52nd (Oxfordshire) Regiment of Foot
For other units with the same regimental number, see 52nd Regiment of Foot The 52nd Regiment of Foot was a light infantry regiment of the British Army throughout much of the 18th and 19th centuries. The regiment first saw active service during the American War of Independence, were posted to India during the Anglo-Mysore Wars. During the Napoleonic Wars, the 52nd were part of the Light Division, were present at most of the major battles of the Peninsula campaign, becoming one of the most celebrated regiments, described by Sir William Napier as "a regiment never surpassed in arms since arms were first borne by men", they had the largest British battalion at Waterloo, 1815, where they formed part of the final charge against Napoleon's Imperial Guard. They were involved in various campaigns in India; the regiment was raised as a line regiment in 1755 and numbered as the "54th Foot". In 1781 the regional designation "52nd Regiment of Foot" was given, in 1803 the regiment was designated "Light Infantry".
In 1881 the regiment was merged with the 43rd Regiment of Foot to become the regiment known as the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry. Throughout the period of the 52nd's existence, the British Army comprised both infantry and cavalry line regiments, as well as the Household Divisions; the regiments of the line were numbered and, from 1781, were given territorial designations – "Oxfordshire" in the 52nd's case – which represented the area from which troops were drawn. This was not rigid, most English regiments had a significant proportion of Irish and Scots. Regiments comprised at least one battalion two – as the 52nd did intermittently – and more. Commanded by a lieutenant colonel, an infantry battalion was composed of ten companies, of which eight were "centre" companies, two flank companies: one a grenadier and one a specialist light company. Companies were commanded with lieutenants and ensigns beneath him. Ideally, a battalion comprised 1000 men. If sent on active service, the 2nd battalion would be weaker.
In periods of long service, battalions were operating under strength. Under-strength battalions might be dissolved, or temporarily drafted into other regiments, as happened to the 52nd on several occasions; the 52nd was a one-battalion regiment, but increased recruiting resulted in the creation of a second battalion in 1798. While the 1st Battalion saw some action in Spain and Portugal in 1800–1801, the 2nd remained stationed in England. In 1803 the regiment's fittest officers and men were concentrated in the 1st battalion, for training as light infantry, the 2nd battalion was transferred to the 96th Foot. A new second battalion was raised in 1804. Both battalions saw extensive action during the Napoleonic Wars, they were brigaded together for a time during the Peninsula Campaign, but heavy losses at Badajoz in 1812 resulted in the reduction of the 2nd battalion to a cadre; the 2nd was reformed with new recruits and saw service in Holland in 1813–14. Following the conclusion of the war in 1814, both battalions were billeted in England, where the 2nd's effectives were transferred to the 1st battalion, in preparation for further service.
The 2/52nd remained in England during the Waterloo Campaign, were disbanded in 1815. Subsequently, the 52nd remained a one-battalion regiment until their merger with the 43rd. Raised as a regular line regiment, the 52nd fought in the line during the American wars and the early Indian campaigns, did not become a light regiment until 1803. Prior to this, the British Army had relied on irregulars and mercenaries to provide most of its light infantry or, when conditions demanded it, temporarily seconded regular line companies. While regular regiments were required to include one company of light infantry from 1758, the training of such light troops was inconsistent, inadequate; when beginning a restructure of the British Army in the late 18th century, the Duke of York recognised a need for dedicated light troops coming into a war against Napoleon and his experienced light infantry, the chasseurs. During the early war against the French, the British Army was bolstered by light infantry mercenaries from Germany and the Low Countries, but the British light infantry companies proved inadequate against the more effective French tirailleurs during the Flanders campaign, in the Netherlands in 1799, infantry reform became urgent.
In 1801, the "Experimental Corps of Riflemen" was raised, a decision was made to train some line regiments in light infantry techniques, so they might operate as both light and line infantry. Sir John Moore, a proponent of the light infantry model, suggested that his own regiment of line infantry, the 52nd, undergo this training, at Shorncliffe Camp, they were followed shortly afterwards by the 43rd Foot, by whose side they would fight many campaigns as part of the Light Division. Several other famous line regiments were designated "light infantry" in 1808, such as the 85th, or The King's Regiment of Light Infantry. Moore wrote of the 52nd in his diary that "it is evident that not only the officers, but that each individual soldier, knows what he has to do; this had much to do with the method of training
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
King's Shropshire Light Infantry
The King's Shropshire Light Infantry was a light infantry regiment of the British Army, formed in the Childers Reforms of 1881, but with antecedents dating back to 1755. It served in the Second Boer War, World War I and World War II. In 1968, the four regiments of the Light Infantry Brigade amalgamated to form The Light Infantry, with the 1st KSLI being redesignated as the 3rd Battalion of the new regiment; the King's Light Infantry was formed on 1 July 1881 as the county regiment of Herefordshire and Shropshire as part of the Childers Reforms. It was renamed as The King's on 10 March 1882; the regiment was an amalgamation of the 53rd Regiment of Foot and the 85th Regiment of Foot, which became the regular 1st and 2nd Battalions. The 1881 reforms redesignated the militia and rifle volunteers units within the regimental district as battalions of the regiment. Accordingly, the Shropshire Militia and Royal Herefordshire Militia became the 3rd and 4th Battalions and the 1st and 2nd Shropshire Rifle Volunteer Corps became the 1st and 2nd Volunteer Battalions.
The 1st Herefordshire Rifle Volunteer Corps was affiliated as a volunteer battalion, without change of title. The 1st battalion of the KSLI was stationed in Egypt from 1882, served with distinction in the Anglo-Egyptian War; the battalion transferred to Malta where it was from 1883 to 1891, but was back in the Eastern Sudan serving in the Soudan Expedition 1886–87. From 1891 the battalion was in Hong Kong, three years it was moved to British India, serving there until early 1903; the last posting in India was at Poona. The 2nd battalion was stationed in Ireland from 1886 to 1894, in late 1899 embarked for South Africa as part of the reinforcements for the Second Boer War. Following the end of the war in South Africa in 1902, the battalion went to India, where it was stationed at Ranikhet in Bengal. In 1908, as part of the Haldane Reforms, the two militia battalions were merged to form the 3rd Battalion and the 1st and 2nd VBs were merged to form the 4th Battalion Territorial Force at Longden Coleham in Shrewsbury.
At the same time, the Herefordshire RVC became independent as the Herefordshire Regiment. The 1st Battalion landed at Saint-Nazaire as part of the 16th Brigade in 6th Division in September 1914 for service on the Western Front; the 2nd Battalion landed at Le Havre as part of the 80th Brigade in the 27th Division in December 1914 for service on the Western Front. The 1/4th Battalion served in India before landing at Le Havre as part of the 159th Brigade in the 53rd Division in July 1917 for service on the Western Front, it made an important counter-attack against the Germans at Bligny in June 1918 during the Spring Offensive for which it was awarded the French Croix de Guerre. The 10th Battalion landed at Marseille as part of the 231st Brigade in the 74th Division in May 1918 for service on the Western Front; the 5th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 42nd Brigade in the 14th Division in May 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 6th Battalion landed at Boulogne-Sur-Mer as part of the 60th Brigade in the 20th Division in July 1915 for service on the Western Front.
The 7th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 76th Brigade in the 25th Division in September 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 8th Battalion landed in France as part of the 66th Brigade in the 22nd Division in September 1915 but sailed to Salonika in November 1915, it was disbanded there on 1 December 1918 and its personnel transferred to the 2nd Battalion. On 7 September 1919, during the Irish War of Independence following the war in Europe, the KSLI suffered the British Army's first casualties at the hands of the IRA when a detachment from a unit stationed at Fermoy was ambushed on a church parade by an IRA unit under the command of Liam Lynch. After the failure of a local coroner's inquest to return a murder verdict on the dead man, the next day 200 soldiers attacked businesses belonging to members of the inquest jury in an unofficial reprisal. In 1921, the regiment was renamed as The King's Shropshire Light Infantry. After its Irish posting, the Second Battalion was moved away in December 1922 to Tidworth.
A further journey followed to Minden Barracks in Cologne in 1924 as part of the garrison of the demilitarised Rhineland, across the river in January 1926 to Wiesbaden, where its band played the regular round of paid civilian engagements as well as appearing at both the 1924 and 1925 Empire Exhibitions at Wembley. Bandmaster Burnell was the last to conduct the National Anthem before the withdrawal of British troops from the area in November 1927; the Battalion returned to Aldershot. The 1st Battalion would serve with the 3rd Infantry Brigade, part of 1st Infantry Division for the entire war. Corporal Thomas Priday was killed by friendly fire near Metz on 9 December 1939 when the 1st Battalion was based near the Maginot Line as part of the original British Expeditionary Force, sent to France at the outbreak of war; the battalion fought in the Battle of Dunkirk, the Tunisia Campaign and the Italian Campaign including the Battle of Anzio. The 2nd Battalion began the war in Jamaica, with a company detached to the Bermuda Garrison.
The battalion would join the 185th Infantry Brigade, which included the 2nd Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment and the 1st Battalion, Royal Norfolk Regim
106th Regiment of Foot (Bombay Light Infantry)
The 106th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army from 1862 to 1881, the third to bear the number after the Black Musqueteers and a regiment raised in 1794. It was formed by renaming the 2nd Bombay European Regiment, formed by the Honourable East India Company in 1839. In 1881 the 106th Regiment was joined with the 68th Regiment of Foot to form the Durham Light Infantry, as its second regular battalion. On 29 July 1839 the Honourable East India Company resolved to add a regiment of infantry to each of the armies of the Presidencies; the smallest Presidency thus gained the 2nd Bombay Regiment at Pune, based around a cadre of officers and men from the 1st Bombay European Regiment returned from Kharg Island and Aden. The regiment was intended from the start to be a light infantry regiment, although the order for, revoked in January 1840, it was reinstated in that November. By that time the regiment was over its establishment strength of 967 officers and men including 87 men from the wreck of the Lord William Bentnick.
The first deployment of the regiment occurred when Sir Charles Napier annexed Sindh using troops from the Bombay presidency. The regiment was used to replace garrison troops used for that expedition and from March 1843, one wing was based in Bhuj, the other wing had been sent to Karachi. By October, 276 out of 437 men of the Buhj wing were sick with malaria; the whole regiment was moved back to Belgaum in March 1844 to recover. In the year a detachment of 225 officers and men was formed and sent to Kolhapur State, together with other Native and Crown forces, after a revolt had broken out over the Company policies in the area; the effects of malaria were still present however, when the detachment was inspected on 16 September before it marched off: It did not escape my observation, the delicate and sickly appearance of many of the 200 men from the 2nd Europeans. Once there however the regiment participated in the storming of Samangarh fort on 12 October, with detachments on both storming columns together with 20th Madras Native Infantry, 23rd Bombay Native Infantry with additional covering riflemen.
On 1 December the Regiment's men were involved in taking Panhala Fort with companies from the 21st Bombay Native Infantry, 16th and 23rd Madras Native Infantry and 2nd Regiment. That same evening 50 men from the 2nd Europeans with the men from 20th Madras N. I. and the 22nd Regiment forced their way into nearby Pawangarh, with Private Daniels and Bugler Toole, the first men in. On 9 December Rangna fort was evacuated after a stockade before it was broken by a column of 100 men of the regiment in a frontal attack. By the end of the year and into 1845 the force was dispersed to deal with the many forts on the area and farther away as the rebels dispersed; the regiment's first'campaign' cost it 13 dead and 31 wounded. In 1846 the 2nd Europeans were presented with their first colours while at Belgaum; the regiment was moved from India to the Aden Colony, relieving the 94th Regiment, returning to India in two wings, one in January 1848 which went to Poona and the other in December 1849. The wing in Poona transferred 100 volunteers to its parent regiment which took part in the Second Sikh War.
In November 1853, after marching to Karachi, the regiment supplied a cadre of officers and men to form the 3rd Bombay European Regiment. In December it was moved again to Hyderabad, where in 1854 it was to suffer from malaria and in December 1855 had its name altered to the 2nd European Regiment, Bombay Light Infantry. In 1856 and the outbreak of the Anglo-Persian War, the 2nd Europeans were organised into part of a 2nd Brigade of an expeditionary field force and were sent to Karachi, where they were made up to an establishment of 929 of all ranks. In November they left for the Persian Gulf and landed at Hillilah Bay, south of the port of Bushire on 7 December. Intending to capture the port, the expedition commander, Maj. General Stalker assaulted a road block of some 1-2000 tribesman at Reshire with two companies of the 2nd Europeans and two of the 4th Bombay Native Infantry and covered by 3rd Regiment of Bombay Light Cavalry on 9 December. Driving the Tribesmen from the village, the remainder retired to an old Dutch fort, surrounded and assaulted by the 2nd Europeans, 64th Regiment and 20th Bombay Native Infantry.
The next day the ships of the Indian Navy subjected the town of Bushire to bombardment for two hours which led to its surrender as the troops were approaching the walls by land. By the beginning of February 1857, after the arrival of a second division and more cavalry, the commander Sir James Outram launched an attack on the Persian's camp at Borazjan. On 3 February, a force of 5000 men set out, with nearly 700 of the 2nd Europeans, on a 46-mile journey with no tents, over harsh terrain; the Persians were surprised on the afternoon of 5 February and fled, their stores and arms were destroyed. Returning to Bushire on 7 February the rear guard was attacked by Persian Cavalry at 11p.m. Near the village of Koosh-ab and the column circled to protect the baggage train. At daybreak the 2nd Europeans were in the front line of the attack as the Persians fell back under cavalry and artillery assault; the Regiment lost eight wounded. The Regiment did not take part in the expedition to the Shatt al-Arab and remained at Bushire until 15 May, returning to Karachi at the end of the Month.
The Indian Mutiny had begun in March in the Bengal Presidency, would not see such intensity in the Bombay Presidency, the Regiment would see a policing role. While in Karachi, 118 men volunteered for
The Dorset Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 to 1958, being the county regiment of Dorset. Until 1951, it was formally called the Dorsetshire Regiment, although known as "The Dorsets". In 1958, after service in the Second Boer War along with World War I and World War II, the Dorset Regiment was amalgamated with the Devonshire Regiment to form the Devonshire and Dorset Regiment. In 2007, it was amalgamated with the Royal Gloucestershire and Wiltshire Regiment, The Light Infantry and the Royal Green Jackets to form a new large regiment, The Rifles; the Territorials in Dorset trace their origins to the 1st Administrative Battalion, Dorsetshire Rifle Volunteers formed at Dorchester. Its first formation consisted of the following: The first volunteer corps in Dorset had their headquarters in Dorchester; the 1st Dorsetshire Rifle Volunteer Corps was at Bridport, 2 Dorsetshire RVC at Wareham, 3 Dorsetshire Rifle Volunteer Corps at Dorchester, 4th Dorsetshire RVC at Poole, 5 Dorsetshire RVC at Weymouth, 6 Dorsetshire RVC at Wimborne, 7 Dorsetshire RVC at Sherborne, 8 RVC at Blandford, 9 Dorsetshire RVC - Shaftesbury, 10 Dorsetshire RVC at Sturminster, 11 Dorsetshire Rifle Volunteer Corps at Gillingham, 12 Dorsetshire RVC at Stalbridge.
In 1880 as a result of the Childers Reforms the regiment was re-designated to the 1st Dorsetshire Rifle Volunteers. Just a year it moved under control of the Dorsetshire Regiment as the volunteer battalion; the Dorsetshire Regiment was established in the Regular Army in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 39th Regiment of Foot and the 54th Regiment of Foot. The 1st Battalion was stationed in Malta from 1888, in Egypt from 1889, in British India from 1893, where it took part in operations in the Tirah Campaign on the North West Frontier in 1897–98; the 2nd Battalion was stationed in Ireland from 1893 to 1897 in Malta from 1899. Following the outbreak of the Second Boer War in late 1899, they were sent to South Africa, participating in the Relief of Ladysmith; the battalion stayed in South Africa throughout the war, which ended in June 1902 with the Peace of Vereeniging. Four months 300 officers and men left Cape Town on the SS German in late September 1902, arrived at Southampton in late October, when they were posted to Portland.
In 1908, the Volunteers and Militia were reorganised nationally, with the former becoming the Territorial Force and the latter the Special Reserve. During the First World War, nine hostilities-only battalions were formed, six battalions serving overseas; the 1st Battalion and 6th battalion served on the Western Front throughout most of the war. Additional battalions were formed as part of the Territorial Force to meet the demand for troops on the Western Front; the 1st Battalion was in Belfast when war broke out: it landed at Le Havre in August 1914 forming part of the 15th Brigade in the 5th Division. It transferred to 95th Brigade in the 32nd Division in December 1915 and to the 14th Brigade in the same Division in January 1916; the 2nd Battalion was in Poona, when war broke out and was shipped, as part of the 16th Indian Brigade, to Mesopotamia, where it was trapped in the Siege of Kut and captured by the Turks. During the siege, returning sick and wounded, the few replacements, sent out, were unable to re-join their battalion, so they, similar drafts of the 2nd Norfolk Regiment, were amalgamated into a scratch battalion forming part of the force attempting to relieve Kut.
This battalion was formally titled the Composite English Battalion, but was more known as The Norsets. The battalion served in Egypt as part of 9th Indian Brigade in the 3rd Indian Division; the 1/4th Battalion of the Territorial Force served in India and Mesopotamia and 2/4th Battalion in India and Egypt. The 5th Battalion took part in the Gallipoli Campaign, having been evacuated from there in December 1915, went to Egypt before joining the war on the Western Front in July 1916; the 6th Battalion was shipped to Boulogne in France in July 1915 as part of 50th Brigade in the 17th Division and saw action on the Western Front. On 7 February 1920 4th Battalion was reformed in the Territorial Army with its headquarters in Dorchester and four companies; the 3/4th Reserve Battalion was moved to Ebrington Barracks in Derry in April 1918. In April 1920, during the Anglo-Irish War, soldiers from the regiment fired into a protesting crowd on Bridge Street, leading to riots and skirmishes which saw it fight alongside the Royal Irish Constabulary and Ulster Volunteers against the Irish Republican Army.
Sporadic violence in the city continued until another large engagement in June, when the Dorsets and the UVF attacked the Bogside area of the city. A large IRA counter-offensive from the west ended the disturbances, which had seen 40 people killed since April; some RIC officers threatened to resign over the Dorsets' fraternisation and co-operation with the UVF. In Summer 1921, the 2nd Battalion served under the command of Major-General John Burnett-Stuart, General Officer Commanding Madras District in India, where he was involved in the suppression of the Moplah Rebellion at Malabar between 1921 and 1922; the riots that they quashed were led to 2,300 executions. The Officers and Men from the Dorset Regiment who lost their lives while taking part in the suppression of the revolt are com
61st (South Gloucestershire) Regiment of Foot
The 61st Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1756. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 28th Regiment of Foot to form the Gloucestershire Regiment in 1881; the formation of the regiment was prompted by the expansion of the army as a result of the commencement of the Seven Years' War. On 25 August 1756 it was ordered that a number of existing regiments should raise a second battalion; the 2nd Battalion of the 3rd Foot was formed on 10 December 1756. In September 1757 both battalions of the 3rd Foot took part in an assault of the French coast, they returned to England in October, on 21 April 1758 the 2nd Battalion became the 61st Regiment of Foot, with Major General Granville Elliott as colonel. The new regiment retained the buff facings of the 3rd Foot. In late 1758 the 61st Foot embarked for the West Indies. On 16 January 1759 they took part in the attempted Invasion of Martinique, but were forced to withdraw after three days. On 24 January they landed on Guadeloupe.
Following more than three months of heavy fighting, the French forces surrendered on 1 May. The regiment returned to England in the summer of 1760 where they engaged in recruiting to make up for the casualties suffered in the West Indies. After a period of garrison service in England and the Channel Islands the 61st Foot was stationed on the island of Menorca in 1771; the island had become a British possession under the Treaty of Paris of 1763. By 1779 Britain was involved in a war with America and Spain, in August 1781 a Franco-Spanish force began an attack; the 61st found. By February 1782 the garrison's numbers had been reduced by dysentery and they surrendered; the remains of the regiment were repatriated in May 1782. In August 1782 all regiments of foot without a royal title were given a county designation, the regiment became the 61st Regiment of Foot in 1782. In 1783 the regiment moved to Ireland where it remained until 1792. In the latter year they moved to Gibraltar. In 1793 the French Revolutionary government declared war on Great Britain.
The 61st were once again dispatched to the Caribbean, landing in Martinique in December 1794. In April 1795 they moved to St Lucia as part of the force under Brigadier-General James Stewart. Forced to return to Martinique three months in the following year they returned to St Lucia as part of a successful invasion; the regiment had suffered heavy casualties and returned to England in October 1796 to be made up to strength. They moved to Guernsey in 1797, to the Cape of Good Hope in 1799. In 1801 the regiment proceeded to Egypt where they took part in the campaign to expel the French Armée d'Orient from the country. In 1802 the regiment was awarded the badge of a sphinx superscribed "Egypt" for display on the regimental colours in commemoration of the campaign. In 1803 the regiment moved to Malta, in July of the same year the existing regiment was redesignated as 1st Battalion, 61st Regiment of Foot when a second battalion was raised in County Durham and Northumberland; the 2nd Battalion was raised as part of the expansion of the army in response to the threat of invasion by France, spent its entire existence in England and Ireland, before being disbanded in October 1814.
In November the First Battalion landed in Italy. Early in the following year they were forced to evacuate to Sicily, along with the deposed King Ferdinand IV; the flank companies 1/61st returned to the Italian mainland in June 1806 as part of the force commanded by Major-General John Stuart, took part in the Battle of Maida on 4 July. The battalion returned to Sicily soon after. In 1807 they moved to Gibraltar. In June 1809 the 1/61st landed in Lisbon and joined the army fighting under Sir Arthur Wellesley in Spain, they took part in the Battle of Talavera on 27–28 July. The 1st Battalion, which had seen heavy casualties, received a draft of 300 men from the 2nd Battalion in February 1810, bringing up to full strength, they saw action in a number of minor engagements taking part in the Battle of Salamanca and the Siege of Burgos, the Battle of the Pyrenees. They pursued the retreating French forces into France, fighting at the Battle of Nivelle, Battle of the Nive, Battle of Orthez and the Battle of Toulouse in April 1814.
The battalion's commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Robert John Coghlan was killed at Toulouse. Within a few days French forces had capitulated and the 1/61st was moved to Bordeaux; the 1st Battalion landed in Cork, Ireland in July 1814, proceeding to Dundalk where it absorbed the abolished 2nd Battalion in October. The 61st Foot spent more than thirty years on garrison duty before seeing active service again. From 1816-22 they were stationed from 1822-28 in England and from 1828-40 in Ceylon, they were stationed in England and Ireland from 1840-45. In 1845 they moved to India, fighting in the Second Anglo-Sikh War of 1848-49: at the Battle of Ramnagar, Battles of Saddalupar and Chillianwala and Battle of Gujrat; the regiment was still in India. They took part in the Siege of Delhi; the remaining years of the 61st's existence as a separate regiment were uneventful. From India they moved to Mauritius in 1859 for a year before returning to England. Following garrison duty in the Channel Islands and Ireland, they moved to Bermuda in 1866 and Canada in 1870.
In 1872 they moved to Ireland. In 1873, under the Cardwell Reforms, the United Ki
The Devonshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army which served under various titles and served in many wars and conflicts from 1685 to 1958, such as the Second Boer War, the First World War and the Second World War. In 1958 the regiment was amalgamated with the Dorset Regiment to form the Devonshire and Dorset Regiment which, in 2007, was amalgamated with the Royal Gloucestershire and Wiltshire Regiment, the Royal Green Jackets and The Light Infantry to form a new large regiment, The Rifles. In June 1667 Henry Somerset, Marquess of Worcester, was granted a commission to raise a regiment of foot, The Marquess of Worcester's Regiment of Foot; the regiment was disbanded in the same year. It was re-raised in January 1673 and again disbanded in 1674. In 1682, Henry Somerset was created Duke of Beaufort, in 1685 he was again commissioned to raise a regiment, The Duke of Beaufort's Regiment of Foot, or Beaufort Musketeers, to defend Bristol against the Duke of Monmouth's rebellion.
The regiment was not required to fight at the time of its formation since the Duke of Monmouth was drawn away from Bristol. Its first action came in Ireland at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 and the Siege of Limerick in August 1691 when it fought for William III against the Irish Army of the deposed James II, it joined the armies of the Duke of Marlborough in Holland in the War of Spanish Succession in 1703, fought in the Iberian Campaign, being captured by the French at Portalegre in 1704 and part of the British army defeated at the Battle of Almansa in April 1707. Back in the United Kingdom, it helped put down the Jacobite rising of 1715, fighting the rebels at the inconclusive Battle of Sheriffmuir in November 1715 and at the Battle of Glen Shiel in June 1719; the regiment was deployed to Flanders in summer 1742 for service in the War of Austrian Succession and took part in the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743, the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745 and the Battle of Rocoux in October 1746.
The regiment embarked for the continent in spring 1760 for service in the Seven Years' War. After the war, it garrisoned the island of Menorca; the regiment served under the name of its various Colonels until it was numbered as the 11th Regiment of Foot when the numerical system of regimental designation was adopted in 1751. It was given the additional county title of 11th Regiment of Foot in 1782; the 11th Regiment spent the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars serving as detachments in the Mediterranean with the Royal Navy. It took part in an abortive raid on the port of Ostend in 1798, it was deployed to the West Indies in 1801 where it captured Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin that year. A 2nd Battalion took part in the disastrous Walcheren Campaign; the 1st battalion returned to Europe in July 1809 to fight in the Peninsular War. It took part in the Battle of Bussaco in September 1810 and fell back to the Lines of Torres Vedras, it took part in the Siege of Badajoz in April 1811, the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo in January 1812 and earned its nickname, The Bloody Eleventh, at the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812.
It fought at the Siege of Burgos in September 1812 and pursued the French Army into France taking part in the Battle of the Pyrenees in July 1813, the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813 and the Battle of the Nive in December 1813 as well as the Battle of Orthez in February 1814 and the Battle of Toulouse in April 1814. In the 19th century, the regiment spent most of the 19th Century on garrison duty throughout the Empire; the regiment was not fundamentally affected by the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, which gave it a depot at Topsham Barracks in Exeter from 1873, or by the Childers reforms of 1881 – as it possessed two battalions, there was no need for it to amalgamate with another regiment. Under the reforms the regiment became the Devonshire Regiment on 1 July 1881. At the same time it merged with the rifle volunteer units of the county of Devon, it took part in the Tirah Campaign in 1897 and the Second Boer War in 1899. The 2nd Battalion fought in the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the Anglo-Ashanti wars and the Second Boer War.
In 1908, the Volunteers and Militia were reorganised nationally, with the former becoming the Territorial Force and the latter the Special Reserve. The 1st Battalion, Devonshire Regiment was a Regular Army unit and, after absorbing some 500 reservists, departed for France, landing at Le Havre on 21 August 1914, just 17 days since Britain's entry into the war, as part of the British Expeditionary Force; the battalion joined the 8th Brigade of the 3rd Division in early September 1914, transferred to the 14th Brigade of the 5th Division in the month. The battalion served on the Western Front throughout the war, seeing action first during the Battle of La Bassée in October where they helped in the capture of Givenchy Ridge, followed by the First Battle of Ypres, where the battalion, in common with most of the rest of the British Regular Army, sustained heavy casualties; the 1st Devons lost in the battle a third of the other ranks. The battalion took part in the Winter operations 1914–1915, occupying trenches in deep mud and snow before, in April 1915, suffering 200 casualties from shelling and German counterattacks after holding Hill 60 after its capture a few days before.
The 2nd Battalion, assigned to the 23rd Brigade, 8th Division, was another Regular Army unit, th