was just 330 mph, Flight Lieutenant Humphrey Edwardes-Jones took over the prototype for the RAF.
He had been orders to fly the aircraft and to make his report to the Air Ministry on landing. Edwardes-Joness report was positive, his only request was that the Spitfire be equipped with a position indicator. A week later, on 3 June 1936, the Air Ministry placed an order for 310 Spitfires, before any formal report had been issued by the A&AEE, the British public first saw the Spitfire at the RAF Hendon air-display on Saturday 27 June 1936. The first and most immediate problem was that the main Supermarine factory at Woolston was already working at full capacity fulfilling orders for Walrus and Stranraer flying boats. In February 1936 the director of Vickers-Armstrongs, Sir Robert MacLean, guaranteed production of five aircraft a week, on 3 June 1936, the Air Ministry placed an order for 310 aircraft, for a price of £1,395,000
Operation Mole Cricket 19
Operation Mole Cricket 19 was a suppression of enemy air defenses campaign launched by the Israeli Air Force against Syrian targets on June 9,1982, at the outset of the 1982 Lebanon War. The operation was the first time in history that a Western-equipped air force destroyed a Soviet-built surface-to-air missile network. It became one of the biggest air battles since World War II, the result was a decisive Israeli victory, leading to the colloquial name the Bekaa Valley Turkey Shoot. The IAF began working on a SAM suppression operation since the end of the Yom Kippur War, rising tensions between Israel and Syria over Lebanon escalated in the early 1980s and culminated in Syria deploying the SAM batteries in the Beqaa Valley. On June 6,1982, Israel invaded Lebanon, and on the day of the war. The battle lasted two hours, and involved innovative tactics and technology. By the end of the day, the IAF had destroyed seventeen of the nineteen SAM batteries deployed in the Beqaa Valley, the battle led the United States to impose a ceasefire on Israel and Syria.
In the Yom Kippur War of 1973, Egypt had 20 mobile SA-6 SAM systems, backed up by 70 SA-2s,65 SA-3s, Syria deployed another 34 SAM batteries. In the first three days, the IAF lost 50 aircraft in about 1,220 sorties, a rate of four percent. The SA-6s, SA-7s, and ZSU-23-4 guns hit 53 of Israels prewar total of 170 A-4 Skyhawks and 33 of its 177 F-4 Phantoms, as a result, the IAF found it difficult to provide air support to the ground troops. When Egypt tried to push beyond the range of its SAM batteries on October 14, ezer Weizman, a former IAF commander, said that the wing of the fighter plane was broken by the SAM. Between 1973 and 1978, the IAF undertook a project to try to find an answer to the SAM threat. The losses suffered by Israel in the 1973 war were so high that it spawned the United States stealth aircraft program. The U. S. estimated that without a solution to the SAM problem, the Israelis had lost 109 aircraft in 18 days. On May 28,1980, IAF guided missiles destroyed two armored cars carrying SA-9 batteries, manned by Libyan troops, near Sidon, the Prime Minister, Menachem Begin, also Minister of Defense, announced that the IAF could destroy the SAM batteries in two hours.
Ivry told the media that the IAF could do nothing of the kind, on April 28,1981 the IAF shot down two Syrian helicopters over Lebanon. Syria responded by deploying its first SAM brigades to the Beqaa Valley, the SAM batteries were not a direct strategic threat to Israel, and there were already several Syrian SAM batteries in east Lebanon, across the border. Begin faced a dilemma, on one hand, the new deployment damaged Israels deterrence credibility and, on the other hand, eventually, he decided on an attack, to be launched on April 30, but the operation was called off due to weather conditions
Ovda Airport is a military and civilian airport in the Uvda region of southern Israel, about 60 km north of the city of Eilat. It is the second international airport. The airport is expected to cease civilian flights once Eilats new international airport in Timna opens, Ovda Airport started out as an airbase for the Israeli Air Force, constructed by the United States as a replacement for Etzion Air Force Base. The Israeli Airports Authority began operations from Ovda Air Force Base in 1982, previously all charter flights from Europe had landed at Etzion, however this was one of three airports in the Sinai that were handed over to Egypt as part of the Camp David Accords. A civilian terminal was built at the airport which handled direct charter flights from Europe, in 1988 a decision was made that international flights bringing tourists to Eilat would land at Ovda, instead of at Eilat. This allowed the operation of large, wide-body aircraft, such as the Boeing 747, since then, most international flights land at Ovda instead of Eilat.
The runway at Ovda allows long range flights to take off for any European destination without the need to refuel. Today, the airport sees regular scheduled services operated by Israir, Arkia Israel Airlines. In 2005, the airport had 746 international aircraft movements and 82,479 international passenger movements, on January 1,2009, the airport was closed to landing traffic during nighttime until further notice by the Ministry of Transport, due to the deteriorating condition of its runway. Ovda Airport is served by a bus operated by Egged. Bus 282 for 25 NIS connects Ovda airport directly to Eilats central bus station, data current as of October 2006
Ramat David Airbase
Ramat David Israeli Air Force Base is one of three principal airbases of the Israeli Air Force, located southeast of Haifa, close to kibbutz Ramat David and Megiddo in the Jezreel Valley. It was originally built as a Royal Air Force station in 1942 under the British Mandate when it was known as RAF Ramat David and it is reported to be the most likely location for a new International airport to complement Ben Gurion Airport. Roald Dahl, in his World War II autobiography Going Solo, at the time it was a hastily prepared grass airstrip rolled out in a cornfield by the residents of the nearby Kibbutz. RAF Ramat David was a Royal Air Force station in the British Mandate of Palestine between 1942 and 1948, located approximately 4 km south of Ramat Yishay,80 km north-northeast of Tel Aviv. On 22 May, the Royal Egyptian Air Force attacked the base, in a series of three attacks, several aircraft were destroyed or damaged, a hangar was destroyed, and four airmen were killed. Five Egyptian fighter planes were shot down, on 26 May 1948 the base was handed over to the newly created Israel Defense Forces.
Ramat David currently houses 3 F-16 C/D squadrons, including 117 First Jet squadron, formed on 7 June 1953, in 2010, the airbase was the second-largest unit in the IDF with over 1,100 soldiers
Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses
Suppression can be accomplished both by physically destroying the systems or by disrupting and deceiving them through electronic warfare. In modern warfare SEAD missions can constitute as much as 30% of all sorties launched in the first week of combat, one quarter of American combat sorties in recent conflicts have been SEAD missions. While crude, these tactics were effective for their time, during the Battle of Britain, the German Luftwaffe attempted to destroy Great Britains Chain Home radar stations in order to degrade the British air defense network. However, German High Command failed to realize the efficiency of not only the stations themselves but the command. After initial optimism regarding the sites destruction, it was eventually decided to halt these attacks altogether except for exceptional circumstances. As the air war in Europe shifted in favor of the Allies and this was borne out in Allied aircraft losses between 1943 and 1944, where losses to enemy fighters was cut in half but losses to flak increased tenfold. A change in tactics saw bomber formations flying higher and more out to avoid the effects of flak.
The P-47 Thunderbolt in particular was chosen for this due to its ability to survive enemy fire. The effect of these missions varied, with losses suffered by fighter-bombers much higher—up to 40% in some cases—on account of their low-altitude attacks. Artillery played a role in suppressing air defenses, with the British Army the first to develop what became known as counterflak or Apple Pie missions. These missions were first employed to limited effect during the Battle of France, in the Pacific Theater, the Japanese had made only limited progress in developing radar for air defense and what systems they did have were primitive and easy to avoid. Nevertheless, as the Americans began the campaign against Japan there was concern over the large number of radar sites located on the home islands. For this purpose B-24 Liberators and B-29 Superfortresses were fitted with radar-homing devices to conduct missions to locate. The information brought back from these missions was used to outfit other B-29s with radar jammers, b-25 Mitchells were outfitted with radar-homing equipment and used to lead hunter-killer teams of other B-25s in locating and destroying Japanese early-warning radar sites.
While there were technological changes between World War II and the Korean War, many of the tactics for dealing with enemy air defenses remained the same. For aircraft performing missions at low altitudes, AAA remained a constant danger, the terrain and weather of the Korean Peninsula contributed to the dangers associated with ground-attack missions. Nevertheless, the advent of jet aircraft brought about many changes, compared to propeller aircraft jets were much faster, could climb more steeply, were more resistant to damage and were quieter in operation. As the war progressed, the Communists developed a highly centralized integrated air defense network, incorporating early-warning radars, ground-controlled interception and AAA
Sde Dov Airport
Sde Dov Airport, known as Dov Hoz Airport is an airport located in Tel Aviv, Israel which mainly handles scheduled domestic flights to Eilat and Uvda, northern Israel, and the Golan Heights. It is the largest airport in Tel Aviv proper, and the second largest in the area, the airport is named after Dov Hoz, one of the pioneers of Jewish aviation. The airport is expected to close by the end of 2018 after an agreement was struck re-purposing the land which houses it for residential apartments, commercial flights will move to Ben Gurion Airport. The airport is a city for Arkia Israel Airlines and Israir Airlines. Works began on a plot of land north of the Yarkon River, Tel Aviv and when completed in October 1938, in 1940, the airports name was changed to Sde Dov, in memory of Dov Hoz, one of the pioneers of Jewish aviation. In the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the served as a base to the Israeli Air Force. It was a base, home to 21 aircraft at the time. The first military flight was made in December,1947, when Pinchas Ben Porat flew an RWD-13 to Beit Eshel to rescue an injured soldier.
Following the 1948 war the Arab orchards to the east of Tel Aviv were opened for development, the airport regained its commercial operations, initially serving domestic flights, mostly to single customers, on Piper Cub aircraft. It expanded operations to scheduled service on aircraft to various parts of Israel. As a result of the availability, an additional, north–south. By 1960, land in Tel Aviv became scarce, and the municipality demanded that the airport be relocated northward and this option, was blocked by the Israel Defense Forces. The government set up a committee in 1968 who suggested that the old east–west runway be closed. They suggested that this is replaced by a new runway in the sea, the runway was closed, and a high density upper-middle income neighborhood was built to the east of the airport, although the new runway was never constructed due to the high cost involved. As the new residential area suffered from noise, residents joined in the demand that the airport be relocated.
Once again, the only feasible alternative proposed at this point was to build a runway in the sea and again and this was a large issue in the area during the whole of the 1980s. This brought the issue of relocation back to light, despite this, however, in 1997, Sde Dov was declared an International Airport for private flights. The issue remained unresolved until late 2006 when it was announced that the airport would be vacated to make way for residential redevelopment, initially the plan was to relocate the entire airport onto an artificial island to be built offshore
Israeli Air Defense Command
The Israeli Air Defense Command is the Israel Defense Forces unit responsible for the surface front of Israels air defense, complementing the air defense provided by Israeli Air Force squadrons. Initially a part of the IDF Artillery Corps, the Air Defense Command has been subordinate to the Israeli Air Force since 1970, during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Air Defense Network was part of the Artillery Corps, primarily relying on machine guns. During the 1960s,40 mm radar-guided anti-aircraft guns were introduced, the latter were absorbed in the Air Forces surface-to-air units. In the 1970s, the entire Air Defense Network was merged with the Air Force, MIM-23 Hawk, a medium-range radar-guided surface-to-air missile and longest serving system, it is the networks most victorious. The current model in use by Israel has been upgraded to improve its capabilities. MIM-104 Patriot, a high to medium air defense medium tactical air defense platform capable of downing aircraft, Israels Patriot missile systems have been technologically upgraded since entering service.
Capable of downing of any kind of advanced tactical ballistic missiles, advanced cruise missiles, large-caliber rockets, UAV, UCAV, iron Dome, a short-range air defense system designed to defend against rockets, artillery shells, and precision-guided munitions. The first battery became operational in May 2010, iron Beam, a laser defense system designed for use against short-range rockets and mortars, as well as UAVs. Although it is part of the Air Force, the command is structured in a way similar to the Artillery Corps. The current commander is Brigadier-General Shahar Sochat, who is subordinate to the commander of the Air Force
Haifa International Airport, known as U Michaeli Airport is a small international airport located in Haifa, Israel. It is located to the east of the city, close to Kishon Port and Israel Shipyards and mainly serves civilian flights, most passenger flights utilizing the airport are domestic operations to Eilat and Tel Aviv. The airport is named after Uri Michaeli, one of the pioneers of Jewish aviation, the airport has one short runway,1,318 metres in length, and there are plans to extend it onto reclaimed land in the Gulf of Haifa. Haifa Airport was established by the British Mandate in 1934, as its first international airport, originally serving the British Army, in 1936 passenger services to Beirut and Cyprus were opened, and in 1938 a regular route to Italy commenced. RAF Haifa was a Royal Air Force station in Mandatory Palestine between 1942 and 1948, Haifa Airport had been established in 1934, as the first international airport in Mandatory Palestine, originally serving the British Army and the Iraqi-British oil company, APS.
In 1940 civil flights were stopped due to the Second World War, the RAF station closed in 1948 and the airport re-opened as Haifa Airport. This was followed ten years by Arkia Israel Airlines flights and it wasnt until 1994, that the airport received international status, and at this time, it was planned that the airport would serve flights to destinations across Europe. Less than a later, the airport was placed for sale. At this time, great interest in the site was shown by the French construction group and these expected services never really took off however, and it wasnt until 1996, and the start of Israir flights, that the airport grew. This growth was increased in 1998 with Aeroel service. Royal Wings increased route offerings once again with flights from Jordan, in 1998, a new terminal was opened at the airport to cater for all of the services needed in a modern international airport. In the past there were three takeoff and landing runways in the airport, of only two still exist, and only one is currently in use.
In 2001, talk over expanding the airport restarted when Finance Minister,2007 saw the first rise in passenger numbers and aircraft movements since 2002 with an increase of 25% in passenger numbers and a 7% increase in aircraft movements over the previous year. In general, between the point of its operation in 1999 and 2007 passenger number have fallen by 50%. Aircraft movements have decreased from 2002 to 2007 by 34%, the Israel Airports Authority intends to extend the runway to 1, 634m by the middle of the 2010s decade. List of Royal Air Force stations Media related to Haifa Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Accident history for HFA at Aviation Safety Network